Developing Sustainable Higher Education Leadership Models in Tanzania


J.F. Kessy
J.S. Kikula
B.E. Mmary
B. Kazimili
A.L. Kaswamila


Higher Education , Developing Sustainable , Leadership Models, Tanzania


CODESRIA, Dakar, 2018, ISBN: 978-2-86978-789-6

Higher Education Institutions in Tanzania are increasingly facing a decline in government subvention and reduced funding from other sources, including Faith-Based Organizations. This has led to a noticeable shift in emphasis within universities from academic excellence to income generation, with adverse effects on teaching, research and community outreach performance. This study critically engages with these issues by firstly highlighting the key challenges confronting Higher Education Institutions in Tanzania; secondly discuss university leadership models that could potentially guide universities to deal with the predicament of decreasing financing; and thirdly document relevant best practices. It is based on a longitudinal study of nine private and public universities in Tanzania


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

J.F. Kessy

Department of Forest and Environmental Economics, Sokoine University of Agriculture.

J.S. Kikula

Department of Business Administration & Entrepreneurship, Mzumbe University.

B.E. Mmary

Administrative Officer for Council, Sokoine University of Agriculture.

B. Kazimili

Department of Physics, University of Dar es Salaam.


A.L. Kaswamila

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Dodoma.



Bradley, S. P. and Nolan, R.L. (1998). Sense and Respond: Capturing Value in the Networked Era. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Bryman, A. (1996). Quantity and Quality in Search Research. Routledge, London.

Bryman, A. (ed.) (2003). Encyclopaedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage Publications, London.

Butcher, N., Strydom, M., Hoosen, S., MacDonald, C., Moore, A. and Barnes, L (2008). A profile of Higher Education in the Region. SARUA, Johannesburg.

CAG (2012). Annual General Report of the Controller and Auditor General. National Audit Office. Dar es Salaam

Cheboi, C. (2008). Financing Model for Higher Education in Africa: A Discussion Paper on the National Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education. Nairobi

Denzin, N.K. (1970). The Research Act in Sociology: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. Butterworths, London.

Devarajana, S., Mongab, C. and Zongoc, T. (2011) Making Higher Education Finance Work for Africa† in Journal of African Economies,Vol. 20, AERC Supplement 3, pp. iii133–iii154 doi:10.1093/jae/ejr020

Famurewa, I. O. (2014). Inadequate Funding as the Bane of Tertiary Education in Nigeria Available in Greener Journal of Economics and Accountancy. Vol. 3 (2), pp. 020-025.

Flick, U. (1992). “Triangulation Revisited: Strategy of Validation or Alternative?” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 22: 169-197.

Flinders University (2005). Alumni association Annual Report

Gharifekr, S., Afshari, M., Siraj, S. and Razak, A.Z.A. (2013). Vision-Driven Strategies and Policies for Managing Educational Systematic Change: A Qualitative Analysis. Australian JRN of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7 (4): 333-341, 2013.

Gilbert, N. (ed.) (1993). Researching Social Life. Sage Publications, London.

Goetz, J.P. and LeCompte, D.M. (1984). Ethnography and Qualitative Design in Educational Research. Academic Press, Orlando.

Hesse-Biber, S. and Leavy, P. (eds.) (2004). Approaches to Qualitative Research: A Reader on Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ishengoma J.M. (2010). Higher Education Financing in East and Southern Africa: The case of Tanzania Edited by Pundy Pillay. Centre for Higher Education Trans formation (CHET) South Africa.

Ishengoma, J.M. (2008). Financing Public Higher Education in Tanzania: Towards a New Model and Implications for Development and Retention of the Next Generation of Academics. Paper Presented at the University Leader’s Forum: Next Generation of Academics, Accra, Ghana, November 22nd – 25th 2008.

Ishengoma, M. J. (2004) Cost sharing in Higher Education in Tanzania: Fact or Fiction? JHEA/RESA Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, pp. 101–133

Jegede, M. (2012) The status of Higher education in Africa. Being an invited contribution to the panel Discussion in the Launch of weaving success: Voice of Change in African Higher Education. A project of the Partnership for Higher Education in Africa PHEA, Institute of International Education, New York

Johnstone, B. (2003) Cost Sharing in Higher Education: Tuition, Financial Assistance, and Accessibility in Comparative Perspective, Czech Sociological Review, Vol. 39 No. 3 pp. 351-374.

Johnstone, D.B. (2004). Higher Education Finance and Accessibility: Tuition Fees and Student Loans in Sub-Saharan Africa, Journ of Higher Educ in Africa, 2(2), 11-36.

Kariuki, G. (2007). The Challenges of Financing Research in Institutions of Higher Education in Africa, University of Buea, Cameroon

Kaseva E. M. (undated). Challenges in training of professionals for the construction industry in Tanzania: A case of Ardhi University.

Kelvin L, H., Stuart, D. E.and J. Lewin (2011). Employer’s perceptions of the employability skills of new graduates. The Edge Foundation/University of Glasgow. UK.

Kiria, I (2013). Parliament: Make Time to Discuss CAG Report!.

Kotecha, P. (2008). Revitalising Higher Education in the SADC Region, Johannesburg, SARUA.

Kumar, R. (2005). Research Methodology: A Step-by Step Guide for Beginners (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, New Delhi.

Mamdani, M. (2007). Scholars in the market place. The dilemmas of neo-liberal reforms at Makerere University, 1989-2005. CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal.

Marriot, N. and Goyder, H. (2009). Manual for Monitoring and Evaluating Education Partnerships. Institute for Educational Planning, France.

Masaiti, G. and Shen, H. (2013). Cost Sharing in Zambia’s Public Universities: Prospects and Challenges in European Journal of Educational Research Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-15.

Michael, T. (1995). Administrator opinions of budgeting and funding formula use in community colleges, comm.. college journ of research and practice, 19:2, 109-115

Miller, P.M. and Wilson, J.M. (1983). A Dictionary of Social Science Methods. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester.

Ministry of Education, (2004). Higher education Finance and Cost Sharing in SouthAfrica. /files/Country_Profiles/Africa/South_Africa.pdf

Msolla P. (2007). Issues of Higher education in Tanzania Comments at the Joint Japan– World Bank Graduate Scholarship Programme Regional Conference in Dar es Salaam.

Mugimu, C. B. (2009). The State of Higher Education in Africa. Comparative & International Higher Education

Munyua, K. W., Abate, S., Huka, G. S. and Dawe, S. M. (2011). Financing of higher education in Africa: A case of Ethiopia public universities revenue diversification Strategies in International Journal of Business and Public Management Vol. 1(1): 15-21.

NBS (2013). Tanzania facts and figures. National Bureau of Statistics, Dares Salaam.

Oanda, I.O. and Jowi, J. (2012). University expansion and the challenges to social development in Kenya: Dilemmas and pitfalls. ,JHEA/RESA Vol. 10, No. 1, 2012,pp. 49-71.

Olsen, W. and Morgan, J. (2004) A Critical Epistemology of Analytical Statistics: addressing the Sceptical Realist. Paper presented to the British Sociological Association, March 2004. Available from: papers/Critical%20Epistemology %20.pdf

Olson, G.W. (1974). Land Classifications. Search Agriculture, 4: 1-34.

Perez S. E. and Zubieta, A.F. (2011). European university funding and financial autonomy. A study on the degree of diversification of university budget and the share of competitive funding.

Punch, K.F. (2000). Introduction to Social Research. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Sage Publications, London.

SARUA (2007). Annual Report, Johannesburg, SARUA, Technology and Higher Education, Dares Salaam.

Sawyer, A. (2004) African Universities and the Challenge of Research Capacity Development:

Scott, G. (2001). Getting the fuzzy end of lollipop: the problems with devolved budgets in further education colleges. Int. Journ of Edu. Mgt. 2001, 252-257

Tesch, R. (1990). Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools. Falmer Press,London.

Tribe, M. and Summer, A. (2004). The Nature of Development Studies. Paper Prepared for DSA Annual Conference, Church House, London, 6 November 2004.

UDOM (2012). Rolling Strategic Plan 2012/13-2016/17. Inter Press (T) Ltd.

URT (1995). National Employment Policy. Government of Tanzania.

URT (1996a). Tanzania Vision 2025. Government of Tanzania.

URT (1996b). Science and Technology Policy. Government of Tanzania.

URT (1998). Financial Sustainability of Higher education in Tanzania; a report of the Task Force Ministry for Science Technology and Higher Education Dar es Salaam.

URT (1999). National Higher Education Policy. Government of Tanzania Education.

URT (2003a). Higher Education Sub-Master Plan. Ministry of Science Technology and Higher Education, Dar es Salaam.

URT (2003b). Science and Technology Sub-Master Plan. Ministry of Science Technology and Higher Education, Dar es Salaam.

URT (2004a). National Poverty Reduction Strategy. Government of Tanzania.

URT (2004b). Higher Education Students’ Loans Board Act No.9. Government of Tanzania

World Bank (2007), Higher Education Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Promising Practices

World Bank (2010). Financing Higher Education in Africa. World Bank

Zeleza, P.T. and Olukoshi, A. (2004). African Universities in the Twenty First Century, Vol.1 Liberalization and Internationalization, South Africa: UNISA Press.



November 23, 2018