CODESRIA Books Publication System <p>CODESRIA Press</p> en-US CODESRIA Books Publication System LA SECURITE ET LA REFORME DE L'ETAT <p class="p1">Forthcoming .....</p> <p class="p1">Le livre tente de traiter de la correlation entre la question de la reforme de l'Etat et celle des services de securite dans les pays arabes du Proche-Orient et ceux de IAfrique de l'Ouest. La restructuration des secteurs de securite signifie le reamenagement de l'appareil de l'Etat, avec les effets sur la societe. Les enjeux renvoient aux figures classiques de la conflictualite, la democratisation, !'evolution des droits de l'homme, le modele des reformes des secteurs de securite, le developpement, la militarisation rampante mais aussi la de securitisation, les anciennes et nouvelles menaces <span class="s28">a</span> la lumiere des changements geopolitiques dans le monde. II aborde la securite dans ses multiples sens de securite dans l'Etat et de securite de l'Etat, et leurs impacts sur la reforme de l'Etat dans les deux regions etudiees qui constituent un angle d'etude precieux pour <span class="s33">comprendre</span> les realites institutionnelles, politiques, economiques, sociales et culturelles.</p> <p class="p5"><em><span class="s35">Le </span>present ouvrage se penche sur <span class="s35">la</span> correlation entre <span class="s35">un </span>concept (la securite) et <span class="s35">une</span> <span class="s35">institution</span> (l'Etat). <span class="s35">Mr</span> <span class="s35">Abdallah</span> Saal decortique <span class="s35">les</span> effets qu<span class="s41">'</span>ont <span class="s35">les </span>dynamiques du concept sur <span class="s35">la</span> <span class="s35">reforme</span> de <span class="s35">!'institution.</span> <span class="s35">Au-deli!</span> du raisonnement pedagogique auquel <span class="s35">l'auteur</span> <span class="s35">nous</span> a <span class="s35">habitue</span> dans ses <span class="s35">travaux</span> precedents<span class="s41">,</span> <span class="s35">la</span> <span class="s35">reflexion</span> est<span class="s41">,</span> <span class="s35">ici</span><span class="s41">,</span> d'autant plus pertinente qu'elle s'adosse a <span class="s35">la </span>comparaison <span class="s35">du </span>phenomene dans deux <span class="s35">regions</span> (arabe et Ouest-africaine) ou<span class="s41">, l</span>'ambition <span class="s33">de perennisation de </span>l<span class="s41">'</span>Etat/lnstitution <span class="s33">s'est </span>toujours trouvee <span class="s33">dans </span>la necessite <span class="s33">de </span>se conformer aux <span class="s35">preoccupations </span>dynamiques et changeantes<span class="s41">,</span> <span class="s35">de</span> <span class="s35">la </span>defense de <span class="s35">l'Etat/Nation </span>et de <span class="s35">la </span>securite de sa population.</em></p> <p class="p8"><strong>Abdelhak Bassou, professeur à</strong><span class="s48"> </span><strong>l'Universite Mohammed VI Polytechnique, Rabat, Maroc</strong></p> <p class="p10"><em><span class="s35">Un</span> <span class="s35">livre</span> essentiel pour comprendre <span class="s35">les </span>doctrines et <span class="s35">les politiques</span> de securite dans <span class="s35">la</span> <span class="s35">Mediterranee</span> arabe et en <span class="s35">Afrique</span> de <span class="s35">l'Ouest</span><span class="s41">,</span> <span class="s35">une</span> region separee et <span class="s35">unie </span>par <span class="s35">les</span> defis strategiques <span class="s35">du</span> Sahel. <span class="s35">L'ambition</span> du <span class="s35">livre </span>est de <span class="s35">montrer </span>qu'une <span class="s35">politique</span> de securite qui garantit <span class="s35">la</span> securite des <span class="s35">Etats</span> et <span class="s35">la</span> democratie est compatible. Son argument est convaincant et constitue <span class="s35">une </span>contribution <span class="s35">importante </span>a <span class="s35">la </span>reflexion strategique, qui s'ajoute a <span class="s35">la </span>bibliographie deja <span class="s35">riche </span>de <span class="s35">l'auteur.</span></em></p> <p class="p12"><strong>Alvaro Vasconcelos, ancien directeur de l'Institut d'etudes de securite de l'Union europeenne</strong></p> <p class="p13"><span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Abdallah Saaf Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-11-26 2023-11-26 Justice During Transitions <p>Transitional justice interventions, particularly in Africa, have failed. In this context, there is a growing interest in tradition-based community-led practices for resolving justice. Yet little is known or understood about these practices on their own terms, and what role they play in transitional justice on the continent. This volume challenges some of the underlying assumptions of current responses to mass violence on the continent, including the way these are embedded in state-centricism and an international justice system that lacks relevance in relation to the day-to-day realities of rural African communities. Through the case studies of Zimbabwe, Burundi and Mozambique the volume explores some of the limitations and possibilities with regard to justice during transitions.</p> <p>"The reality of Africans living across multiple identities, using related cultural and traditional practices while defining and defying modernity and its attendant norms and institutions remains a fascinating thing to observe and to study. The area of justice, both conceptually and practically is not exempt from this. At a time when Africans are bringing to bear their own lived experiences through scholarship, art, policy decision-making and practise, this book is a timely and critical contribution to the ongoing conversation between Africans, their counterparts in other parts of the global South and of course "Western paradigms' of governance and justice. Congratulations to the editors and the authors on this seminal work."</p> <ul> <li>Shuval Busuman Nyoni, Executive Director, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya</li> </ul> <p>"This is a timely and relevant collection of insightful and cogently researched chapters that highlights the importance of informal justice systems in enhancing local ownership and agency in addressing past violation sand laying the foundations for durable peacebuilding and reconciliation. It is a must read for all practitioners, analysts and policy makers who have an interest in building sustainable peace in societies across Africa," </p> <ul> <li>Tim Murithi, Head o! Peacebuilding Interventions Programme, Institute !or Justice and Reconciliation, and Extraordinary Professor of African Studies, University of Free State and Stellenbosch University, South Africa</li> </ul> Cori Wielenga Christopher Changwe Nshimbi Copyright (c) 2022 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-11-09 2023-11-09 Theoretical Grounding in African Research <p>Since any serious systematic work must be both methodologically and theoretically grounded, we decided to do a follow-up to the first volume of our CODESRIA College of Mentors handbook which addresses the former aspect. The present volume which deals with the latter aspect entails about 150 African centered and Western theories that can be employed to ground research on Africa or an African phenomenon. This is a handbook dealing with theories from across the disciplines for easy reference, not a book on theories in one discipline whereby each theory is augmented by a case study or several case studies. The reader who is interested in application will be well-served by looking at our four chapters in which the studied theories are applied to relevant case studies. In addition, a virtual relationship of all the theories covered has not been established by making references across disciplines and chapters in the book because theories are used for different purposes in different disciplines, for the obvious reason that their foci of analyses are different. Furthermore, our handbook is not about challenging or refuting theories, no matter their origin. It is about their existence. It is up to the user to do so if and when necessary, just as we did in our four applications chapters.</p> Abdul Karim Bangura Anthony Bizos Joseph Mensah Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-10-26 2023-10-26 The Concept of Human Right in Africa (Second Edition) <p class="p1">The Concept of Human Rights in Africa attempts to reconceptualise human rights ideology from the stand point of the working people of the continent. lt argues that the dominant human rights discourse in/and on Africa, however wellintentioned, is objectively a part of the ideologies of domination. Both the critique of the dominant discourse as well as the reconceptualisation are located fi rmly within the current social science and jurisprudential debates on democratic struggles in Africa. Hitherto, the human rights debate in Africa has been an exclusive preserve of lawyers and philosophers. Professor Shivji breaks new ground in this book in that he fi rmly anchors the debate on the social and political planes without losing sight of its legal and philosophical dimensions.</p> <p class="p1">While greatly stimulating for the general reader, this work can be fruitfully used in colleges and universities in such academic disciplines as sociology, political science, development studies as well as law and jurisprudence.</p> <p class="p1">“Although in certain respects it is a workof its time, Shivji’s The Concept of HumanRights in Africa is a critique of human rights that remains relevant for both a research agenda on human rights and radical politics in the 21<span class="s1">st </span>century.” </p> <p class="p1"><strong>Paul O’Connell</strong>, Reader in Law at SOAS, University of London</p> <p class="p1">“Shivji’s book in particular fi rmly anchors the debate on human rights on the "social and political planes," without losing sight of the appropriate legal and philosophical dimensions.” </p> <p class="p1"><strong>Joseph R. A. Ayee</strong>, Review published in Canadian Journal of African Studies /Revue Canadienne des Études Africaines, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1991, p. 116</p> <p class="p1">“Shivji presents a thought-provoking study, and one does not have to accept his entire perspective to find his analysis and criticisms useful. While some of his points have been well made before, he does provide a useful agenda for future human rights research on Africa.” </p> <p class="p1"><strong>David R. Penna</strong>, Review published in Africa Today, 4th Qtr., 1990, Vol. 37, No. 4, p. 76</p> <p class="p2">“I would say that I have enjoyed reading this book. It is profoundly committed and very political. For those interested in human rights in Africa, it is compulsory reading, as it convincingly puts many aspects of traditional thinking into a revealing perspective.” </p> <p class="p2"><strong>Filip Reyntjens</strong>, Review published in Journal of African Law, 1991, Vol. 35, No. 1/2, p. 217</p> Issa G. Shivji Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-18 2023-07-18 Education et développement économique : analyse de l'impact de l'investissement éducatif sur la productivité agricole en milieu rural au Sénégal <p>En tant qu'investissement économique et social, les dépenses d'éducation représentent en général une part très importante des budgets des Etats. Pour le cas du Sénégal, les dépenses publiques d'éducation qui représentaient plus de 33% du budget national de fonctionnement en 2000 ( début du Programme décennal pour l'éducation et la formation (PDEF)), ressortent aujourd'hui, en 2006, à 40%. Ce chiffre sous-évalue le coût réel d'opportunité des investissements éducatifs dans la mesure où il ne tient pas, compte du manque à gagner. Malgré cet effort financier à l'égard de son système d'éducation, ce dernier est caractérisé par des taux de participation plus ou moins faibles, particulièrement dans les zones rurales. En effet, à côté de ce secteur prioritaire dans les politiques de l'Etat, subsiste un autre secteur incontournable pour un développement économique harmonieux du pays. Le secteur agricole trouve son importance du point de vue économique, de l'occupation - de la population (activité primaire), de l'assurance de la sécurité alimentaire, de fourniture de sources de revenu de la majeure partie de la population etc. Ainsi, cette thèse examine, entre autres questions liées au rôle économique de l'éducation d'une manière générale, les apports de la scolarisation en milieu rural en terme de productivité agricole. Les techniques de non frontière et de la frontière de · production, ainsi que les déviations de cette frontière, sont utilisées car nous nous sommes intéressé au coefficient estimé de la scolarisation dans la fonction de production, mais également à l'examen de l'ampleur et des causes d'inefficacité dans la~production agricole en zone rurale du Sénégal. Les données sont d'un échantillon tiré des données d'enquête pilotes obtenues auprès de la Direction de l'Analyse et de la Prévision du Sénégal (DAPS) rattachée au Ministère de l'Agriculture en 2003. L'échantillon porte sur 11 villages répartis entre les neuf régions agricoles du Sénégal à l'exclusion de Dakar. L'analyse empirique révèle des avantages substantiels internes (privés) de la scolarisation sur la productivité agricole, particulièrement sur le plan des gains d'efficacité. Cependant, un effet de seuil est identifié : il faut sept à dix années de scolarisation en zone rurale ( enseignement secondaire moyen) pour que cette scolarisation ait un effet significatif sur la productivité agricole des chefs de ménage. D'importants avantages externes (sociaux) de la scolarisation ont été également découverts, ce qui laisse supposer que l'on pourrait tirer d'énormes profits des avantages externes de la scolarisation en termes d'accroissement de la productivité agricole si l'éducation augmentait de manière significative en zones rurales. La productivité pourrait être améliorée soit par l'adoption de facteurs et de techniques plus productifs soit par l'amélioration de l'efficacité productive pour une technologie donnée. Ces résultats fournissent la preuve que les paysans sénégalais opèrent généralement en deçà de leur potentiel productif. Ainsi, au regard de la nature précaire de la production agricole en zone rurale du Sénégal et des bas niveaux d'investissement dans la scolarisation, il convient de tout mettre en oeuvre pour promouvoir l'accès à l'éducation de qualité, permettre et maintenir la scolarisation formelle à des niveaux plus élevés. Il convient également de guider les interventions des gouvernements ou des donateurs afin qu'ils privilégient la zone rurale et l'éducation secondaire moyenne dans leur financement.</p> Andalla DIA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-13 2023-07-13 Impacts de l’efficacité Technique sur la Productivité des Exploitations Cotonnières au Burkina Faso <p>La thèse traite de l'effet de l'efficacité technique sur la productivité globale des facteurs de production dans les exploitations cotonnières burkinabè en utilisant un modèle à frontière stochastique de production. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que les exploitations cotonnières ont enregistré une perte continue du niveau de productivité globale des facteurs sur la période de 2001 à 2004. Le taux de décroissance moyen de la productivité globale des facteurs a été de 0, 5% dans les exploitations à traction animale et de 1, 05% au niveau des exploitations à traction manuelle. Cette perte de productivité globale des facteurs de production est attribuée à la perte d'efficacité technique, à la faiblesse du taux de progrès technique, à l'inadéquation des politiques de prix et à l'inefficacité d'échelle. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que les exploitations cotonnières sont techniquement efficaces à environ 60%. Ce qui signifie que sans ressources productives supplémentaires, les exploitations cotonnières pourraient considérablement augmenter leurs niveaux de production. L'âge des actifs (effet négatif), le nombre des actifs (effet positif), le volume du crédit agricole (effet positif) et le nombre de parcelles emblavées (effet négatif) ont été identifiés comme étant les caractéristiques socioéconomiques et institutionnelles explicatives des niveaux d'efficacité technique. Sur la période d'étude, les exploitations cotonnières ont enregistré une perte d'efficacité technique dans l'utilisation des facteurs. Cette perte d'efficacité technique a été la principale source de décroissance de la productivité globale des facteurs (102% à 112%). Les résultats de l'étude ont mis en évidence un très faible taux de progrès technique dans les exploitations cotonnières (0, 04% à 0, 07%). Les progrès mécaniques, agronomiques et biotechniques sont donc de potentiels sources de croissance de la productivité globale des facteurs. La contribution du progrès technique à la croissance de la productivité globale des facteurs sur la période d'étude varie entre 6% et 8%. L'inadéquation des politiques de prix avec les recommandations agronomiques explique les faibles rendements des exploitations cotonnières. Il est techniquement possible d'accroître la production cotonnière en augmentant les quantités des intrants; toutefois, aux niveaux actuels des prix, les exploitations cotonnières n'ont aucun intérêt monétaire à augmenter leurs utilisations. Le gain monétaire additionnel lié à l'utilisation d'une unité supplémentaire de la plupart des intrants est inférieur à leurs prix d'achat. C'est ce qui justifie le non respect des recommandations techniques et les détournements des intrants acquis à crédit vers d'autres cultures plus rentables ou vers le marché. Cette situation renforce l'inefficacité allocative et éloigne davantage les exploitations cotonnières de l'échelle de production efficace. Les exploitations cotonnières produisent à rendements d'échelle décroissant, ce qui signifie que les coûts moyens augmentent avec la taille. Les paquets technologiques utilisés actuellement par les producteurs de coton ne sont donc pas favorables à l'émergence d'exploitations cotonnières modernes, compétitives, et de grandes tailles à long terme. L'effet total moyen de la politique de prix sur la croissance de la productivité globale varie entre -6% et 5, 7%.</p> COMBARY S. Omer Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-13 2023-07-13 Systematic Factors and Returns on Equities in the Nigerian Securities Market <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ces dernières années, en particulier depuis l'introduction du </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">programme d'ajustement structurel au Nigéria en 1986, l'accent s'est </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">déplacé de la dépendance à l'égard des fonds extérieurs vers les ressources nationales pour </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le développement. À cet égard, les marchés financiers jouent </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">un rôle important. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Le marché nigérian des valeurs mobilières est </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">devenu particulièrement sensible aux mesures politiques visant à promouvoir ses </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">activités ; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">conduisant à sa croissance rapide en termes de </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">capitalisation boursière, du nombre de titres cotés et du nombre d' </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">opérateurs de marché. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Le rôle d'intermédiation financière que joue le marché </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">dans l'économie nigériane souligne la nécessité d'étudier la </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">relation entre les rendements du marché des valeurs mobilières et la</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Environnement Macroéconomique. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'enquête vise à examiner </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">la relation entre les facteurs macroéconomiques systématiques et </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les rendements des actions, à déterminer la pertinence des </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">facteurs de risque systématiques pour la valorisation des actifs sur le marché des actions et à déterminer </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">l'efficacité des actions comme couverture contre l'inflation. L'objectif est de </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">fournir une base pour politique et décision d'investissement...</span></span></p> CHIDOZIE, Ebenezer Emenuga Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Strategies for Enhancing The Environmental Awareness of Home-Makers in Enugu State <p>This study dealt with strategies for enhancing the environmental awareness of home-makers in Enugu State. lt sought answers to the following research questions:</p> <p>(1) To what extent are home-makers in Enugu State aware of their environment?<br>(2) What are the environmental education needs of home-makers in Enugu State?<br>(3) What delivery systems could be employed to extend environmental education to the home-makers in Enugu State.</p> <p>The population for the study was made upof home-makers in Enugu State. A sample of a hundred. and sixty (160) home-makers was randomly selected from Nsukka and Enugu urban. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. Data collection was carried out by the researcher and trained research assistants. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequencies, mean, standard deviation) and chi-square analysis. The major findings inciude:</p> <p>1. home-makers are aware of:<br>(i) 60% of the componerts of environment;<br>(ii) 54.5% of the causes of environmental degradation<br>(iii) 40% of consequences of environmental degradation.</p> <p>2. the environmental awareness of the home-makers in Enugu State is significantly independent of their educational status as well as their family size and the type of house they occupy.</p> <p>3. Ninèteen (19) important environmental education concepts needed by home-makers were identified.</p> <p>4. Nineteen (19) delivery systems through which environmental education can be extended to home-makers were revealed.</p> <p>Based on the findings of the study, seven (7) recommendations for enhancing the environmental awareness of home-makers were made .</p> ESIOBU, Obiamaka M. Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 The islamic national front : it's economic, financial, organizational, social and political power <p>This research handles studying and analysing Islamic National Front (INF) organization with different sources of books, memoes , interviews, docu;_,ments and field visions to have a focus on the multi-activities within this organization since the National Reconcilation with May Regine in 197.7 up to the uttimation of the 3rd democratic system in June 30, 1989 and it is to be rendered that the motive of thi·s reseach rampants in the (INF) private self-momentum portraying its mode upon the Sudan political life , having its hands upon the cultural features of the Sudanese human beings measured with its short organising age in comparison with the other political powers.<br>Thè. research at the outset deals with the financial and economic structure of the (INF) and its commercial &amp; investing activities, illustrat­ ing its most important contribution and additions in the economic pivot as considered the basic prode in the awareness of the ( INF) that formates the sturdy doundation to have on able highly effective political organiza­tion.<br>The research also concerns with the moving and organizing capabiti­ lies of the (INF) , handling·the administrate , organising frame work, con­ centrating on its informing , securing and propaganolic device , stressing on the event·sthat have apparent conotations of the (INF) highly and effec­ tively ability irt the field .of organizing , moving and mobilizing .<br>The research also concerns with the resources of the political ability of (INF) representing september law, issued by Nimeri in 1983 , its sustai­ nance to the Sudanese Armed Forces, its Foreign and Political Relations and the aftermath of the Public Elections April 1986, for the consequences of these outfits the very clear effect upon the thought and behaviour of substantial <br>sector of people through suspensing other party's organizing potentialies, having been - in reaction - prompted to the (INF's) bursting political discourse. The research concludes to important directives and effects that Islamic powers compased of (INF) <br>and its boosting forces tap the Sudan socio­ economic situations through explicit and implicrt inslitutions , represent­ ing banks, humanitarian societies and organizations.<br>The research ends that (INF) through inserpable work and thought es­ tablishes a distinctive social political economical ·and organising stand with it's extremely difficult to have any logical d political equatibn without having (INF) and its political reflections intrinsically in it.</p> MAHMOUD, Yasir Khidir Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Women in non farm micro enterprise development and rural poverty reduction in Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana <p>Poverty is widespread in rural Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana and has had adverse implications on household incomes, nutrition and health, education and accessibility to potable water among rural households. In its gender dimension, rural women are among the poorest of the poor owing to the following: firstly, that women have limited ownership and decision-making influence over household agriculture resources owing to a patriarchal orientation of hoùseholds; and secondly, that the impact of poverty is much felt by wonien as it directly impinge on their reproductive and normative roles in the household. In order to improve upon their situation, women have long been engaged in ttaditional non-farm enterprises as an economic means to support efforts at meeting household basic necessities. Their handicap is their low production arising from the underdevelopment of the very non-farm enterprises that they are engaged in. Whereas their underdevelopment underpin that problems besiege these enterprises, their survival and tie to subsistence of household point to potèntialities of these enterprises. The study in this light, set out to find out whether rural Women's Entrepreneurs were contributing to household poverty reduction from these non-farm enterprises that they engage in.</p> Emmanuel Kanchebe DERBILE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Conservation de la diversité végétale et activités humaines dans les aires protégées du sud forestier ivoirien: l'exemple du Parc National D'Azagny <p>La présente étude est un essai d'analyse des problèmes relatifs à la gestion des aires protégées en Côte d' Ivoire. Elle porte principalement sur le Parc National d' Azagny. Les actions conJuguées des populations riveraines sur les aires protégées entraînent . chaque année la disparition de plusieurs milliers d'hectares de forêt. Cette dégradation de la couverture végétale à pour conséquence la perte de la diversité biologique de ces aires protégées dont fait partie le Parc National d' Az;agny. Afin de comprendre le mécanisme entre les activités humaines et la conservation de la diversité; cette étude a été initiée dans<br>le Parc National d' Azagny. Elle a pour objectif principal de contribuer à la conservatiori de _la biodiversité par une approche nouvelle dans la gestion des aires protégées. Ainsi, cette étude se propose de caractériser les types d'occupation du sol et les types de peuplement afin d'analyser leur dynamique. L'outil utilisé est la télédétection qui à travers ses méthodes de traitement sur les images satellitales de 1986 et 2000, donne une cartographie de l'occupation du sol et celle des types de peuplement du parc. A ces images, ont été associés la carte de la végétation du parc ainsi que des relevés effectués<br>sur le terrain pour mieux matérialiser la réalité. L'analyse de la dynamique des types d'affectation au sol donne une idée sur l'état d'évolution des superficies forestières et non forestières, ainsi certaines affectations, sous l'effet des actions humaines connaissent une dégradation très avancée alors que d'autres restent stables. Parmi les couvertures subissant une dégradation, il faut noter une grande proportion représentée par les forêts denses, les forêts secondaires et les forêts inondées. Les espaces situés au nord du parc sont celles qui subissent la plus forte pression humaine. Ils sont sous l'influence des activités humaines, des densités de population les plus élevés, et abritent le plus grand nombre de localités. Les données de terrain et les enquêtes<br>réalisées permettent de comprendre le comportement des populations vis à vis du parc. En effet, ces populations exercent plusieurs activités autour et dans le parc. L'intensité de ces activités autour et dans le parc d' Azagny détermine les risques de dégradation de la diversité végétale dans cet espace protégé.</p> KONAN, Kouadio Eugène Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Acceptabilité du condom féminin chez les personnes sexuellement actives à Yaoundé <p>Il est de notoriété que de nos jours, les maladies sexuellement transmissibles y compris le SIDA font des ravages au sein de la population active, causant d'énormes pertes à nos pays. Le SIDA particulièrement est qualifié de mal du siècle. En effet, dans le monde entier, le nombre de personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA croit de façon exponentielle. L'Afrique en général, et singulièrement l'Afrique sub-saharienne n'en est pas épargnée; apparaissant même comme la sous-région la plus touchée par le phénomène. Pour sa part, le Cameroun est actuellement dans une phase d'épidémiologie généralisée, avec une séroprévalence qui est passée de 0,5% en 1987 à environ 11% en 2000. Les femmes constituent plus de la moitié de la population infectée. Elles se trouvent ainsi au premier rang des victimes à cause de leur vulnérabilité biologique, culturelle et économique. La méthode barrière disponible pour la prévention était jusque là le condom masculin; mais il s'avère peu accessible à beaucoup de femmes, étant placé sous le « contrôle » masculin. Avec l'avènement du condom féminin censé être« contrôlé» par les femmes, l'on s'est posé beaucoup de questions. En particulier, l'on s'est interrogé sur l'attitude des hommes et des femmes vis-à-vis de ce nouveau produit. C'est ainsi que cette étude s'est fixée pour objectif de mesurer le degré d'acceptabilité du condom féminin auprès des hommes et femmes âgés de 15-49 ans, et de rechercher les facteurs susceptibles de compromettre ou de favoriser son acceptabilité. Pour y parvenir, nous avons fait recours à une procédure de recherche quantitative de type longitudinale en raison de la nouveauté du produit testé. En effet, seule une utilisation.répétée du condom féminin permettrait d'en faire un jugement pertinent. La collecte de données sur le terrain s'est effectuée à l'aide de deux questionnaires standardisés (phase 1 et phase 2) qui ont été administrés sous forme d'interview à des personnes volontaires. L'administration des questionnaires proprement dite a été précédée par une séance d'information individuelle axée sur l'historique, les propriétés et le mode d'utilisation du condom féminin. A l'issue de cette séance d'information, chaque volontaire recevait 06 condoms pour .un usage personnel et un rendez-vous était négocié pour la passation du questionnaire de la première phase. A l'issue de celle-ci, les volontaires désireux de continuer l'expérimentation recevaient un second lot de 06 condoms et un autre rendez-vous était convenu pour la seconde et dernière phase de l'enquête. L'analyse des données ainsi collectées a été essentiellement réalisée sur le logiciel d'analyse des informations épidémiologiques EPI INFO 6. Elle a permis de constater que malgré les préjugés qui se fondent autour du condom féminin, à savoir qu'il favorise le libertinage sexuel en même temps qu'il est capable de provoquer les maladies comme le cancer, les participants à l'étude sont intéressés par le produit et sont dans l'ensemble disposés à en acheter et à en faire usage dans le futur. Les femmes se montrent sensiblement plus engagées dans ces résultats en raison du fait qu'elles considèrent le condom féminin comme un outil de libération. Cependant, cette volonté de genre se heurte encore aux lois sociales qui régissent le comportement individuel en matière de sexualité. Ainsi, compte tenu du poids de décision reconnu socialement aux hommes, leur opposition à l'utilisation du condom féminin apparaît comme un obstacle majeur à son acceptabilité. Viennent ensuite le désir de procréer et le coût du dispositif, comme autres obstacles. En défmitive, l'oeuvre de promotion de ce produit devrait donc tenir compte des barrières culturelles, économiques ou sociales auxquelles il reste confronté.</p> NGUEMEN, Florence Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 L' Islam et la société soudanaise: empire du Mali, 1230-1430 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> CHOKRI, Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Mosaïques hiérarchisées d’écosystèmes artificiels (MHEA®) comme outil stratégique de gestion des eaux usées : Cas de Douala au Cameroun <p>Ce travail n'aurait jamais été réalisé si nous n'avons bénéficié du soutien et la contribution de <br>quelques personnes à qui nous tenons à exprimer notre profonde gratitude. Nous pensons notamment :<br># au professeur Michel Radoux, responsable du Groupe de Recherches MHEA® au Département des <br>sciences et gestion de l'environnement de l'Université de Liège (ex-FUL), qui a accepté de <br>m'encadrer à la station expérimentale de Viville (SEV) en Belgique;<br># au professeur Michel Damian, Directeur du Département de gestion de l'environnement de <br>l'Université Senghor, dont le dynamisme a contribué à la réussite de la formation;<br># au Conseil pour le Développement de la Recherche en Science Sociales en Afrique CORESRIA, pour le <br>« programme des petites subventions pour la rédaction des mémoires et thèses» dont j'ai bénéficié <br>de l'appui financier de la section de juillet 2004;<br># à Iman Fawzi, secrétaire du département de gestion de l'environnement;<br># à Perin Marc et Marie Nemcova, mes collaborateurs à la Station de Viville ;<br># à Dr Joseph Wéthé, Enseignant-chercheur Groupe EIER-ETSHER Ouagadougou pour ses encouragements, <br>ses multiples conseils et la correction pour ce travail ;<br># à toute l'administration de l'Université Senghor qui n'a ménagé aucun effort pour rendre notre <br>séjour agréable ici à Alexandrie, afin de suivre les enseignements pour lesquels nous avons passé <br>deux années (des techniciens de surface au recteur);<br># à tous mes collègues Senghoriens de la promotion 2003-2005, à qui je souhaite vivement plein <br>succès et fructueuse collaboration. Je pense à Marinette Traoré Diop, godefroy Chabi, Maneno <br>Biruke, Coulibaly Arouna etc.;<br># à toute ma famille pour son éternel soutien;<br># à tous mes amis pour tout ce que nous avons en commun. Je pense à Fodouop Téguia Etienne, à la <br>famille Nouadje tchuente, Ngassa Y. Guy, Kouagaing Moise, Suzy Bityé etc. ;<br># Je voudrai terminer en famille en félicitant très sincèrement le 07, représentants Camerounais de <br>la 9ème promotion, pour l'esprit qui nous a animé pendant notre séjour en Egypte.<br>V</p> Fotso Jean Blaise Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Lecture sociologique de la formation du prix d’achat du kilogramme de régimes de palme dans la filière palmier à huile en Côte d’Ivoire <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> CHERIF, Sadia Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Changes in the roles of Women in West Jebel Marra Region <p>This research tackles the new changes in the roles of women as they affected by the different developmental, environmental,<br>geological, security and service~rendering factors accruing in society. It further studies the extent of change in the role of<br>women as has been precipitated by these factors-particularly the burden of gender's role, the cha' nge in the women's expertise and the change in the ktnd of·work they perform.</p> <p>The researc,h delineates the chronological, spatial and human frameworks. The site chosen was Nyertety rural town in Jebel<br>Mara area, where the rural environmental elements produced many changes that have their impact on women and their activities. The aforementioned area also has many historical and contemporary characteristics which contribute to the subject matter of the research. The human aspect of the research is focusing on the Fur. As for the temporal dimension the era of eighties and after when some various applications for development were taking place in the area. The area also witnessed at that specific period some natural and demographic changes which have had their own impact on the role and experiences of women, as well as the work they practise or that which they have already ceased to perform.</p> MAHMOUD, Mohamed lntissar Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 L’APPORT DES TECHNOLOGIES DE L’INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION DANS LES ACTIVITES DOCUMENTAIRES DE L’UNIVERSITE MARIEN NGOUABI <p>la Communication ont été introduites à l’Université Marien Ngouabi en 2001. Actuellement, il existe <br>5 unités documentaires virtuelles A côté de ces nouvelles unités, on compte 8 unités documentaires <br>classiques, soit un ratio égal à 1,3.<br>L’objectif principal du mémoire est d’analyser l’apport des technologies de l’information et de la <br>communication dans les activités réalisées par les centres de documentation universitaires à <br>Brazzaville.<br>De façon spécifique, il s’agit de :<br>- montrer les formes nouvelles prises par l’utilisation des Technologies de l’Information et de la <br>Communication dans les unités documentaires ;<br>- expliquer le rôle joué par les technologies de l’information et de la communication dans les <br>activités des unités documentaires ;<br>- identifier les limites dans l’utilisation des TIC à l’Université Marien Ngouabi.<br>La problématique s’articule autour de deux questions :<br>1) Comment s’est traduite la transformation des activités documentaires à l’Université Marien <br>Ngouabi ?<br>2) Quelle a été l’apport des TIC dans cette transformation et quelles en sont les limites ?<br>Pour répondre à cette problématique, la méthodologie s’est appuyée sur une enquête de terrain <br>auprès de 120 étudiants et des entretiens auprès des responsables des unités documentaires. <br>L’approche comparative de l’utilisation de la bibliothèque classique et virtuelle au sein de <br>l’université par les étudiants impliqués dans la recherche, a permis de juger de l’incidence des <br>TIC dans les activités documentaires.<br>Les résultats de l’enquête montrent que 68,33% des étudiants interrogés affirment utiliser <br>l’Internet dans la réalisation de leur mémoire contre 11,67% qui s’adressent à la bibliothèque <br>classique. Cela montre le rôle croissant joué par les TIC dans la recherche à l’Université. Si l’on <br>compare la fréquentation des cybercafé au sein et en dehors de l’université, le constat est clair, <br>car la majorité des étudiants soit 63,5% se rendent dans des cybercafés localisés en dehors de <br>l’université contre 36,5% qui</p> Prisca-Nadège BIBILA-N’KOUMA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Conflict resolution in the post-cold war Era; a case study of the Angola civil war <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> ENOH, Besong Samuel Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Incidence of induced abortion among adolescents in Port Harcourt city: knowledge attitude and practice <p>This study which involv.ed 752 adolescents aged 13-24 years has attempted to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of induced abortion in Port Harcourt City. In all, six hypotheses were tested using logistic regression model. The study found that the rate of sexual activity and sexual networking among the adolescents is high. Contraceptive use is low and condoms and pills were the most _common modem contraceptives used. Other traditional methods like alcohol, wHIte._quilline, lime, herbs etc. were. also used. It was also found that the rate of abortion practice is high and the estimated rate of abortion is 15 % . In all, about 90% of the girls who get pregnant out of wedlock resort to abortion, and the major reason for pregnancy termination is the desire to remain in school. We also found that those who have had induced abortion also experienced abortion complications and most of them did not receive proper post-abortal counselling. Private hospitals and pharmacist shops were found to be the major sources of abortion and contraceptive services. ...</p> NGOZI, Ejimadu Dorothy Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 MARCHES, MARCHANDISES ETMARCHANDS DANS LES ABORDS SUD DU LAC TCHAD : XIXè - XXè SIECLES <p>Abstract</p> DJANABOU BAKARY Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-12 2023-07-12 Maritime trade in lagos, 1914-1950 : its nature and impact <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> OLUKOJU, Ayodeji Oladimeji Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 PERCEPTION ET PRISE EN CHARGE DU PALUDISME CHEZ LES ENFANTS DE 0 A 5ANS DANS LE DISTRICT SANITAIRE DE SELINGUE CAS DU VILLAGE DE BAYA-SIEKOROLE <p>Abstract</p> M.Samba DIARRA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 La criminalité à Diourbel, 1925-1960 <p>Abstract</p> BA, Chérif Daha Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 THE SEARCH FOR PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCILS: A CASE STUDY OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT 1980 - 1993 <p>One of the main problems of Local government councils in contemporary Nigeria is lack of public accountability. So common<br>is this problem at the level of national government, too, that it has occupied the attention of many political analysts.<br>At the level of Local government, however, where the incidence of political corruption is endemic, little attention has been<br>paid to the problem of political corruption and its converse, public accountability. This work is motivated by the desire to fill this gap in the literature. The title of the work is "The Search for Public Accountability in Local Government Councils: A Case Study<br>of Nsukka Local Government, 1980 - 1993". The objective is to inquire into the level of public accountability in Nigeria<br>and identify the factors responsible for the low (or high) level of public accountability in Local Government Councils in Nigeria.<br>Using the systems approach, we focused on the checks and balances, expressed in the form of financial rules and procedures,<br>as in-put and public accountability as out-put in identifying the intra-gove·rnmental factors that determine the level of<br>public accountability in Local ~overnment Councils. To gather empirical evidence for the work, we used the survey research<br>method. We designed and administered questionnaires to</p> DIALOKE IKECHUKWU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) Foods from Bénin : composition, processing and quality <p>In 2007, more than 923 million people did not have enough to eat (FAO, 2008), especially in developing countries. Simultaneously, several forest foods are available but under-utilized. Among them, the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) is a key economic tree, a multipurpose, widely-used species, rich in nutrients in its leaves and fruits, used daily by local populations in several African countries for food, medicines and other purposes. The tree contributes significantly to nutrient supply in those areas where it grows. So far, few studies have been undertaken on the valorization of the species and on its contribution to food security in Africa. The present work focused on indigenous knowledge and nutritional aspects concerning baobab foods, necessary for further valorisation and improvement of local food processing practices. The objectives of the study were to (i) review the nutritional value of baobab parts, (ii) document ethno-food knowledge related to baobab food products in rural areas in Benin, (iii) assess the effect of traditional processing on in vitro digestibility and bioavailability of minerals and carotenoids in sauce made of baobab leaves, (iv) characterise the microbiological flora of baobab fermented food products and (v) build quantitative information on degradation of baobab pulp quality during storage. The review on baobab foods showed that pulp from baobab fruits is particularly rich in vitamin C (150 to 360 mg/100 g dw). The leaves are particularly rich in calcium (307 to 2640 mg/100 g dw). The whole seeds and the kernels have a relatively high lipid content, viz. 12 to 33 g/100 g dw and 19 to 35 g/100 g dw, respectively. The pulp and leaves exhibit antioxidant properties with a higher activity in the pulp than in the leaves. Two hundred and fifty-three processors of baobab food products were surveyed in Benin, to investigate the ethno-food knowledge related to baobab and the variation among socio-cultural groups. Local populations reported up to 35 baobab food products processed from the leaves, the pulp, the seeds and the kernels, most of which have never been characterized. Multivariate analysis showed that the types of foods processed from baobab differed among socio-cultural groups. The survey revealed that seed decortication is considered to be the most laborious processing operation and that the preservation of pulp and kernels is difficult in local conditions. The effect of processing on the quality of traditionally processed baobab leaves was evaluated. Assessment of in vitro digestibility and bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn in non processed and processed baobab leaves showed that 10-30% of total Ca was available and that lutein and beta-carotene are the most important carotenoids. Moreover, “bitter leaves” are richer than “sweet leaves”, though the latter are the preferred ones. However, the experiments on Fe and Zn in vitro digestibility require further attention because of experimental difficulties caused by the sliminess of the leaves.</p> Flora Josiane CHADARE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 Protection maternelle, réalité et dimension : résultats de l'enquête PAP Femme et étude de cas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Assia CHERIF Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 Déficit budgétaire et performances macroéconomiques au Mali <p>Comme la plupart des pays africains, le Mali a connu, au cours des années 80, une série de crises économiques et financières.<br>L'économie était caractérisée par de profonds déséquilibres au niveau des finances pub_liques et de la balance des paiements. Pour trouver des solutions et améliorer la situation macroéconomique, l'Etat malien recourut à l'assistance financière des institutions de Bretton Woods (FMI Banque mondiale) avec la mise en vigueur de plans et programmes d'ajustement (PAS) vers 1982. Il faut noter que depuis lors même si les pouvoirs publics ont mené des efforts dans ce sens les déséquilibres économiques persistent encore. Surtout les problèmes liés aux conséquences des déficits budgétaires sur les variables économiques. Cependant le déficit budgétaire n'est pas à priori condamnable tout dépend de son niveau, il peut être stimulateur de l'activité économique. Des études ont montré que le déficit budgétaire lorsqu'il est très important évince l'investissement privé, or ce dernier agit positivement sur la croissance économique. Ce présent travail ayant pour objectif d'étudier si le déficit budgétaire peut être la cause de la non réalisation de bonnes performances économiques, en d'autre terme on a voulu voir s'il est possible de réaliser de bonnes performances économiques en situation de déficit budgétaire au Mali. Ici le taux d'inflation, le taux de croissance du PIB, le solde courant de la balance des paiements ont été pris comme indicateurs de performances. Dans ce travail on a pris un modèle à correction d'erreur dans lequel le taux de croissance du PIB/TETE pris comme indicateur global de performances, est la variable endogène. A l'issue des analyses et tests économétriques il s'est avéré que l'impact du déficit budgétaire sur le taux de croissance du PIB est positif et significatif à court terme et négatif à long terme. Mais en même temps l'accumulation du déficit a un impact négatif plus significatif. Le niveau optimal de déficit budgétaire pour le Mali s'est</p> Safiatou DIARRA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 The State and Economy in the Sokoto Caliphate: Policies and Practices in the Metropolitan Districts, C. 1804-1903 A.D <p>the study ls on the soclo-ecoilomic policles and ptactkes of thé Sokoto Caliphate wlth partlculat tefetertce to the Mettopolltart districts ln the perlod 1804 to 1903 A.D. The trtaln thtùst of the study ls to examine thè sodal and ecotiotnlc orlgins of the Callphate so as to have inslght irtto the social conditions that ptôduced the etortomic ptogranurte of the Callphate govetnmefit. This endeàvout involves looking trtto what the Caliphate govetntrtertt fourtd to be the condition of the ècoilofiiy Whêrt lt càfiie iilto betilg; and the nature artd slgrtif1tartcë of the policies it pursued irt the light of thé jihad ideals th.àt irtformed the ptogràmmes of the Càltphatê administràtlort. Wotds and deeds are treated he the corttext of changes or lack of them irt the social relàtlons of productiort. Our irtterttlon ls to illurninate the nature and signl.tlcartce of the soclo-econoitiic progress<br>btought abotit by the Caliphate governement ln the Mettopolitart districts of the Sokoto Caliphate. chaptet one· examines the polltical; social and ecotiotrtit sttuctutes of the political comtttunlties that fotftied the cote of the genesls of the Sokoto jihad movëtrtettt. The chàptet provides an instght into the poHtkal, social aftd ëtonomlt condltlorts which the Càilphatê leàdership round ttt the àtea hi which the MettopoHtart tâltiJhate Wàs to be situatèd. It fttrthet examhtés how the jihàd tttovetttent was relàted to the tohttadlctlôftS hi the sodal; etortomlc ànd polltkal stfUctt.ttës of thë t)ôlltles ôf the Rima Basin atea. 1ft thaptet two; atterttpts ate made to examine the êébnotttit ptogtati1filê bf the Caliphàte govetrttnent. This toctisês on the etbrtomic phtlosophy of the catlphàl léadetship thàt was ptopotittded during the eatly yeàrs ôf thë tttovêtrtetit attd thê flrst four detades of the taHphate. the chaptet\ thus; glves an instght irtto the social âfid ecottofüit bàsis of the caliphate.&nbsp;</p> Kabiru Stilaiman thafe Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 Evaluationof the performance of supervised agricultural credit scheme of Anambra State, Nigeria <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> ARENE, Chukwuemeka John Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-11 2023-07-11 LE MARIAGE À L'ÉPREUVE DES MUTATIONS SOCIALES EN MILIEU URBAIN AFRICAIN : LOGIQUES ET EFFETS DU MARIAGE TARDIF AU TOGO <p>The present Doctoral Dissertation is located in the extension of the analysis of the social mutations of the African nuptiality. Marriage is of vital importance in Africa for the individual as well as for his or her community. It has even appeared a long time like a social prescription insofar as all individual as growing was already registered in a programmatic design that drove him or her ineluctably to his or her marriage. In other words, the strong valorization of marriage in these African societies led to a systematization of the entry in marriage and odium of the prolonged celibacy dragging the reduction of the belated marriage to its adequate portion.<br>However, since the end of the years 1960, one witnesses an important change in the marriage rates of many countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The Togolese country does not make an exception to this phenomenon. Age to the first marriage of the young pass of 22,9ans in 1961 to 28 years in 1998. The size of this phenomenon essentially urban, contrasts with a certain number of realities that make it incongruous. Teenage marriage persists in spite of the efforts of modernization of the legal norms. While polygamy is developed under different shapes, the cohabitation, less coercive, remain accessible and practiced extensively. Besides, the youth enjoy a growing autonomy concerning customs in the setting of the democratization of the relationships between parents and children.<br>However, men and women seem to opt nowadays for a belated entry in marriage in spite of the pressures from all sides.<br>Considering the main cities of Togo as some concrete examples, this work intends to show the logics that contributed to the establishment of the belated marriage as a social phenomenon. One proceeds by a global exam of the African nuptiality which will then lead to an approach to the analysis of the motivations behind the belated marriage in vogue in the contemporary society. Inspired by different approaches, this thesis proposes a multivaried analysis of the phenomenon while laying emphasis on the role of the cultural, economic and social factors in the anchorage of this new social order. The setting in work of a mixed methodological approach (quantitative and qualitative) by 472 individuals permitted to store edifying results. The survey lets appear that the phenomenon founds on the one hand on the weakening of the family's roles dragging the decline of the marriage programmatic systems and on the other hand on a set of major changes intervened during the process of development of the country. The study also highlights the socio-cultural evolution having marked the mind of the young generations with the development of a new perception of the marriage as a result. The economic crisis of these last decades, the influence of the school system, the individuation and the democratization of social relationships, the research of autonomy and the taste of individual liberty of the young generations are as many factors examined in relation with the phenomenon of age receding to the first marriage.</p> Essodinamodom KABA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 La contribution des groupements à vocation coopérative (G.V.C.) au développement rural en Côte d'Ivoire de 1969 à 1987 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> KOKO DJEI, Parfait Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Negotiating (Trans )national Identities in Ugandan Literature <p>This thesis examines how selected Ugandan literary texts portray constructions and negotiations of national identities as they intersect with overlapping and cross-cutting identities like race, ethnicity, gender, religious denomination, and political affiliation. The word "negotiations" is central to the close reading of selected focal texts I offer in this thesis for it implies that there are times when a tension may arise between national identity and one or more of these other identities (for instance when races or ethnic groups are imagined outside the nation as foreigners) or between one national identity (say Ugandan) and other national identities (say British) for those characters who occupy more than one national space and whose understanding of home therefore includes a here (say Britain) and a there (say Uganda). The study therefore examines the portrayal of how various borders (internal and external, sociocultural and geopolitical) are navigated in particular literary texts in order to construct, reconstruct, and perform (trans)national identity. The concept of the border is crucial to this study because any imagining of community is done against a backdrop of similarities (what the "us" share in common) and differences (what makes the "them" distinct from "us").</p> Danson Sylvester Kahyana Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA <p>Automobile accounts for the rise in traffic volume and energy consumption in the Nigeria transport sector. Land use planning and land use design are increasingly powerful tools influencing travel behaviour and gasoline consumption. However, only modest empirical evidence of this relationship exists. This study examined the spatio-temporal pattern ofgasoline consumption in Nigeria. It also investigated the relationship between gasoline consumption and urban land use in terms of location of employment, shopping and service centres with particular reference to Ibadan metropolis.<br>Secondary data on gasoline consumption and the explanatory variables such as per capita income and vehicle registration in the 36 States for the period 1971-2005 were collected from various government publications. Survey was conducted on 1451 households selected through systematic random sampling technique to obtain information on household intra-urban travel and socio-economic characteristics. The analysis was based on 640 vehicle owners that consumed gasoline directly for intra-urban travel. Descriptive analysis was used to explain the spatio-temporal pattern of gasoline consumption in Nigeria. Multiple correlation and regression analysis were employed to explain the determinants of the pattern of gasoline consumption, relationships between household gasoline consumption and land use variables, socio-economic and trip characteristics.<br>There were substantial differences in the spatial distribution of gasoline consumption among the states. Lagos State had the highest consumption level with 25.0%, followed by Oyo (6.5%), Ogun (5.4%), Kaduna (5.0%),and Edo (3.9%) States. Gasoline consumption increased from 427,937.7 litres in 1971 to 5,219,957 litres in 1983 and 8,725,938 litres in 2003.The spatial pattern was significantly explained by new registration of vehicles (p&lt;0.01), number of industries (p&lt;0.02) and per capita income (p&lt;0.04) (R2=0.958).<br>Within Ibadan metropolis, gasoline consumption for work trips was dominated by Ibadan North (21.4%),North West (15.7%) and North East (12.1%); for school trips, Ibadan North (27.2%), North West (13.3%) and South East (12.6%); for shopping trips, Ibadan North (26.9), Ido (14.9%) and Akinyele (14.3%); for service trips, Ibadan North (22.7%), North West (14.2%) and Ido (14.2%). Number of industries (p&lt;0.03) and recreational facilities (p&lt;0.01) significantly explained the variation in gasoline consumption (R2 =0.811). Number of buses, gender and educational level account for the variation in gasoline consumption for work trips; number of cars and age of household head account for school trips; annual income, number of cars, household size and number of relatives account for shopping trips while annual income, number of cars and gender of household head account for service trips. Regression analysis results showed that land use variables explain 81% of the variation in gasoline consumption for intra-urban travel while socioeconomic variables accounts for only 17%. Gasoline consumption is determined by number of trips, travel time, distance and use of vehicles for work, school, shopping and service trips.<br>Urban spatial activities influenced travel and gasoline consumption. Therefore, there is a need to incorporate transport planning into urban planning to reduce energy consumption arising from travel and encourage the use of non-vehicular means of travel.</p> JAJA, YINGIGBA CHIOMA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Soutenabilité, déterminants et implications macro-économiques des déficits publics dans les pays en voie de développement : cas du Maroc. <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MANSOURI, Brahim Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Ubuntu/Botho Culture: a Path to Improved Performance and Socio-Economic Development in Post-apartheid SA: Beyond Rhetoric <p>While the debate on the indigenous culture of ubuntu/botho in South Africa (SA) goes far back into the history as signified by Ngubane(1963 and 1979)'s works on the role of the ubuntu values in the anti-colonial and anti-apartheid struggle; in the last two decades or so, this debate has gathered even much greater momentum. This recent interest in ubuntu/botho culture could be attributed to the imminence of the collapse of apartheid in the late 1980s and the tum of the 1990s, and also the post-apartheid situation in which the SA society came to confront serious socio-economic and political challenges. Those challenges arose from the country's re-admission into the global world, which presented challenges associated with globalisation phenomenon such as the need to achieve economic competitiveness. They also were presented by the newly attained democratic dispensation along which dawned the urgent need to redress the apartheid-created injustices and to work earnestly towards the eradication of the past legacies such as racial inequalities and poverty while seeking to consolidate and jealously defend the still rather fragile democracy. Event much more recently, the debate came to form part of the current continent-wide sentiment that Africa should claim the twenty-first century and that all efforts should be channelled towards the renewal of Africa following the destructions and distortions caused by colonialism. Central to this debate in SA is the widely held belief and claim that the ubuntu/botho cultural values could be mobilised into developmental and transformative force. In particular, a strong claim is made that for SA to achieve competitive advantage in global markets, its development strategies should tap into the values of the ubuntu/botho culture. While few cases are cited as success stories indicative of ubuntu values'positive influence on business management strategies in the workplace, often with the assistance of private consultants, these remain isolated and no any serious follow-up studies were conduced in order to assess the sustainability of such interventions. Thus, what is essentially missing in this debate, is a comprehensive indepth, empirically-based study aimed at not only assessing the validity of these widely held claims, but also at examining the objective conditions under which the ubuntu/botho cultural values can help in realising this role. Also critical and missing is the need to possibilities/opportunities and potential constraints to ubuntu/botho culture's ability to fulfil this role. Often these debates lack any serious theoretical basis or comparative references on which to justify their claims. Further, there is seldom any attempt to locate the debate on ubuntu/botho culture in the wider context of the debate and research in the African continent around questions of traditional cultures, thought systems and development and progress. While the present study approaches this debate in such a way that the gaps highlighted addressed through extensive review of literature, it however takes it even further by giving it an empirical content through an in-depth case study of one South African workplace as an illustrative example. This empirically-based approach, coupled with extensive and critical review of the relevant literature, helped to take the debate on ubuntu/botho culture beyond rhetoric which characterises the current dominant thinking within the debate. I argue, on the basis of my overall findings that while evidence gathered supports the case for the need to explore with the ubuntu/botho culture in the economic and business sphere, and in particular at the workplace level, some serious obstacles would and do stand in the way of realising the potentially transformative and developmental role of the culture's values.</p> MAPADIMENG, Mokong Simon Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Religion et développement dans le sud de la Tunisie <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> JELIDI, Abdelkader Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Description de la langue Moba : approche synchronique <p>L'histoire de la lexicographie moba remonte à l'arrivée des missionnaires catholiques à Dapaong. C'est ainsi qu'en 1966, le Révérend Père Reinhard de l'ordre des Franciscains publie un Lexique moba-français de quelques centaines de mots. De 1972 à 1984, il élabore quatre autres fascicules dénommés Dictionnaire moba-français. De nos jours, le lexique et les quatre fascicules qui n'étaient pas édités sont en cours de perfectionnement dans la nouvelle orthographe de la langue moba.<br>Il faut noter que les différents fascicules élaborés par Reinhard, qui n'étaient en fait que des lexiques, ne couvraient pas l'ensemble des séries alphabétiques. Seules les séries allant de k à y ont été présentées. Le fait de commencer l'oeuvre par des séries alphabétiques terminales en laissant en suspens les premières séries ne révèle-t-il pas des problèmes que l'auteur aurait<br>rencontrés ?<br>Outre les fascicules de Reinhard, le répertoire des travaux lexicographiques s'est enrichi avec la publication en 1999 du lexique mobafrançais par 1 'Association des Traducteurs et Alphabétiseurs pour la Promotion des Ecritures en Benn (ATAPEB).<br>Il est à signaler que notre mémoire de D.E.A soutenu en novembre 1996 portait sur la problématique liée à l'élaboration d'un dictionnaire moba. La langue moba ne disposant alors que de « lexiques primaires», il nous fallait sortir des sentiers battus pour élaborer un ouvrage qui réponde à certaines normes scientifiques et techniques...</p> KANTCHOA, Laré Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 A moral response to the conflict of interests between human and nonhuman nature <p>Environmental protection and care is increasingly becoming a major pre-occupation of many scholars and various fields of intellectual pursuit. This is mainly prompted by the current environmental crisis occasioned mainly by soaring human populations and increased capacity by human beings to interfere with the natural processes. This increased interference with nature has precipitated unprecedented increase in pollution in various forms, destruction of forests, problems of disposai of toxic wastes and garbage, extinction ofboth plant and animal species and so on. Thus, human beings have become pervasive, overwhelming and abusive to the natural environment. This raises serious ethical concems in particular; we discem serious conflict between humanity and nonhuman nature. It is against this backdrop that this study set out to argue for a moral intervention to the environmental crisis. The study is premised on the centrality of morality in harmonization of relationships, as exemplified in human relationships. The present study has endeavoured to demonstrate that ethical relationships<br>transcend human to human to include the human to nonhuman nature category. Hence, the question of conflict applies to human to nonhuman nature relationship in as much as it does to human relationships. The central thesis of the study is anchored on the moral standing of nonhuman nature; the view that nonhuman beings have a value of their own, upon which their interests and well-being are predicated. It is on the basis of this that we have argued for the extension of moral considerability to nonhuman nature. We have also endeavoured to concretis~ our thesis within the specific context of an<br>African worldview to test the validity of some of our arguments. Specifically, a reconstruction of Bukusu environmental ethical values gathered through intensive oral interviews reveals an ethic, which recognizes intrinsic value in nonhuman nature, while<br>emphasizing the unique place of humanity in nature. Thus, the ensuing ethic is in pursuit of principles aimed at achieving ecological balance and harmony. This is perfectly in line with one of the central functions of morality, namely, harmonizing relationshlps. In addition, these findings perfectly fit into and reinforce the conceptual paradigm of ecosustainability, identified, clarified and argued for in thls thesis. In sum, the thesis is structured as follows: Chapter one outlines the general introduction, purpose, and scope of the study. Chapter two, explores the centrality of the institution of morality in relationships involving humans, setting the ground for the central thesis of thls study, namely, to invoke moral reasoning and guidance in attempt to surmount conflicts between humans and nonhuman nature. Chapter three endeavours to clarify the problematic and controversial question of the basis of moral concem for nonhuman nature, thus grounding moral intervention in human<br>- nonhuman nature relationship. Chapter four, by way of exemplification reconstructs Bukusu environmental values as a<br>way of concretising some of the central ~rguments of the study and as a contribution towards an understanding or theory of environmental ethics. Chapter five on the other hand interrogates prevailing theoretical formulations in environmental ethlcs, with the view to showing their weaknesses in articulating human - nonhuman nature relationshlp. Then we present our considered conceptual framework of ecosustainability as this study' s contribution towards an understanding of environmental<br>ethics. Chapter six in a recap, attempts self - assessment particularly in the light of the objectives and assumptions of the study, summarizes and concludes the main arguments of the study, with a final note on the recommendations and the way forward.</p> MAKOKHA_Tadayo_Kibaba Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Hybridation des pouvoirs politiques traditionnel et moderne dans le processus d'édification de l'Etat en République démocratique du Congo : l'expérience de la chefferie Pelende nord, 1960-2006 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MAMBI TUNGA-BAU, H Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 White Women and Domesticity in Colonial Zimbabwe : c. 1890 to 1980 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'étude analyse les expériences des femmes blanches dans le Zimbabwe colonial en relation avec </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">la domesticité. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Comme dans la plupart des nouveaux territoires coloniaux, l'un des mandats du colonisateur était de </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">domestiquer «&nbsp;la nature&nbsp;» ​​(c'est-à-dire les populations indigènes et leur environnement) et de rendre </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les zones conquises idéales pour la colonisation et l'exploitation. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La mission civilisatrice était au centre </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">du projet de domestication de l'empire. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La domestication de l'empire, cependant, était plus </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">complexe et allait au-delà de la simple extension de la civilisation occidentale et de l'apprivoisement de l' </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">environnement physique. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Il s'est également manifesté dans les relations entre les sexes au sein de l'Empire britannique </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">et a tiré ses principales caractéristiques de la culture victorienne. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Dans le contexte du genre</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">analyse, la domesticité définit la place appropriée des femmes comme le foyer et a le potentiel de restreindre </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les options des femmes. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'étude démontre qu'en réalité, la domesticité était plus complexe et </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">allait au-delà de la relégation des femmes blanches au foyer ou à la sphère dite privée. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L' </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">idéologie domestique, comme ailleurs, a pris différentes formes au sein de la société rhodésienne et celles-ci </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ont façonné les expériences des femmes blanches de manière très complexe. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les femmes blanches se sont également appropriées, </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">contestées et déployées cette idéologie et ont conçu sa reformulation au fil du temps. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Il y avait un dialogue continu entre l'idéologie et les expériences des femmes blanches. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Dans l' </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ensemble, l'étude insère les femmes blanches dans le récit colonial et démontre qu'il y a</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">un récit incomplet sur le colonialisme alors que ces femmes sont absentes de ce récit. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les femmes blanches </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ont clairement eu une énorme influence sur le développement social, économique et politique des </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">sociétés coloniales et pourtant, il y a eu peu d'efforts académiques rigoureux pour apprécier leur </span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">expérience, leurs rôles et leur statut, en particulier dans le Zimbabwe colonial. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Cette thèse utilise </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">des preuves largement empiriques tirées d'une multiplicité de sources primaires et secondaires telles que </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">des entretiens approfondis, des sources Internet, des documents d'archives et des ouvrages publiés sur </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">la Rhodésie du Sud et d'autres parties de l'Empire britannique.</span></span></p> KUFAKURINANI, Ushehwedu Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Disclosure in financial statements published by libyan companies owned by the secretariat of strategic industries <p>Abstract</p> BELGASEM, Mustafa Sassi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Oil and minority ethnic nationalism in Nigeria : the case of the Ogoni <p>This study examines the origins, goal(s) and consequences of the struggles of the minorities in the oil-producing areas of Nigeria. The minorities have common aspirations which derived from similar economic and environmental conditions occasioned by oil-exploitation .. However, interethnic rivalry which sometimes resulted in violent clashes between neighbours among them, selfregarding . patron-client Hes and state repressive response to nascent political action were among the factors wh'ich P!evented them from forging· a strong regional movement. They, therefore, pursued, for the most part, their goal of<br>internal independence through separate ethnic movements.<br>From a case study of the Ogoni, one can speak of a phenomenological relationship between the role of the elites and other factors . in the emergence of minority ethnic nationalism in the oil-producing areas of Nigeria in the sense that the· latter existed as mere conditions until the former transformed them into factors. There is evidence that the exploitation of oil started causing discontent among the peasants almost at the same time it commenced. They expressed their discontent, at best, in the forms of sabotage, theft and other clandestine actions.<br>They never perceived their situation in ethnic terms such as that the oil wealth their ancestral homeland is endowed with was being exploited for the benefit of other ethnic groups. It was the elites who perceived the situation of the minorities this way and proceeded to mount nationalist campaigns when they were convinced that their reformist approach was not yielding the desired results.<br>The state responded with a mixture of non-violent and violent strategies of containment. The latter strategy in Ogoni' s case culminated in the exploitation of whatever differences that might have existed between the Ogoni and their neighbours to the end of preventing the spread of the example of Ogoni effective resistance to other oil minorities.</p> VICTOR ADEFElVU ISUMONAH Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Development of a nomination inventory and rating scale in a multiple criteria approach for identifying gifted children in Nigeria <p>Against the,backdrop of an,established·research need for investigati,ng the efficacy of tee.cher, parent and peer ratings of characteristics of g:i::fted cmi.ldren a.nd youths wi thtn. the framework of a multiple criteria identification scheme, this study was set ,out in the main to evaluate ratings of traits of giftedness in nominated outstanding students and to validate an identification procedure that would effer:tively corroborate such rating indices.<br>Eight research questions and another set of eight hypotheses posed for the study undergirded the basic assumption that rating exercises by Nigerian. teachers, parents and peers of outstanding students will reliably and effectively complement multiple criteria data in identifying gifted children. A survey approach,was designed in four phases during which a number of psychological measures were intermitently administered to a sample ·of 391 outstanding students, 675 teachers, 441 parents and 813 peers in order to collect relevant and extant data for the research. During the five phases of the identification exercise, six psychological instruments were used for screening.</p> IBRAHIM ADAMU KOLO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Morphologie et contraintes prosodiques en Berbère (Tachelkit de Tiznit) : analyse linguistique et traitement automatique <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> JEBBOUR Abdelkrim Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Vers une approche didactique de l'enseignement des sciences économiques à l'université marocaine <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MAGDOUD, Amina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Pratiques éducatives et développement moral : une étude psychogénétique et différentielle de l'appropriation des valeurs et de l'estime de soi chez l'enfant et l'adolescent de 6 à 16 ans Tome 1 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> KOUDOU, Kessié Raymond Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 The contribution of indigenous agro-biodiversity knowledge management practices for improving livelihoods of local communities: a case study of Masasi and Nachingwea Districts in Tanzania <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'étude a été menée à Lindi (district de Nachingwea) et à Mtwara ( </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">district de Masasi) pour enquêter et documenter les pratiques de connaissances autochtones existantes sur </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">la gestion de l'agro-biodiversité et montrer comment </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le modèle KM de 1998 de Nonaka et Konnos (Socialisation, Externalisation, Combinaison et Internalisation (SECI )) peuvent </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">être appliquées pour gérer les connaissances indigènes liées à l'agro-biodiversité dans </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les communautés locales. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Combinée au modèle de moyens de subsistance durables adaptés, l'étude a également </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">cherché à étudier comment ces connaissances contribuent aux moyens de subsistance des </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">communautés locales. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Cette étude a utilisé une conception de recherche mixte, utilisant des conceptions transversales et d'études de cas </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La population étudiée était composée de petits exploitants agricoles, de chefs de village,</span></span><br><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">et les intermédiaires du savoir autochtone (IK). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Un échantillonnage raisonné a été utilisé pour </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">sélectionner les districts, les villages, les informateurs clés et les participants aux </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">discussions de groupe (FGD). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Un échantillonnage systématique a été utilisé pour sélectionner les chefs de ménage. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Leurs noms ont été tirés du registre du gouvernement du village. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'échantillon total pour </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">cette étude était de 230 chefs de ménage, 16 informateurs clés (chefs de village), 4 </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">intermédiaires de connaissances autochtones (agents de vulgarisation et forestiers) et 80 </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">participants aux discussions de groupe (FGD). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Un progiciel statistique pour </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les sciences sociales (SPSS) version 16.0 a été utilisé pour générer les fréquences et </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les pourcentages. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les données quantitatives ont été analysées quantitativement. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les données qualitatives ont été</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">analysés à l'aide d'une analyse de contenu. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les principales conclusions ont révélé que les communautés locales </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">possèdent un large éventail de connaissances autochtones sur la fertilité des sols, les cultures intercalaires, </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le stockage des semences, les méthodes de culture, la préservation de l'humidité et la préservation des cultures. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les résultats ont en outre révélé que les zones de feu, de jachère et tampons sont utilisées pour délimiter </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les zones protégées et les villages par des lois pour guider l'utilisation des terres. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les résultats ont en outre révélé </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">que les agriculteurs s'appuient fortement sur les connaissances tacites par opposition aux connaissances enregistrées. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L' étude a conclu que les agriculteurs créent de nouvelles connaissances par le biais </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">d'interactions </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">en face à face et de groupe , du folklore, des sculptures et des rites d'initiation et que les savoirs traditionnels sont largement transférés </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">par la tradition orale et les démonstrations et sont préservés dans l'esprit humain. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Le</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">recommande que les pratiques de KM sur la gestion de l'agro-biodiversité soient </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">de la responsabilité des communautés, des autorités villageoises, des secteurs public et privé et </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">que le gouvernement et les acteurs privés de l'agro-biodiversité encouragent les pratiques de KM </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">sur la gestion de l'agro-biodiversité en engageant les communautés dans la l'identification, </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">la cartographie, la diffusion et la préservation des IK et devraient mener des études d'utilisateurs pour </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">déterminer les domaines d'intervention. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ceux-ci aideront les communautés locales à maintenir leurs </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">systèmes agricoles et ainsi à assurer leurs moyens de subsistance.</span></span></p> MALEKANI, Andrew Watson Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Essai de présentation et d'analyse critique de la politique extérieure de la république de Guinée de 1958-1984 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> KABA, Ousmane Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 'They have ears but they cannot hear'. Listening and Talking as HIV Prevention: a New Approach to HIV and AIDS Campaigns at three of the Universities in KwaZulu Natal <p>Sexuality is made relevant in the way language is used as a matter of the identity of a group or individuals. Sex, for human beings, is not merely instinctive behaviour. It is m_eaningful-cultural behaviour and as such is semiotically loaded with meaning. Listening and talking about sex highlights conventions, taken-for-granted assumptions about the way things have to be done. Language as the most powerful representational system shapes our understanding of what we do and how we do them in relation to sex. Our understanding of sexual scripts about the sexuality of a particular group of people is through language as a signifying practice. The study of listening and talking is not merely an investigation of how sex is talked about, but how respondents enact sexuality and sexual identity vis-a-vis its linguistically loaded forms of representations in a<br>variety of discourse genres. Representation and its inherent process of signification draws on lived experiences and the daily talk of people in interaction. A theoretical perspective is presented not as a model to be tested, but as testimony to the rich literature on the nature and function of language as a political arena, semiotically loaded with meanings that are taken for<br>granted. It is concluded that the appropriation of cultural myths is encoded in language and as such language is a legitimate area of inquiry especially in understanding sexual scripts in the context HIV/AIDS. The study engages reported high risk sexual encounters such as multiple and concurrent · partnerships, as well as unsafe sex practices which have been identified in literature as fanning the embers of the epidemic. Ideologies influencing developing communication campaigns in light of these discourses become a serious challenge as the conventional basis for such campaigns is in socio-cognitive theories, few of which can be assumed to apply with regard to the discursive representations of sexual practices and the inherent risks. Drawing on a cross-sectional survey of 1400 students on seven campuses, conceptually triangulated via focused-ethnography, listening analysis and discourse analysis, this&nbsp;research examines perceptions, interpretations, attitudes, and practices of sexuality and<br>HIV/AIDS. The research is a multi-method and inter-disciplinary approach located within cultural studies to interrogate the gap between knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour modification in the light of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic. This research discusses these findings and offers a critical appraisal of sexual behaviour in the context of ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise) as ideologically encoded in cultural and relational myths. I found that students are sexually active with reported multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships. Postgraduate students were less likely to report having had used a condom<br>at their last coital encounter compared with the often younger undergraduate students. Condom use continues to be a norm in the universities surveyed. This is truer for students who reported multiple sexual partnerships. Amongst the dominant scripts that came out in the ethnographic inquiry are: sex as uncontrollable biological drive; females are responsible for safe sex practices; strong social scripts elevate male sexual prowess and show disdain for female affirmative sexualities, risk is discounted using a form of post modern fatalism .(resistance to regulation); and physical status, based on appearance of a possible partner, is used to select 'sexually safe' partners. I have concluded that a deeper understanding of the cultural and sexual scripts obtained from students is critical for appropriate design and implementation of interventions aimed at<br>stemming the tide of the HIV epidemic. I have also demonstrated that interventions that only emphasise the rational dimensions of human behaviour are more likely to miss their target audience as sex is more than a choice of Cartesian rationality (linear choice).</p> KUNDA, Lengwe John-Eudes Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 LE VOTE ETHNIQUE AU BENIN CONTRIBUTION A UNE ETUDE SOCIOPOLITIQUE DE L’ELECTION <p>En Afrique et partout dans le monde1, la dynamique politique se heurte à des constances. Ethnie, région, terroir, en un mot territorialité2, fait religieux, classe sociale, etc. sont, entre autres, des déterminants sociologiques, socio-anthropologiques voire socio-géographiques qui marquent le jeu des acteurs politiques. « Le lien organique entre la formation de l’Etat, […], et l’affirmation identitaire se retrouve dans maints domaines »3 en Afrique. L’identité notamment l’identité ethnique reste un symbole d’identification dans le champ politique et plus précisément dans le champ électoral. L’ethnie, un héritage culturel subit des mutations au point où, l’enjeu électoral ne prend corps et sens que si le fait ethnique devient le moteur propulseur de la machine politique. Mais, que peut-on entendre par ethnie ?<br>La clarification des concepts clés de l’étude nous amènera à poser la problématique, à dégager l’intérêt du sujet, à présenter la démarche méthodologique de l’analyse électorale, à faire la délimitation spatiale et temporelle de la recherche et enfin, à annoncer le plan d’analyse.</p> Sèdagban Hygin Faust KAKAI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 A comparative study of democratisation process in Nigeria and South Korea <p>This thesis compares the democratisation process in Nigeria with the South Korean experience. The factors which facilitated<br>democratisation in the two countries and the effect of democratisation varied from one to another. The study utilised the structural determination theory to bring to fore the conditions which were instrumental in effecting democratic transition in South Korea, and increasing the fervour and agitation for democratisation in Nigeria. After an in-depth study of the causation and effects of democratisation in both countries, the conclusions drawn reflect to some extent the differences and similarities between Nigeria and South Korea. First, economic factors played a major role in both Nigerian and Korean democratisation. While economic development propelled the struggle for democracy in Korea, the lack of it fuelled anti-military andpro-democracy struggles in Nigeria. Secondly, ethnicity and regionalism were utilised by the authoritarian leaders to &lt;livide the Civil Society and delay or abort the transition to democracy. In Nigeria, the abortion of the transition to democracy project under General Babangida had ethnie undertone. While in South Korea, regionalism delayed the transition to democracy.</p> MAGBADELO, John Olushola Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Analyse des déterminants de la demande du charbon de bois à Abidjan <p>La disparition progressive du patrimoine végétal entraîne de nos jours, en plus des problèmes environnementaux et écologiques, une crise du bois. En raison de leur impact sur la forêt ivoirienne, l'utilisation du bois et ses dérivés comme source d'énergie domestique constitue une des préoccupations fondamentales des pouvoirs publics. Cette crise est si mal connue que certains chercheurs refusent cette appellation. Afin d'aider à une meilleure connaissance, cette étude a porté sur l'analyse de la demande du charbon de bois et a eu.pour cadre les deux plus importantes communes d'Abidjan: Yopougon et Abobo. Les principaux objectifs de ce travail sont l' identification, l'analyse des déterminants les plus pertinents de cette demande, l'estima~ion des différentes fonctions et des élasticités de cette demande. L'analyse permet de retenir comme variables explicatives pertinentes de la demande de charbon, la dépense totale de consommation des ménages, le prix du charbon, la consommation en valeur de gaz des ménages, le prix du bois et la taille du ménage. L'estimation des fonctions de demande montre que cette demande est une fonction exponentielle de ces variables pour les ménages de Yopougon et linéaire pour ceux d'Abobo. Les élasticités obtenues indiquent que le prix du charbon et la taille des ménages sont les facteurs les plus importants de la demande de ce combustible. En ce qui concerne la nature du charbon, quoique définie par l'élasticité-revenu, elle est aussi influencée par le type d'énergie utilisée comme complément ou substitut du charbon. Les mesures préconisées sont le reflet des résultats obtenus, et elles recommandent des actions ayant pour objectif principal la maîtrise totale de la quantité de charbon mise sur les marchés. Dans le cont~xte actuel de désengagement de l'Etat et afin de dissiper la méfiance des charbonniers, la première action à entreprendre est la mise en place d'une structure autonome et non gouvernementale ou une Société d'Economie Mixte (SEM) ayant en charge toutes les activités du secteur énergétique. Ce qui permettra de regrouper toutes les tentatives de recherches de solution à la crise d'énergie domestique. Afin de faciliter un début de mise en<br>oeuvre de ces actions, les pouvoirs publics peuvent envisager un projet d'appui à la vulgarisation du gaz. La SEM, pendant<br>une phase-pilote, entreprendra les simulations visant à tester les réactions des consommateurs. Il s'agira du: - côté du charbon : de créer, de façon périodique, des pénuries de charbon. En effet, la SEM peut provoquer des déficits d'offre par un système de rétention d'une</p> Amidou KONÉ Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 EFFECT OF IMPROVED COMPLEMENTARY FOODS ON GROWTH AND IRON STATUS OF KENYAN INFANTS <p>Background: Infant growth faltering is usually associated with an increased risk of<br>morbidity and mortality. It is common in resource limited settings and constrains infants’ full<br>development resulting in reduced physical capacity and overall productivity later in life.<br>Major causes are inappropriate feeding practices and poor quality complementary foods with<br>low energy density and micronutrients deficiency. Interventions to improve the quality of<br>complementary foods exist like use of fortified blends among others but with mixed<br>results/outcomes. Among the interventions is also the use of animal source foods (ASFs) to<br>improve the quality of the blends. With increasing attention to ASFs and especially those that<br>are locally available, easily accessible, cheaper and acceptable in the localities, the effects of<br>the same on infant nutrition, growth and development need special attention. The impact of<br>incorporating indigenous nutrient rich and relatively cheap, locally available and readily<br>acceptable but underutilized/neglected ASFs such as edible termites and dagaa small fish and<br>micronutrient fortification of complementary foods on growth of infants from resource<br>limited settings has been inadequately studied.<br>Objectives: To test the acceptability and efficacy of improved complementary food blends<br>named WINFOOD Classic ((WFC)- with 10% edible termites, 3% dagaa small fish and<br>germinated grain amaranth), WINFOOD Lite ((WFL)-with germinated grain amaranth<br>fortified with micronutrients at the rate of Corn Soy Blend Plus (CSB+)) and CSB+ (Corn<br>and Soya fortified with micronutrients) on growth (measured as length and weight gain),<br>haemoglobin concentration, anaemia prevalence and iron status of infants 6 to 15 months<br>from a resource limited rural setting in Kakamega County, Western Kenya.<br>Study implementation: Three-stage study comprising assessment of: 1) acceptability of<br>improved-animal source foods enhanced-fortified complementary blends 2) prevalence of<br>malnutrition in the study population among infants 6-23 months and, 3) the effect of the<br>complementary foods on linear growth and weight gain, haemoglobin concentration, anaemia<br>prevalence and iron status among infants 6 -15 months of age in a randomized controlled trial<br>(RCT).<br>Design: The acceptability study was a cross over design study with wash out periods while<br>the nutitional status styd prior to the intervetin study was determined using a cross section<br>design. The intervention study was a community-based double blind randomized trial in<br>which infants were individually randomized at 6 months of age to receive one of the three<br>study complementary foods: WFC, WFL and CSB+ for 9 months.<br>Methods: Acceptability to mothers and infants of the improved-ASFs enhanced and fortified<br>complementary blends WFC, WFL or CSB+ porridge recipes was assessed prior to the<br>industrial production of the blends among fifty seven (57) infant-caregivers dyads.<br>A cross sectional anthropometric, dietary and morbidity data among six hundred and eighteen<br>(618) infants and young children aged 6-23 months old was also collected prior to the<br>randomized controlled trial (RCT).<br>In the intervention study, Four hundred and ninety nine (499) infants were randomized to<br>receive WFC (n= 165), WFL (n= 167) or CSB+ (n=167) from 6–15 months of age. The<br>primary outcome was linear growth while secondary outcomes included weight gain,<br>haemoglobin concentration, iron status (determined as ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor</p> Silvenus Ochieng Konyole Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 <Le> travail des enfants en Côte d'Ivoire. Sens, rationalité et autonomie de l'action du travailleur enfant dans le secteur informel urbain: l'exemple de la ville d'Abidjan <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> KRA, Kouamé Walter Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 A Socio-Economic History of Food Crop Production in Igboland 1900-1980: a Study of Yam, Cocoyam and Cassava <p>Food is an essential ingredient for living organisms. The standard of living in any environment is determined more than anything else, by the level of food substances available to. it. In Africa, a lot of substances are consumed. Using the Igbo of Eastern Nigeria, these food substances range from crops to animals. Also, the peoples food customs are integrated into their socio-cultural framework so much so that it is even ritualized. However, what is produced is inherently determined by the environment.<br>Hence, the important role of geographical factors in food production. Prior to British colonial rule, cases of food shortages in Igboland were not common. They occurred mainly in times of drought and other natural disasters. But, colonialism not only introduced new wants among the Igbo, it also brought new crops, which were in great demand in Europe. Thence, it became more attractive to go into export crop production, resulting in an unnecessary neglect of food crops. In fact, the hallmark of colonial policy in Igboland, indeed Nigeria, was the almost total neglect of crops like yam, cocoyam and cassava, on which the people heavily depended. And with this, came the beginning of persistent food shortages.<br>The post-independence administration continued the policies of its colonial predecessors. This may have been for want of foreign revenue badly needed for development projects; more so, as the economy was agriculture based. Similarly, the 30-<br>month Nigerian civil war, further worsened the food problem, since old policies were abandoned and the insecurity of the period was inauspicious for farming. Consequently, not a few people died from hunger and many more suffered from diseases arising from Moreover, the over-centralisation of · policies under the military and the introduction of unrealistic agricultural programmes, following the end of the Civil War further complicated the food problem. Therefore, policies like the National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP), the Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) and the Green Revolution, merely amounted to tackling the problem from the top, rather than from the root. Hence, it is argued that a more realistic way to tackle the food problem in Igboland, is by opening up the rural areas with more government infrastructure, introducing modern agricultural systems, reducing the prices of farm input and above all, by farmers being able to emphasise economic rather than socio-cultural factors in agricultural practice.</p> IWUAGWU, OBICHERE CHILAKA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 LOGIQUES PAYSANNES, LOGIQUES DES DEVELOPPEURS ET LA PROBLEMATIQUE DE LA PARTICIPATION.DANS LES PROJETS DE DEVELOPPEMENT RURAL : L'exemple du projet Bad-Ouest en Côte d'Ivoire <p>« Abandon des cultures introduites par les projets et progression extraordinaire des cultures traditionnelles, repli sur l'autoconsommation, refus d'entretenir les ouvrages (forages, pistes .. .) implantés avec l'aide de l'Etat, réorientation des projets par les paysans » (Pierre Marie-Decoudras : 2000 :5) ... telles sont les phrases qui, de plus en plus souvent, jalonnent les<br>rapports des experts chargés d'évaluer les opérations de développement rural. L'Etat, dans la plupart des pays du Tiers-Monde, avec l'appui des organisations internationales, met en oeuvre des projets de développement avec leurs paquets technologiques afin d'améliorer le niveau de vie des populations rurales. Dans un premier temps, ces dernières y ont p1us ou moins adhéré, se les sont appropriés puis, après quelques années, s'en sont écartées et les ont abandonnés, quand elles n'ont pas cherché à lutter contre.<br>Ces constats d'échec entretiennent des interrogations et remettent à l'ordre du jour la question du développement du monde rural. En effet, plusieurs décennies après les indépendances des Etats africains, les programmes de développement, basés sur les macro-projets, les transferts technologiques, qui se sont multipliés en vue de transformer ou de développer les milieux ruraux, n'ont pas produit les résultats escomptés : la lutte contre la pauvreté en milieu rural. L'ORSTOM (1978), dans les Actes du colloque de Ouagadougou sur la Maîtrise de l'espace agraire et développement en Afrique tropicale ; logiques paysannes et rationalité technique a ouvert publiquement le débat sur ce constat désormais admis (la question de l'échec du développement agraire et du transfert de technologies) et montre que « transfert technologique et développement rural sont, en Afrique Noire, loin d'être synonymes. (. . .).L'on a pensé résoudre tous les problèmes du monde rural par l'utilisation d'une technologie avancée. Après des expériences négatives parce que Je monde rural non préparé à recevoir ces techniques avancées, les rejetait au profit des techniques ancestrales»...</p> KAM Oleh Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 The influence of interpretations of islam on girls' access to secondary school education in Mombasa and Kwale districts, Kenya <p>This study sought to investigate the impact of the interpretations of Islam on girls' access to secondary school education in Mombasa and Kwale districts. The study shows that in principle, Islam grants equal rights to both genders. Hence the theory of inlrinsic inferiority of llie female gender is not supported by Islamic discourse or the biological di ffcrentiation between the sexes. The highly stereotyped i111age1y of a subonlinatecl Mtislim woman is perpctuated and propagated by [mis] interpretations of the teachings or Islam regardi,!g the status of women in society. These [mis]interprctations are a product of, and beholden to cultme proclivities of individual Muslims within particular sociocultural milieus. · · The study further demonstrates that Islam attaches equal importance to the education of girls as of boys. This implies that Islam is not the cause of gender imbalances in access to secondary school education. On the contrary, some [mis ]interpretations of the teachings of Islam on the place and role of women in society influence the importance attached to the education of girls. Within the context of the .colonial Kenyan society, the study has demonstrated that the racial education policies influenced not only the development of Muslim education in general but that of Muslim girls in particular. lt is evident that gender imbalances in<br />education provision and opportunities existed during the colonial period. Largely, within the colonial context, the development of education tended to favour boys than girls. Therefore, girls' education did not develop at the same pace with that of boys'. The colonial education policies also reinforced some cultural beliefs, traditions and practices - that .ascribed an inferior status to women - which were unfavourable to the education of girls. Hence, it is argued that the colonial legacy disadvantaged the development of Muslim girls' education. This has dogged and partly continued to shape the development of Muslim girls' education in the two districts.</p> MAINA, Newton Kalumbi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Pratiques éducatives et développement moral : une étude psychogénétique et différentielle de l'appropriation des valeurs et de l'estime de soi chez l'enfant et l'adolescent de 6 à 16 ans Tome 2 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> KOUDOU, Kessié Raymond Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 DETERMINANTS OP FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN PRIMARY EDUCATION: A STUDY OF KWALE AND TAITA-TAVETA DISTRICTSr KENYA <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> JUMA, Magdallen Nafula Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 The Railways Is A Factor In The British Colonial Control Domination And Exploitation Of The Zaria Province, 1902-1945 <p>and the operation o£ the. railways on the eeolll:lfl\Y and the society of colonicl. Zaria provin::e 1902-1945. e colonial state built the railways ostensibly ~ eff~t the ecmcaic '~:- grewtb and development. of· the Nort:hem protectorate of Nlgedae Mt:MeWr• 1n' the r,ratical and ccn:rete r:eality of the ~olonial era, the ra!tw~ys .. ~d out to be· the means through which tbe ~luses of the ?..aria provln:e 11e aha of this. s~y !s to shCM hew the colon!al st:Gto exr&gt;loi~ ~<br>freight &lt;:afJ!lCiiles of the railways to c:oer:ce and tum the Zade t&gt;~ i,~to a giant exporter of agricul.tursl and industrial raw-aated.t!ls. ~ a JJet iap~rter of Srit1.«sh llallUfactul!'ed goods • lhis study will also s'hc'M that colonial exploitation wlr~ently resulted in the dislocation Mel the distorticn of the ec:mcuy a,nd the society of the Zada prov!nr:e. qbis disart!culated state of .effairs- perhaps bes.t acectmted £or. and explained the ~'\!!ral &amp;tate d the im...noverl.shment,<br>pauperism, aml poverty that was the lot of. indigenous people \dlo bore tile brunt of British colonial imperialism i~ the ?.aria pravin:e.</p> SHOYEBI ABAYOMI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 The Effects of Risk and Uncertainty on Investment Decisions of Firms with Particular Emphasis on Investor-Lender Firm Bahaviour <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> KUMO, Wolassa Lawisso Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 CRISE AGRAIRE ET MUTATIONS RURALES DANS LA ZONE D'ECONOMIE CAFEIERE ET CACAOYERE DU TOGO <p>For more than two decades, the cocoa and coffee producing area of the Plateau Region in Togo (Westside) has been faced with a crisis characterised by a graduai abandonment of cocoa and coffee plantations. Caused by a couple of factors of which are the ageing of the orchard, various diseases and parasites attacking the crops, bush tire damages, the decline of the raw product, and mostly, the inappropriate governmental policy in the efforts to renew and stimulate coffee and cocoa production. Also included are coffee and cocoa farms desertion which takes various forms on the agrarian space. After describing the different signs and manifestations of this agrarian crisis, this study lays emphasis on its causes before concluding that there is a strong tendency for the disparition of the Togolese cocoa and coffee orchard. ln theses conditions, we observed various transformations of farming systems and agrarian landscapes, a tendency to producing new speculations, dominated by living crops production. Cocoa and coffee farm desertion has implications on the society and economy. Theses implications are as follow: poorer quality of living standard, aggravation of social and sanitary problems. Moreover, the physical environment is affected at various levels with vegetation setbacks and climate factors changes. However, the social and economic importance of this couple of crops demands that the actors (state, institutions, farmers, trainers .. .) work together to enhance the coffee<br>and cocoa exploitation. lt is recommended that coffee and cocoa farming should therefore take on board new strategies that have inclusive and endogenous characters. ln regard ta the former experiences, the resolution of the crisis should consider the abandoned areas, a sectionnalisation of strategies, a necessary orieniation of the damaged space in a sustainable development way.</p> Edinam KOLA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Les personnes agées dans la région de Dakar <p>Ce présent travail s‘intéresse à un groupe social, celui des personnes âgées. La question de départ est de savoir comment les personnes âgées résidant à Dakar, appartenant à des classes différentes mais aussi à un genre différent négocient-elles leur place dans les sphères de la société sénégalaise entre reconnaissance et exclusion. Pour répondre à cette question, une hypothèse principale a été posée selon laquelle, la représentation sociale « de la vieillesse encensée » ne permet plus d‘établir un lien entre les membres de la famille du fait des contraintes économiques qui pèsent sur certains foyers. Ce qui va produire de l‘exclusion sociale. Notre choix s‘est porté pour l‘ensemble de ce travail à une méthodologie qualitative qui est beaucoup plus appropriée dans un thème non encore exploré, comme c‘est le cas de notre sujet. Cette démarche qualitative, utilisée aussi bien dans la collecte des données que dans leur analyse, nous aura permis de voir les personnes âgées sous des facettes diamétralement opposées à celles qui sont véhiculées quotidiennement dans l‘espace socioculturel dakarois. On ne peut considérer la personne âgée ni comme un individu tout puissant, respecté ni comme un individu passif et d‘emblée exclu. La problématique de cette thèse trouve un de ses fondements dans la relation entre d‘une part, les contraintes pesant sur chacun des membres d‘une famille par exemple ( en fonction du milieu social) et d‘autre part, la recherche d‘une identité plus valorisante au cours des interactions entre générations. Les personnes âgées et les membres de leur famille sont considérés comme des acteurs sociaux, c'est-à-dire capables de s‘organiser malgré les contraintes de leur environnement.</p> LAMESSE, Fatma Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Contribution des festivals et des structures de formation en arts vivants au développement socio-économique du Burkina Faso <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> MANDE, Hamadou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Informal Financial Sector and Saving-Investment Process in Nigeria : evidence from five South-Western States <p>This thesis presents an empirical study of the informal financial sector in the old Western Nigeria within the theoretical framework of imperfect information paradigm. It estimates the relative size of the informal financial sector in Nigeria by examining some monetary aggregates. The results of the estimation show that, in monetary terms, the informal financial sector is one-third the size of its formal counterpart. One of the areas in which this thesis extends the frontier of knowledge<br>about informal finance in Nigeria is the use of Qualitative Choice model (logit model) to examine the role of the informal financial sector in the mobilisation and allocation of domestic resources for capital formation in Nigeria. Other tests used include the general summary statistical tests to examine the characteristics of four particular informal finance agents (esusu collectors, ROSCAs, moneylenders and the general public), ascertain the procedure and channels for informal financial intermediation, and analyse the linkages between the informal and formal financial institutions. The results of the study represent a significant input to the literature on informal finance in Nigeria as well as a contribution, of great policy relevance,<br>towards an integrated development of both the formal and informal financial institutions in Nigeria.</p> MAGBAGBEOLA, Nelson Olalekan Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Conservation de la diversité végétale et activité humaines dans les aires protégées du sud forestier ivoirien : l'exemple du Parc National d' Azagny <p>La présente étude est un essai d'analyse des problèmes relatifs à la gestion des aires protégées en Côte d' Ivoire. Elle porte principalement sur le Parc National d' Azagny. Les actions conJuguées des populations riveraines sur les aires protégées entraînent . chaque année la disparition de plusieurs milliers d'hectares de forêt. Cette dégradation de la couverture végétale à pour conséquence la perte de la diversité biologique de ces aires protégées dont fait partie le Parc National d' Az;agny. Afin de comprendre le mécanisme entre les activités humaines et la conservation de la diversité; cette étude a été initiée dans<br>le Parc National d' Azagny. Elle a pour objectif principal de contribuer à la conservatiori de _la biodiversité par une approche nouvelle dans la gestion des aires protégées. Ainsi, cette étude se propose de caractériser les types d'occupation du sol et les types de peuplement afin d'analyser leur dynamique. L'outil utilisé est la télédétection qui à travers ses méthodes de traitement sur les images satellitales de 1986 et 2000, donne une cartographie de l'occupation du sol et celle des types de peuplement du parc. A ces images, ont été associés la carte de la végétation du parc ainsi que des relevés effectués sur le terrain pour mieux matérialiser la réalité. L'analyse de la dynamique des types d'affectation au sol donne une idée sur l'état<br>d'évolution des superficies forestières et non forestières, ainsi certaines affectations, sous l'effet des actions humaines connaissent une dégradation très avancée alors que d'autres restent stables. Parmi les couvertures subissant une dégradation, il faut noter une grande proportion représentée par les forêts denses, les forêts secondaires et les forêts inondées. Les espaces situés au nord du parc sont celles qui subissent la plus forte pression humaine. Ils sont sous l'influence des activités humaines, des densités de population les plus élevés, et abritent le plus grand nombre de localités. Les données de terrain et les enquêtes<br>réalisées permettent de comprendre le comportement des populations vis à vis du parc. En effet, ces populations exercent plusieurs activités autour et dans le parc. L'intensité de ces activités autour et dans le parc d' Azagny détermine les risques de dégradation de la diversité végétale dans cet espace protégé.</p> KONAN Kouadio Eugène Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Sociocultural factors influencing the use of expanded programme on immunization in the health zone of Nigeria <p>The overall objective of the study is· to examine the influence of sociocultural factors iri the use of the Expanded Programme on · Irrununization (EPI). Identifying certain predispo~ing f~ctors (sociocultural and ecological) and enabling factors (availability and accessibility of health facilities) which may impede or promote the.· use of health facilities and lead to promotion of the most effective means of dissemination 6f information and effective utilization of EPI facilities.<br>The conceptual tool is based on Health Belief Model (HBM) . The model assw-ues that prediction of health related behaviour, particularly preventive/detection health behaviour, depends mainly on two variables: ( 1) perceived susceptibility to a health condition, and ( 2) perceived seriousness of a given health problem. This varies from person to person and from gro.up to. group, and conditioned by sociocultural factors. Three local government areas (LGAs). were selected based on their cultural and ecological di versi ti~s and level of utilization of EPI. These were: Akinyele, a Yoruba Community in Oyo . State, Ika North-East LGA, an Iba Community in the upland area of Delta State and Bomadi LGA, an Ijaw Community in the riverine area of Del ta State. Pilot study revealed thai Akinyele, defin~d as a success area, had more than 90% coverage · of EPI target population while Ika North-East and Bomadi; defined· as less successful, reported under 60% coverage of EPI target population.<br>The study was conducted between May, 1993 and February, 1994. Data collection involved three phases: (1) an indepth<br>interview of 120 key informants (40 from each LGA); followed by (2) · 36 fa°cus group discussions. (FGDs) (6 in each LGA) with<br>a total of 180 participants; an_d (3) structured interviews whic~ ihvolved 1,554 female household respondent~; these are individuals who have given birth to, at least, a chil9 in the&nbsp; last 5 years. These techniques were supplemented with clinical case study of 50 children born in each LGA in order to examine the sociocultural characteristics of mothers of well and poorly immunized children.<br>The study revealed that majority of children aged 12-23 months (90%) were fully imnunized in Akinyele, tinlike Ika and Bomadi. where· 54. 9% · and 55. 6% were immunized respectively.<br>Al though . statistical test shows significant relationships between sociocultural factors and the use of EPI, nevertheless, the most striking feature of the studj is the fact that where _intervention programmes (enabling fac;tors) are effected as in Akinyele, tpe influence of sociocultural factors as barriers was greatly red~ced. Hence, the:i;e is no substantial dif(erence between Ika and Bomadi despite their differential sociocultural and ecological backgrounds. The:i;.efore, · the formulation of · appropriate intervention programme . is of considerable importance for effective utilization of health facilities and for the a6hievement of health for all by the year 2000.</p> JEGEDE, Ayodele Samuel Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 Description de la langue Moba : approche synchronique <p>L'étude que nous présentons dans ces pages porte sur la description synchronique de la langue moba. L'on pourrait se poser des questions sur les raisons d'un tel choix. En fait, l'idée de cette entreprise est partie d'un constat simple : à ce jour, il n'existe à proprement parler aucune description systématique du moba. Cette langue, il est vrai, a déjà fait l'objet de plusieurs tentatives d'approche. Mais, la plupart des recherches entreprises consistent généralement en des esquisses, en des études ponctuelles qui, malgré leur très grand intérêt, permettent difficilement de se faire une idée exacte de la structure de la langue. Rarement, la morphologie et la syntaxe ont été abordées de manière méthodique. De ce fait, la question liée à l'identité de la langue moba reste toujours sans réponse.<br>C'est pour remédier à cette situation de carence que nous avons choisi d'entreprendre cette description grammaticale.</p> KANTCHOA, Laré Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 The political economy of poverty among the peasantry in Kano State : a study of feudal Oppression and exploitation in guri district of hadejia Emirate <p>Abstract</p> FULATA, Abubakar Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 The Constraints Underpinning the Provision of Rental Housing by Low-Income Landlords in Dar Es Salaam <p>This study aimed at investigating the nature oflow-income Jandlords and their scale of operations in the housing market in Dar es Salaam City. The study also aimed at investigating the conditions of renta! housing provided by the low-income landlords and the consttaints they face in the provision of that renta! housing. Primary data was obtained after conducting a survey of rented houses provided in three low-income settlements; interviews were carried out with landlords, tenants, and intermediaries or "dalalis" who conduct business in the renta! housing market. Also officiais responsible for housing delivery in Tanzania were interviewed.&nbsp;Participant observation was also used to get primary data. Secondary data was obtained by going through various documents which include project documents, research papers, annual reports, government plans and documents, survey results, newspapers, academic books, journals, computer data files and statistical records. Findings show that poverty is common among low-income landlords. Rentai incarne is used by landlords mainly to meet domestic needs and for maintenance of their housing to stem obsolescence. Very few landlords use renta! incarne to expand their housing. These findings imply that the scale of operation of landlordism in lowincome settlements in Dar es Salaam City is at a subsistence (survival), as opposed to, an accumulative level. The research found that the low-income landlords provide rentai housing by converting their owner-occupied houses. The main factors motivating the landlords to rent out their owner-occupied houses are the demand for housing and the possibility of generating incarne. Our findings indicate that the low-income landlords provide renta! housing of poor quality. Lack of sufficient finance is the biggest constraint causing the landlords to provide renta! housing of poor quality. This is as a result of low rents, high maintenance costs and low incarne from other activities undertaken by the landlords. The landlords are not currently faced with the constraint ofland inaccessibility. In order to alleviate the problem of shortage of finance faced by the lowincome landlords, in summary the study made the following four recommendations: (i) There is a need for the landlords to get financial loans from the financial institutions; (ii) There is a need for the Landlords Association as an NGO to be strengthened financially so that it can provide financial loans to members (landlords); (iii) Reliable and strong rotating credit associations, ("upatu") should be formed and (iv) Strategies that take into account the reduction of poverty of the landlords and tenants should be designed The conclusion emphasizes implementation of the above recommendations in order to eliminate the problem of shortage of finance faced by the landlords so that they can improve the quality of their housing.</p> Rashidi Kiduanga Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Psychosocial determinants of abnormal sexual behaviours and the efficacy of behavioural psychotherapy : a study of the Nigerian clergy and catholic reverend sisters <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> IDAHOSA, Mary Clare Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Implication des jeunes dans la gouvernance locale au Mali et ses limites : cas des communes VI de Bamako, de San et de Bandiagara <p>Cette recherche a pour objectif d’analyser les formes et les degrés de participation des jeunes dans le développement local dans les communes urbaines de Bandiagara, de San et la Commune VI du district de Bamako. Elle s’appuie sur une approche essentiellement qualitative basée sur l’analyse documentaire, les entretiens individuels et l’observation participante. La jeunesse est une catégorie sociale politiquement construite dont les bornes sont élastiques. Au Mali, elle s’est construite en même temps que les politiques d’édification de la nation. Les régimes de Modibo Keita et de Moussa Traoré ont mis en place des outils politiques qui consistaient à encadrer, contrôler et utiliser les jeunes pour parvenir à la construction nationale et au développement. Semaines de la jeunesse, Biennales artistiques, culturelles et sportives en étaient des cadres de mise en oeuvre. Le régime socialiste de Modibo Keita avait une proximité avec les jeunes. Moussa Traoré était distant et répressif avec les associations et mouvements de jeunesse qui ont activement participé à son renversement en mars 1991. L’arrivée de nouveaux dirigeants à la tête de l’Etat a fait nourrir l’espoir d’une formation de qualité et d’un plein emploi pour la jeunesse. Ce fut une désillusion. Le niveau scolaire des jeunes s’est constamment baissé, à cause de la politique de l’Etat et des grèves répétées des élèves/étudiants et des enseignants. Nombreux sortent de l’école sans diplôme. Ceux qui en obtiennent, éprouvent d’énormes difficultés à trouver un emploi. Les dispositifs mis en place par l’Etat pour absorber le chômage sont limités par manque de cohérence et de complémentarité. Face à cette faiblesse, les jeunes se regroupent en association. En 2012, on dénombrait 2147 associations. Dépourvues de moyens, celles-ci se contentent d’activités ponctuelles. Diplômé ou non, chacun construit son parcours professionnel. Certains deviennent des modèles de réussite grâce à l’entrepreneuriat privé, marquant l’émergence de jeunes autonomes au niveau local. N’ayant pas accès aux espaces officiels pour exprimer leurs idées politiques, les jeunes se retrouvent au grin et font de cet espace un lieu politique où l’on critique l’Etat et les hommes<br>qui le gèrent. A niveau local, avec la décentralisation, chaque citoyen a la possibilité de participer à la gestion locale à travers l’élection des conseillers. Plusieurs jeunes s’y engagent. L’analyse des candidatures et des résultats montre qu’ils ne parviennent pas à se faire élire à cause de leur inexpérience, du manque de moyens financiers et de leur statut de cadet social. Aux élections communales de 2009, 58,33 % en Commune VI de Bamako, 41 % à San et 33 % des candidats à Bandiagara étaient jeunes. Aux résultats, ceux-ci ont obtenu 10,34 % des postes de conseillers à pouvoir à San, 7 % en Commune VI de Bamako et n’ont obtenu aucun poste à Bandiagara. Face à cet échec, les jeunes investissent les espaces politiques non officiels. Certains leaders s’engagent dans des contestations populaires pour défendre les intérêts communautaires.</p> KARAMBE, Youssouf Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Inflationary finance and the dynamics of inflation in Tanzania <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> KILINDO, Ali Al Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 The Economic Burden of Malaria in Kenya: a Household-Level Investigation <p>The economic impact of malaria on households and individuals is increasingly becoming a subject of considerable interest to researchers and policy makers. A vailable evidence indicates that malaria endemic countries stand to lose billions of dollars in national income to malaria morbidity and mortality. In Kenya, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity, accounting for 19 percent of hospital admissions and 50% of outpatient cases in public health institutions. Despite the devastating effects of malaria, there exists little empirical evidence on the economic burden of the disease. This thesis sought to estimate the economic burden of malaria at the household level, and simulate economic effects of malaria control investments on farm output and household incomes. The data used for the study was obtained from the welfare monitoring surveys conducted by the Government of Kenya, Ministry of Planning and National Development. Structural models of crop production, household income and wages were estimated to measure the economic burden of malaria, controlling for other covariates in these models. In all the models, malaria is endogenous but valid instruments are used to vary it exogenously. The estimation results show that malaria imposes large economic burdens on households in Kenya. In some seasons households lost up to 70% of their crop output and almost 93 % of their income to malaria in the early 1990s. Moreover, the results show that the economic burden due to malaria is substantially greater than the burden imposed by other diseases. An important finding of this thesis is that government expenditures on malaria control and schooling has a significant mitigating effect on malaria burden. Thus, malaria control activities can significantly contribute to poverty reduction in malarious environments in the country. Indeed, investments in malaria control programmes have large economic returns. The explanation for, these returns is that malaria control makes an immediate contribution to output or income by increasing the quantity and quality of labour, primarily through reductions in morbidity, debility, and absenteeism from work.</p> KIOKO, Urbanus Mutuku Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Etat et tendances évolutives de la flore et de la végétation de la réserve spéciale botanique de Noflaye (Environs de Dakar-Sénégal): eléments pour un aménagement <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> ILBOUDO, Jean-Baptiste Marie Hubert Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Famille urbaine et émigration illégale à Saint-Louis: incidence des transferts d’argent sur les modes de vie des familles d’origine Année <p>Ces deux dernières années ont vu naître un phénomène nouveau dont les conséquences<br>fatales ont choqué les citoyens sénégalais et la communauté internationale. Des milliers de<br>personnes ont péri en mer dans des embarcations de fortune qui quittaient les côtes<br>sénégalaises vers les Iles Canaries en Espagne. Dans ce périple risqué et suicidaire, certains<br>des émigrés clandestins ont été interceptés dans les eaux mauritaniennes et marocaines tandis<br>que d’autres ont pu accéder dans les terres espagnoles escortés souvent par les garde-côtes. Ils<br>séjournaient dans les camps de réfugiés mais certains d’entre eux étaient libérés pour servir<br>dans des unités agricoles et industrielles espagnoles avec des documents de régularisation et<br>de permis de séjour. Ainsi ces clandestins pouvaient gagner leur vie et aider leurs parents. Ce<br>qui fut un des objectifs de départ. Maintenant, il serait important de voir la nécessité de ce<br>déplacement pour ces familles qui attendent beaucoup de ces jeunes partis clandestinement<br>pour des réponses à leurs situations difficiles et peu reluisantes. En effet, les migrants<br>préfèrent la souffrance à la honte de revenir sans être allé jusqu’au bout de leur aventure.<br>Ainsi la souffrance n’a cependant rien changé à leur détermination.</p> FALL, Zeynou Abidine Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Women and community A dynamic specification of aggregate money demand function in Nigeria : 1960- 1995credit in southwestern Nigeria <p>This study has attempted to determine the nature of the demand for money relationship by presenting an alternative statistical evidence consistent with the existence of a long run money demand function and find if there existed a stable long run money demand function for more than three and a half decades in Nigeria. Data series employed were gathered from various sources such as CBN publications notably; Statistical Bulletin, Economic and Financial Review and Monthly and Annual Reports and Statement of Accounts for various years and the publication of<br>International Monetary Fund such as International Financial Statistic Yearbook. Models were developed through the adoption of Cointegration and ErrorCorrection Mechanism (ECM) techniques. The time series property of quarterly data employed were first of · all investigated. This was then followed by testing for cointegrated variables which appear in the aggregate money demand models using the sample period from 1960 to 1995. Based on the time series property of data used, the results clearly indicate that the tests failed to reject the null hypothesis that these variables are non-stationary except for inflation rate. It was found also that long run equilibrium relationship existed between<br>nominal ( or real) money stock and nominal ( or real) income. However, it is difficult to establish cointegration _ among all the variables of money demand function over the sample period. The evidence also shows that real Ml and M2 balances are cointegrated with real income. This implies that there exists a stable long run demand function for real Ml and M2 balances as a function of real income and other explanatory variables. The maintained hypothesis is that money demand in Nigeria has remained stable, but the dynamic adjustment processes are more complex than those presented in most earlier studies</p> FOLORUNSO, Benjamin Ayodele Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Rehabilitation Programme for the Socially Deviant Adults: A Case Study of Nsukka Prisons <p>The need to rehabilitate socially deviant adults has always been one of the major cencerns of social workers and<br>government agencies involved in the social welfare programmes. This work is therefcre designed to examine and evaluate the administration of re~:abilitatinn programme for the socially devi,mt adults 61f Nsukka prisons of r::nugu state. The researcher _through .. the effective deployment of the necessary tools for data collection amassed enough data that enabled him to come to the relevant findings about the topic. The prison adminis~rators through the effective integration of the interest and pers~,nal opinion of the inmates worked ut adequate rehabilitation programme for the prison 5.nmates. Unf•i,rtunately due to financial constraints and administrative lapses "this pregramme is found to be ·. less functional. Th? researcher considers the introduction of m0re programmes that are relevant to the previous job expe~ience..s l'Jf the prisoners very vital if meaningful and lasting rehabilitation exercise is .intended. This programme S.hfU!ld be ·weJ..ded int-, an enabling environment adequate soe1al structures for effective vecational training. A sustainable reha.bili tation programme iS a mirage if the prograrrane is not sufficiently funded and launched ®O ,adeq, ,qual1fied manpower base.</p> EZEUGWU, Hyginus Chukwuka Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 UNE ETUDE ECONOMIQUE DE L'IMPACT DUPROGRAMME DE REFORME DU SOUS-SECTEUR ENGRAIS (PRSSE) SUR LES ARABICULTEURS DU VILLAGE BAMOUGOUM, PROVINCE DE L'OUEST <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> NANHOU YOUKOUJOUO Virginie Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Analyse des incidences géographiques liées aux projets VN et PZGC sur la grande côte : les cas de Lompoul sur mer et Potou sur mer <p>Le Sénégal dispose d’un littoral de « plus de 700 Km »1 allant du nord au sud du pays.<br>Ce littoral est divisé en trois zones : le Littoral Nord ou la Grande Côte qui va de<br>l’embouchure du fleuve Sénégal à la presqu’île du Cap Vert, le « Petit Littoral »2 ou la Petite<br>Côte allant « de Bargny à la Pointe de Sagomar »3 et le Littoral Sud (dénommé la Côte sud)<br>qui continue jusqu’à Oussouye (à Ziguinchor), excepté la partie située en territoire gambien.<br>La Grande Côte s’étend environ sur 185 km de long, avec une largeur variant entre 5<br>et 15 km.</p> FAYE, Ndiara Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Autorités traditionnelles et gestion de l’environnement. La loi des ancêtres pour le développement local <p>Dans la plupart des pays, il existe des communautés qui ont établi des systèmes coutumiers de gestion des plans d'eau, des forets, des terres agricoles, etc., qui réussissent souvent à conjuguer harmonieusement l'équité et la justice sociale, l'efficacité, la durabilité et la conservation de la biodiversité. On peut citer comme exemples le système local d'aménagement des pêches dans les plaines inondables du fleuve Logone au Tchad et au Cameroun (C. A. DRIJVER, J. C. J. VAN WETTEN et W. DE GROOT, 1995), les systèmes traditionnels de gestion des terres et des forets dans le comté de Nagot au Bénin (ONIBON, 1995) et des systèmes locaux relativement communs de gestion du bois de feu nécessaire à la cuisine et autres usages domestiques dans la savane soudano-guinéenne du Sahara méridional (J. D. KEITA, 1985). Ces systèmes traditionnels de gestion des ressources naturelles se fondent sur des cadres institutionnels et réglementaires bien adaptés aux conditions sociales et environnementales de leurs milieux respectifs...</p> NANA Ezaï Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Perception and Knowledge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (Aids) among selected Secondary school students in Lagos Metropolis <p>There is a growing concern in the world about the rising number of deaths resulting from HIV <br>infection. That Nigeria is engulfed is ,. no longer news. But what can be done especially among the <br>productive segments of the population (like students) in order to educate and thus prevent and <br>modify AIDS-provoking behaviours, adopt safer sex activities and remove the misconceptions and <br>fears about the scourge? This is the kernel of this study.<br>The research was conducted over a twenty week period. It was aimed at perusing and analysing the <br>perception and knowledge of selected secondary school students in Lagos Metropolis towards AIDS and <br>people infected with HIV. We also tried among others, to study the students' level of sexual <br>activities and their knowledge of contraceptive devices which have manifest and unintended <br>consequences for the spread of HIV infection.<br>The study drew its sample from a mixed comprehensive secondary school in Lagos State. The sample <br>size was 150 out of about 1500 students in the school. The research instruments included question­ <br>naire and focus group study guide. The students' school register was used as the sampling frame. It <br>is an up to date 11st. The students in the Senior Secondary arms of the school were selected by <br>multi­ stage sampling technique. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested using(chi-square <br>statistics. Contingency co-efficient was employed to measure the strength of the association. The <br>four hypotheses<br>were validated by the empirical data. The results were presented and the implications of the study <br>stressed.<br>It is argued that there is a need ta intensify and develop more appropriate educational programmes <br>concerning AIDS prevention strate­ gies among students in schools. These must be included in their<br>syllabi</p> BADRU, Fatai Adesina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Parents' and teachers' attitude towards young children's play <p>This study sought to find out parents' and teachers' attitude towards young children's play. Two hypotheses and twelve research questions were used to investigate the relationship that exists between gender, location, . occupation, level of education and the attitude of parents' and teachers' towards young children's play. The study design was correlational. A<br>multistage sampling method was used to select 744 parents and 144 teachers in 6 primary schools and 4 nursery schools in 2 local government areas of former Abia State. A questionnaire was used for data·collection. Frequencies, Means, Standard Deviations, Spearman Correlation Coefficient product and multiple regression were used to analyse the data. Among the findings are that: 1 Parents and teachers have a negative attitude towards young children's play. 2 There is a significant relationship between parents' gender and their attitude towards young children's play. In the case of teachers there was no<br>significant relationship in all the variables. It was recommended, among others, that parents and teachers should find time to participate in young children's play. Also the Federal and State Ministry of Education, the Education Authority, Nigeria Union of Teachers and World Organisation of Early Children Education (OMEP) should organise conferences, seminars and workshops for sensitizing training parents and teachers to the role of play in the overall development of children. The implications for teacher education programmes were discussed.</p> IBIAM, Juliana Ude Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 The impact of the directorate of food, roads and rural infrastructures (DFRRI) on rural development administration in Nigeria: a case study of Enugu state, 1986-1993 <p>The main objective of this study is to make an in-depth empirical study aimed at ascertaining the impact of the directorate of Foods, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) on rural development administration in Nigeria. To accomplish this task, Enugu State with a total of two hundred and forty nine (249) autonomous communities<br>was chosen as the area for the case study. Our choice for Enugu State is based on the deep-seated development consciousness of the people of the state and their receptivity to government sponsored rural development efforts such as DFRRI. The efficiency and effectiveness ofDFRRI as an instrument of rural development in the state was critically ex-rayed in this study through extensive inquiry into its activities as it affects rural roads, water supply, electricity and general enhancement of agricultural productivity. We also identified the problems which act as obstacles to rural development role ofDFRRI. The data collection methods used are analysis of records, and documents, field observation of the directorate's projects in the state, interviews of members of staff of the directorate as well as some community leaders, distribution of questionnaires to a representative sample of the community leaders of some autonomous communities in the state and the directorate's senior members of staff in the state. Our findings show that the Directorate of Foods, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) has not made any remarkable impact in the area of rural development such as the construction of access roads, provision of portable drinking water, electrification of the rural areas ofEnugu State as well as general enhancement of agricultural productivity in the state. We also found that the inability of the directorate to accomplish its rural development aspirations is as a result of obvious constraints ranging from poor finances, lack of qualified manpower and tools, poor ideological under pinnings to apathy to participation on the part of the rural dwellers facing it.</p> EZEH, Damian Chubah Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Agricultural Productivity and Rural-Urban Migration: The Case of Senegal <p>Rural-urban migration in Sub-Saharan African c9untries has been increasing since the 1960s. ln Senegal, it has been growing at a rate of 7 % per year from 1961 to 1996. The labour market in the modem industrial and service sectors is so depressed that urban workers face high rates of unemployment and poverty and live in hard conditions in the fringe urban sector. This study was aimed at examining policies to reduce rural-urban migration using selected agricultural investments.<br>Based on a recursive system of equations,. rural-urban migration elasticities from agricultural inputs were estimated. The model combined a CobbDouglas agricultural production equation and rural-urban migration equation which has the agricultural output as an explanatory variable. The period of study is 36 years, from 1961 to 1996.<br>The findings support hypothesis that rural-urban migration is a positive function of the urban-rural wage ratio, proxied by the ratio of the urban per capita incarne to the rural per capita incarne. lt al~o justifies the foundation of a policy aimed at reducing rural-urban migration flows by increasing per capita earnings.<br>by means of increased agricultural investments. The .results show that 1 % increase of fertiliser and infrastructure capital will increase agricultural output by 0.2 % or 0.28. % respectively, which lowers rural-urban migration by 2 % in the case of fertiliser and 3.2 % in the other case. If we can extrapolate these results, fertiliser and infrastructure need to be increased respectively by 36 % and 32 % to reduce rural-urban migration to 2 %, the level of industrial labour demand.</p> NDARISHIKANYE, Barnabé Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Linguistic tagging and ideology in selected english-medium Nigerian and Cameroonian newspaper reports on the Bakassi Peninsula border conflict <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> IGWEBUIKE, Ebuka Elias Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Assessment of the Implementation of Selected Aspects of the Blueprint on Guidance and Counselling in Nigerian Secondary Schools <p>This study assesses the implementation of selected aspects of the Blueprint on Guidance and Counselling in Nigerian secondary schools. Eighteen research questions guided the study and six major hypotheses were formulated and tested. Aspects of the descriptive statistics were used to find out the extent of the implementation of the main variables and chi square statistical method was employed in the analysis of the research hypothesis. Six thousand, three hundred and eighty seven public secondary schools constituted the population of the study, out of which one hundred and sixty eight respondents were<br>sampled out using purposive sampling technique. Some of the findings reveal that there is low implementation of the administrative aspects in all the studied schools which cut across various categories of the public secondary schools in Nigeria (co-education, single sex male and female, day and boarding, junior and senior secondary schools, states&nbsp; and the geo political zones).With regards to financing aspect also there was low level implementation in Nigerian secondary schools. The same<br>situation exists in respect of the evaluative aspects of the Blueprint in terms of its implementation in Nigerian secondary schools. Differences were observed with regards to the implementation of the three aspects among states of the federation as well as the geo-political zones and various categories of the sampled schools. It is hereby recommended that Guidance and Counselling activities should be made functional through providing facilitative environment in which both teaching and<br>non teaching staff should be fully mobilized to take part in guidance and Counselling activities; adequate facilities need to be provided; capacity building must be encouraged on the part of Counsellors; financial backing is highly needed to improve the standard of the Guidance and Counselling services in Nigerian Secondary Schools.</p> ILIYASU, Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Contribution à une anthropologie du pouvoir et de l'intégration nationale en afrique : de la rébellion touareg à une nouvelle nation au mali <p>La rébellion touareg peut être considérée comme une lutte, à la fois violente et subtile de reconfiguration du paysage politique du pays. Cette rébellion procède d'une double crise: crise de l'Etat "importe", perçu essentiellement comme indigénisé par les Bambara et comme lieu d'enrichissement, e)(cluant non seulement les minorités Arabo-berbères mais aussi l'impossibilité de toute alternance, autrement que par la violence; crise aussi d'une jeunesse Arabo-berbères "mobilisée" en rupture d'allégeance avec l'ordre traditionnel, mais sans pour autant être parvenue à s'insérer dans le "monde moderne". Cette nouvelle conflictualité s'inscrit au coeur du débat et des enjeu)( politiques; elle pose la question de la réorganisation des relations interethniques et du partage du pouvoir. Au-delà, elle montre que si l'appartenance ethnique est un fait social, tout être humain crée sa culture à l'intérieur d'une communauté qui se définit par opposition aux autres. Tel est le point de<br>rencontre entre les conflits de seconde génération et les mouvements dits ethniques. Ces conflits, qui s'originent du "bas", sont porteurs d'espoirs; a moins qu'il y ait un élargissement démocratique du pouvoir, une garantie des droits ethniques et collectifs, une société civile et une gouvernance des hommes et des choses, ainsi_ qu'une répartition équitable des ressources, ces conflits ne sauraient se réduire au minimum.</p> KEMBO-SURE, Edward Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 The Impact of Structure and Policy Variables on Profitability Performance of Selected Commercial Banks in Nigeria : 1980-1990 <p>The aim of this study is to test empirically the structure-performance (S-P) hypothesis and find out the factors that determine profitability within the institutional context of the Nigerian Commercial Banking system. The study utilized annual time-series data collected from five selected commercial banks over the eleven consecutive<br>years from 1980 to 1990. To fulfil its aimj a bank profitability model is formulated under the methodological<br>guidelines of the existing studies. The study did not present any empirical evidence in support of the 5-P hypothesis. However, the deposit mix appeared as a potentially influencial factor in the bank profitability relation.</p> FASEUN, Iyabo Paulina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Economics of cocoyam production by small-holder farmers in ihite/uboma local Socialization, Social class and Marital Violence: a Study of Wife Abuse in Nsukka <p>11here is a grm'ling increase in family violence in Nigeria, and in particular incidence of wi:fe abuse .. Yet, the Nigerian· ·society has not developed serious concern to the plight of women who are abused by their spouses. The Federal, State and :10cal governmen·l;s do not channel enough resources and e fforts to allevlate the problem. Because of the rise in wi:fe abuse cases and the lack of public interest, it is important to arouse public interest on the matter by collecting and disseminating information on the nature, causes and effects of wife abuse, and to determine what can be done by the governmsnt, professional. social workers.mnd the general public to check the incidence. Such istl the goal of the present study. rhe stUdy was based on a sample survey of 580 ma.rried .rnr::n and women out of sore t, 316 case of wife abuse reported to the Nst!.ltka '"-lot~ttl government Social Welfare agency 1Jetween 1985 and 1991 • The instrument comprised of both the structured questionnaire and the interview schedule aimed at finding : · ( i) wheth~;· family violence is a behaviour learned in the family and transmitted across generations, and (ii) the relationship</p> EZEAH, Peter Chukwuma Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 INFRASTRUCTURES SANITAIRES ET RECOURS AUX SOINS DE SANTE CHEZ LES FEMMES ENCEINTES EN AFRIQUE SUBSAHARIENNE : APPROCHE BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE <p>The layer woman in Sub-Saharan Africa is daily confronted with difficulties of all kinds. The maternal mortality rate which is higher than anywhere else in the world is a serious problem.<br>This literature survey of infrastructures resort and health care among pregnant women has helped to highlight the unequal distribution of health facilities, poor delivery of health services and unequal access of the women to biomedical care.<br>After a review of the literature on the subject, this work examines the socio-economic factors which are sources of diseases. Finally, we have deep investigations in a process that is part of the doctoral work.</p> NAMORO Rakiatou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Towards a Theory of Otherness in Contemporary African Women's Autobiography <p>The study examined the thematic concerns, narrative strategies and the influence of national and familial histories on contemporary African women's autobiography. It examined the approach of these women to gender issues and the various ways in which they demystify cultural beliefs that are against the self-actualisation of African women. It analysed the positive and favourable portraiture of African women's otherness in autobiography thrÔugh their deployment of the power of the subject-narrator. This was with the view to proposing an alternative approach to reading the construction ofselfand other in contemporary African women's autobiography. Three fictional and three non-fictional autobiographies were selected for analysis. Texts were selected from African women 's autobiographies published between 1996 and 2007 to reflect, 10· some extent, the multiple geographical locations and ideological persuasions, linguistic, cultural and historical divergences of women writers of autobiography in Africa. The fictional texts were Calixthe Beyala's Your Nome Shall be Tanga from Francophone Central Africa, Akachi Adiniora-E-zeigbo's Children of the Eagle from Anglophone West Africa and._ Sindiwe Magona's Molher 10 Molher from Southern Africa. Non-fictional texts included Nawal El Saadawïs A Daughter of Isis from North Africa, Wambui Otieno's Mau Mau·., Daughler. A life Hislory from East Africa and Tendayi Westerhofs Un/ucky in love from Southern Africa.<br>The narrative styles employed by these writers to underline their otherness or difference from men, and other wo111en were analysed under two broad categories; vocality and resistance as markers of otherness and female bonding and representations of motherhood as divergent modes of constructing otherness. Postcolonial and feminist theories were used to interpret these texts. The results revealed that these women narrated life stories based on the concept that they were unique individuals as the olso discourse of the Yoruba of South-western Nigeria.</p> HUNSU, Folasade Oyinlola Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Insertion de l'économie marocaine dans la mondialisation de la communication : enjeux et perspectives : annexes <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Bahia KHAIROUNE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Language, culture and communication: the role of swahili taarab songs in Kenya, 1963-1990 <p>This study explores the formai, thematic and socio-cultural attributes that have contributed to the molding of Swahili .llw:llb songs into a viable medium of sociopolitical communication in contemporary Kenya. The analysis is mainly descriptive and utilizes the sociopolitical and stylistic theoretical perspectives expounded by Terry Eagleton and Emmanuel N gara as well as insights from the speech-act theory outlined by Elizabeth Traugott and Mary Pratt . The corpus of the songs analyzed was collected during various field research trips between 1985-1991 and are composed by both male and female artists from Kenya's coastal city, Mombasa. The approaches used include both formai and informai interviews as well as the observer-participant method. The predominant themes conveyed through the songs and the stylistic attributes are discussed. The stùdy also critically examines the sociopolitical and cultural role played by Swahili Wlrllh in contemporary Kenya. The study concludes that although 1llilDU2 was borrowed into the Swahili culture from Arab and oriental cultures, its contemporary forrn and idiom is closely related to and draws from such forms as wjmbo, .slll!iri. n~njera and other traditional Swahili poetic forms. In addition, taarab provides a useful source of archaic Swahili vocabulary and an important avenue for mass communication. The study calls for the formulation of a national cultural policy that promotes the effective use and development of the tamh and other indigenous media of mass communication.</p> KING'EI, Geoffrey Kitula Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Personal Disposition and Future Oriented Motivation of Obafemi Awolowo University Students <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Basée sur l'hypothèse qu'il existe de grandes différences individuelles </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">dans la capacité de toutes les personnes à s'orienter vers l'avenir, cette étude </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">a cherché à explorer et à décrire comment les Nigérians conçoivent leur avenir. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">relation entre la disposition personnelle et l'orientation future est médiatisée par </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">plusieurs variables de contrôle telles que l'âge, le sexe, le niveau d'instruction et la religiosité. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Cinq grandes hypothèses ont été proposées pour expliquer les relations possibles entre </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ces variables. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ces grandes hypothèses globales ont été brisées par des postulats subsidiaires </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">qui reliaient les variables indépendantes et de contrôle aux quatre </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">dimensions dans lesquelles l'orientation future était analysée.</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La méthode d'enquête transversale a été utilisée pour l'étude. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Un </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">échantillon pratique et raisonné a été tiré de l'Obafemi. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Communauté universitaire d'Awolowo </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Trois principales échelles papier-crayon d'auto-évaluation ont été utilisées pour </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">recueillir des données qualitatives et quantitatives pour l'étude. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Pour faciliter le codage </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">des données qualitatives, un manuel de codage a été rédigé. </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les données recueillies ont été analysées au moyen des différents sous-programmes </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">du SPSS PC+ Version 4.01. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les résultats de ces analyses </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">suggèrent que la majeure partie de la variance de l'orientation future est due </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">à l'âge. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les autres variables - la disposition personnelle, le sexe, le niveau d'éducation </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">et la religiosité - se sont révélées être de faibles prédicteurs de l'orientation future. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Le</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">plus les objectifs générés, plus la durée future est longue. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Plus les </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">objectifs étaient éloignés dans le futur, moins les gens se croient capables de </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">les atteindre ou de les empêcher. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Moins les gens ont l'impression de </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">pouvoir exercer une influence personnelle sur la réalisation de leurs objectifs, moins ils ont une vision positive de l' </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">avenir. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les objectifs orientés vers l'avenir et leurs extensions temporelles associées diminuaient </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">avec l'augmentation de l'âge.</span></span></p> IDEHEN, Egbeware Emmanue Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Les cultes africains face aux pouvoirs politicoadministratifs et religieux : le cas du culte Nobi à Etoumbi (cuvette - ouest) République du Congo <p>Le contact entre l'Occident et l'Afrique a non seulement généré les changements socio-économiques et socio-culturels, mais il a également favorisé l'apparition des formes de croyance hybrides qui ont été combattues par les<br>institutions des puissances colonisatrices. Parmi les formes d.e croyance qui ont subi cette persécution, nous citons le culte Ndjobi qui n'est pas uniquement la survivance des pratiques rituelles et initiatiques ancestrales mais aussi un mouvement néo-traditionaliste, c'est-à-dire un mouvement qùi lie à la fois la tradition africaine à la modernité blanche. Le culte Ndjobi, comme un mouvement néo-traditionaliste, est apparu en pleine exploitation coloniale où les anciens cultes a-syncrétiques n'ont pas pu faire face aux nouveaux besoins de sécurité accentués par la présence blanche èn Afrique. Ndjobi est un culte anti-sorcellerie qui a pour mission de combattre la sorcellerie sous toutes<br>ses formes et d'enrayer tous les abus que subissent les acteurs sociaux. Ndjobi, depuis son apparition jusqu'à nos jours, a subi une série de désagréments avec des différents pouvoirs qui se sont succédé au Congo et plus particulièrement à Etoumbi. · Etoumbi est, un ancien centre concessionnaire qui est devenu le pôle d'attraction<br>des populations du Nord Congo et de celles du Sud Gabon dans le cadre de l'économie marchande introduite par les frères TRECHOT propriétaires de la compagnie concessionnaire dénommée : Compagnie Concessionnaire Française du Haut-Congo (C.F.H.C). H .est devenu aussi le lieu de rencontre de deux cultures : la culture africaine et la culture occidentale. L'objet de la présente recherche est d'étudier les rapports conflictuels qui existent entre les cultes africains - en prenant le cas du culte Ndjobi - et les institutions venues de l'Occident. Imposées par la force aux -Africains pendant la période coloniale ces institutions avaient pour . mission, d·'une part, de permettre aux<br>' ' Européens de débarrasser les Africains de «l'obscurantisme fétichiste » et, d'autre part, de les façonner culturellement selon leur modèle ; tout ce travail ayant eu pour objectif majeur d'amener les peuples colonisés à accepter sans résistance aucune ,.• .. la domination coloniale. La résistance et la persistance du rituel Ndjobi en particulier et celles des mouvements néo-traditionalistes en général, justifient l'incapacité des institutions<br>occidentales à faire disparaître l'identité culturelle africaine. L'échec des pouvoirs politico-administratifs et religieux, à s'ériger en Afrique sur les ruines des imaginaires ancestraux, fait que les cultes africains se régénèrent en mouvements traditionalistes pour répondre aux attentes des populations africaines qui, en renonçant à leurs cultes, ne se sont pas retrouvés dans les religions dites révélées; d'où la recrudescence des mouvements néo-traditionalistes.</p> EVOURA, Maurice Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Stratégie de gestion forestière durable en Côte d'Ivoire : étude de cas des systèmes agro-sylvicoles dans la région du centrenord <p>Apres les premieres decennies de l' independance qui ant ete marquees par l'adoption de diverses strategies de developpement, les pays africains observent actuellement une reorientation de politique economique generale. Pour ces pays a economie essentiellement agricole dans un etat de technologie rudimentaire, le constat a ete que la poursuite d'un taux de croissance tres eleve a abouti a une degradation de l'environnement. En Cote d'Ivoire 1' extension des cultures d' exportation, et des cultures vivrieres par l 'agriculture i tinerante, la forte utilisation d' intrants chimiques, et l'exploitation forestiere abusive ont contribue a une forte degradation de 1 'environnement. La dimension la plus touchee est la foret avec un· taux de degradation alarmant (7% par an). Ce qui fragilise les bases de la production agricole, et du developpement economique. Pour y remedier, il faut initier des mesures de gestion alternatives des terres~ Des approches strategiques existent et sont mises en oeuvre, pour une meilleure utilisation des terres forestieres et une meilleure preservation des forets. La SODEFOR (Societe des Forets), est la structure de developpement etatique, chargee de la gestion des forets ivoiriennes. Elle organise des actions de protection et de sauvegarde de la foret selon une approche participative avec les populations rurales. Sa mission nouvelle consiste a developper une strategie de gestion forestiere durable. L'idee est de tourner la page de l'approche repressive de la gestion forestiere, pour integrer les initiatives propres aux populations les plus en contact avec la foret eri vue de degager une plate-forme commune d' organisation et de protection du patrimoine forestier.</p> KOFFI Kouamekan Jean Marcel Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Factors affecting default rate in the informal financial institution in Nsukka agricultural zone of Enugu State <p>The need for this work was to analyse the diff'erent factors that contributed to .the default rate in the Informal Financial Organizations. The main· objectives were to ex.amine the. structure and ~perationa of the institut ions; corrl it ions for obta·ining theae loans; various factors responsible and determine default ratear:d assess how methods of· financing;,. influence borrowing and repayment as well as recovering measures. employed by the institutions. Nsukka agricul tur al zone of Enugu Sta te we. a stud ied. The sample included te n officers of the informal lem.ers and 72 beneficiaries o Data were collected ·us·1ng questionnaires. The resul ts showed that. maj ority of the beneficiaries<br>were males who were middle aged between 402..59 · years. Most: of them were married and educated. The default rate eut accrosS ail the institutions. The findings also showed the informal institutions as an important sources of credit, however, thoc;e wère default in repayment. It also showed that the farmers had positive attitudes towa.rda· loan · &nbsp;repayment especially as they did not want to be dropped out of the institutions.</p> EZE, Benjamin Sunday Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Women and community bank credit in southwestern Nigeria <p>The study was informed by the increasingly significant role played by women in the Nigerian economy and because credit (access to loan facilities) has been a major factor limiting their contributions and productivity. This study therefore examines: the role of community banks in southwestern Nigeria in providing direct access to credit for women; constraints militating against female access to community bank's credit and the effects of community<br>bank's credit on women's income, savings and employment. The data used for the study were derived from primary and secondary sources. The primary data were obtained with the aid of structured and semi-structured questionnaires administered to 273 successful loan applicants and 38 unsuccessful loan applicants of community bank's credit, from purposively selected occupations in Lagos and Ondo states. Secondary data were obtained from each community bank's credit records. Analytical techniques comprising descriptive statistics such as frequency tables and cross-tabulation were used. Chi-square (x2 ) test was used to test for significancies in the relationships of<br>the cross-tabulations. Student T - test was used to test for significancies in the mean values of sales, profits and savings of successful and unsuccessful applicants. Information obtained from the twenty community banks in the<br>sample for this study shows that on the average, the ratio of females (1,188) patronising community banks were less than males ( 1, 954) and women received 2 8. 5% of the total loan disbursed</p> FAWOLE, Ajibola Jelilat Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Crise environnementale et technologie de substitution: impacts des cuisinières scolaires dans la conservation des équilibres écologiques à Ngaye Méckhé dans la région de Thiès <p>La terre est, aujourd'hui, dans notre société industrielle polluée, considérée comme<br>une grande pourvoyeuse de matières premières, exploitées sans merci. Elle fonctionne<br>comme un énorme écosystème global où l'interaction entre l'homme et la nature se fait en<br>permanence dans la recherche d'un équilibre constant qui est aujourd'hui menacé.<br>Ce déséquilibre mondial, noté aujourd'hui, ne se traduit plus seulement par des facteurs<br>naturels anthropiques, mais p;rr une crise énergétique évolutive, une crise alimentaire, ainsi<br>qu'un épuisement chronique des ressources naturelles et humaines. Et cette mutation<br>mondiale se fait sentir de plus en plus à l'échelle continentale, à l'échelle nationale, voire<br>locale.</p> FALL, Abibatou Banda Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Enjeux et limites dans les stratégies de partenariat ONG féminines et femmes du secteur informel : l'exemple de la FDEA et des femmes entrepreneurs de Kaolack <p>Ce travail s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un apprentissage de la recherche sociologique et constitue ainsi un essai de mise en valeur d'un ensemble de connaissances acquises à l'issue de quatre (04) années de formation. Au-delà de cet intérêt majeur, son objectif est de révéler les résultats de l'exploration d'un fait social qui, de nos jours, prend de plus en plus d'ampleur et interpelle forcément tout chercheur. ll s'agit de l'apport d_es femmes dans le processus de développement économique et social. Hier, couche sociale à émanciper, aujourd'hui, groupe à promouvoir, les femmes font une émergence positive dans la vie des nations et sont au front dans tous les combats. Ce thème a reçu les encouragements du Conseil pour le Développement de la Recherche Economique et Sociale (CODESRIA) qui lui a fait bénéficier de son programme de petites subventions pour la rédaction de mémoires et de thèses 1998. Nous saisissons l'opportunité offerte par cette page pour remercier spécialement cet organisme pour l'intérêt qu'il a manifesté pour notre travail. Nous signalons aussi, que nous avons délibérément choisi d'adopter les normes<br>bibliographiques et de citations de cette institution pour rédiger ce présent document.</p> FAYE, Ndèye Nafissatou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Etude de la filière bois de feu : analyse des circuits d'approvisionnement et de commercialisation au Sud-Bénin <p>Dans l'ensemble des menaces qui pesent aujourd'hui sur le Tiers Monde, la degradation de l'environnement consecutif a<br>1~ destruction du couvert forestier occupe une place considerable. En effet dans plusieurs pays en voie de developpement, ce phenomene est accelere par 1-a-collticte du boi.. principal combustible domestique utilise dans les menages. Ce combustible est precedemment obtenu a travers des prelevements effectues dans les formations vegetales naturelles. Sous l 'effet des sollici tations trap frequentes liees a la demande sans cesse croissante des populations humaines en progression geometrique, ces formations caracterisees par une faible regeneration naturelle sont aujourd'hui menacees de disparition.<br>Au niveau de plusieurs pays et particulierement en Republique du BENIN, cette situation constitue la preoccupation de bon nombre d'acteurs de developpement. C'est le cas particulier du Projet Plantations Bois de Feu dans le SUD-BENIN<br>( PBF) qui vise a resoudre les problemes aigus d' approvisionnement en energie domestique en participant a la reduction de la penurie actuelle par un accroissement de l'offre de bois de feu sur les marches du SUD-BENIN a travers des plantations domaniales et rurales. Bon nombre de parcelles plantees depuis plus de cinq ans au volet domanial sont arrivees a maturite economique et vont commencer a etre exploitees pour satistgire..- les besoins _des consommateurs. Pour mieux conduire ces operations, une connaissance approfondie sur la filiere bois de feu depuis l 'exploitation jusqu'a la consommation finale s'avere necessaire. C'est dans ce cadre qu'il a ete choisi d'etudier et d'analyser les circuits d'approvisionnement et de commercialisation du bois de feu au SUD-BENIN. L 'objectif principal de cette etude est de fournir suffisamment d'information sur la filiere, d'analyser les circuits d'approvisionnement et de commercialisation du bois de feu au SUD-BENIN et de faire certaines recommandations au PBF dans le cadre de l'exploitation de ses plantations domaniales. Les investigations de cette etude ont ete realisees a COTONOU, dans les principales zones rurales qui ravitaillent cette ville en bois de feu (TORI, ZE, ALLADA et TOFFO) et dans les zones abritant les plantations domaniales en exploitation au PBF.</p> HOUNMENOU, Bernard G Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLD POVERTY IN CENTRAL ETIDOPIA: THE CASE OF BEREH-ALELTU DISTRICT <p>Rural poverty is a complex, interlocked and multi-dimensional phenomenon. Different scholars attach different meanings to poverty. This implies that if poverty reduction strategies to be effective, sympathetic of the specific characteristics ofindividual groups are required.</p> <p>In view of this, this study was carried out at Bereh-Aleltu district with the specific objectives of examining the extent of poverty and its detenninants at household level. ln order to attain this aim semi-structured questionnaire was prepared and the survey was undertaken in the three PAs of the district. This questionnaire includes family composition and their characteristics; land <br>use system,·; major agricultural constraints; consumption; expenditure; incarne, public infrastructure and copying mechanisms. To collect the data, two-stage random sampling techniques were employed. In the first stage, three PAs were randomly selected. Then proportionally individuals were randomly selected /rom the respective PAs.</p> <p>For analytical purpose poverty index, descriptive statistics, logit regression model and marginal effect analysis were applied. Accordingly, by using expenditure per adult equivalent approach, the results of the studies reveal that 80% of the sampled populations were immersed in poverty. As well, the poverty gap and severity index were found to be 31% and 12% respectively. Whereas in Food Energy Inta Approach, those indexes are deflated to 70.8%, 25.4% and 9.11% in the order mentioned. <br>Many socio-economics opportunities and constraints were explained with the help of descriptive statistics; and Logit mode[ was used to estimate the probability of being poor having dummy dependant for those household below poverty line valued 1; 0 othenvise. All 11 hypothesized explanatory variables, interestingly, the direction of their association were as expected. The results of logistic regression shows that, the most six significant variables were: productivity of land associated negatively with the probability of being poor (at less than 1% of significance level), tropical livestock unit per AE associated negatively with the probability of being poor (at less than 5% of significance level), total family size in adult equivalent associated positively with the probability of being poor (at less than 10% of significance Level), non farm income per houselwld associated negatively with the <br>probability of being poor (at less than 10% of significance level), dummy of education to complete at least primary school associated negatively with the probability of being poor (at less than 10% of significance level), and number ofyears modem agricultural inputs were used associated negatively with the probability of being poor (at less than 10% of significance level).</p> <p>Shockingly, the probability of falling in to poverty was found to be 0.998. Nevertheless, when we observe the marginal effects of significant explanatory variables, above ail, promotion of education, say from illiteracy to primary level, reduces poverty by half. Alike, increasing of TLU/AE has likelihood to reduce poverty by 7.418%. In like manner, increasing productivity of land, the use of modem agricultural inputs, and non farm incarne opportunity have a negative marginal effect on poverty by 4.523%, 1.3% and 0.032% respectively.</p> ADANE NABSO FUFA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 The Collapse of Igbo Traditional Society in Achebe's Two Novels : Things Fall Apart and Arrow of God <p>Abstract</p> FALL, Cheikh Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 LE RAVITAILLEMENT DE LA VILLE DE DAKAR DE 1902 À 1945 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Mor NDAO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Analysis of Fertility Dynamics in Nigeria: Exploration into Fertility Preference Implementation <p>While studies have indicated the onset of fertility transition in Nigeria as in most SubSaharan countries, no systematic attempt has been made to identify the factors responsible for this trend. Existing explanation tends to draw from the demographic transition theory without exploring the value of other key variables. One of these variables is the degree of preference implementation. This study explores the role of fertility preference implementation on the onset of fertility transition in Nigeria. The study estimated the extent to which couples have been able to implement their fertility preferences with a view to better understand the factors that are responsible for the fertility changes in the country. This study was based on the socio-economic and microeconomic frameworks of fertility namely: the Bongaarts et al (1984) version and its Stover's reformulation (1998) of the proximate determinants of fertility and the Bongaarts (1993) supplydemand framework for the analysis of the determinants of fertility, respectively. The proximate determinant of fertility frameworks holds that all demographic, socioeconomic,<br />cultural, institutional, psychological, health and environmental factors (background variables) operate through the proximate or intermediate variables to affect fertility. The Bongaarts (1993) supply-demand framework posits that fertility (F) as measured by total fertility rate is an outcome of the interaction of supply of births (natural fertility), demand for births (wanted fertility) and degree of fertility preference implementation (an index, which measures the extent to which people have been able to implement their fertility preferences). The degree of preference implementation is in turn dependent on cost of fertility regulation and that of unwanted childbearing. The husbands' family planning attitude and desired number of children were incorporated into the latter framework to recognize and bring out the crucial roles of the males in eventual fertility outcomes. The 1990, 1999 and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets for men, women and couples were used. The methodology of the three NDHS is not too different from each other. They are nationally representative cross-sectional survey of women between the ages of 15 and 49 in 1990, 1999 and 2003 and men between 15 and 64 in 1999 and 15-59 in the 2003 survey. Twenty-four focus group discussions were also conducted among the sexes across the country to gain better insight and understanding into the issues examined. Focus group research is based on · facilitating an organized discussion with a group of individuals selected because the were believed to be representative of some class. The discussion is used to bring out insights and understandings in ways, which cannot be captured by questionnaire. The focus group discussions (FGD) are also national in scope. Participants were drawn from the Northern, South Eastern and South Western regions of the country. The study population consisted of 8,781; 8,199 and 7,620 women aged 15-49 interviewed during the 1990, 1999 and 2003 NDHS, respectively. In addition, 2,584 men aged 15-64 and 2,346 men aged 15-59 interviewed during the 1999 and 2003 NDHS, respectively were used. One thousand, one hundred and sixty-eight (1,168) couples' records derived from the 2003 NDHS and 1,280 (constructed) couples' records for 1999 were also used. A total of eighty-nine (89) men and eighty-five (85)<br />women participated in the twenty-four (24) focus group discussion sessions.</p> IBISOMI, Latifat Dasola Gbonjubola Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Economics of millet production under different cropping systems in Borno State of Nigeria <p>Th purpose ofthe study was to cietermine the economics of millet production under different cropping systems in Borno State of Nigeria .. The specific objectives were to identify the socio- economic characteristics of the millet growing farmers; determine the resource use in the cropping , systems; determine the relationship between socio-ecoriomic variables and agricultural outputs of • the farmers; determine ' differences in cost and rèturns among millet ' crop mixtures; estimate production functions for millet cropping systems; compare relative importance and resource use efficiency of common resources used in millet crop mixtures; and identify the major technical and ' · socio-economic problèms of the millet growing farmers .. Data for the study were collected using questionnaire· and interview schedüles administered to 1.80 farmers growing millet in mixtures. ·Thirty six (36) farmers were randomly selected from each of the stratum of the five major millet crop mixtures grown in. the study area; namely; millet/ sorghum, millet/ cowpea, milleygroundnut, . millet/sorghum/cowpea andmillet/sorghum/ groundnut . . Analysis of data was achieved by means of simple descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis, multiple regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square statistfo '()f). The major findings of the study indicate that· educational level of the farmers, resident . household size and number of extensimi workers visits were the major socio-economic variables which positively and significantly affected their outputs as indicated by the linear regressiàn model. Age and farming experience were inversely . related to output. Millet/cowpea mixture was the most profitable, with gross margin of N20,689.03. Food security objective, however, was the major reason for growing millet in mixtures.</p> IHEANACHO, Andrew Chikaodi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Taboo and ethnolinguistic assimilation: the orring case <p>Although taboo is one of the su,bjects that has interested anthropologists from the· ea_i:!iest days of the discipline, nevertheless no researcher has &nbsp;p;revioμsly investigated its place in ethnolinguistic assimilation. The pres~nt ··<br>2 ·stiJdy focussed on taboo in an· effo1t to explain why the Orring traditional religion is the ?nly resilierit domain among a total of four investigated in this ; minority ethnolinguistic group whose clans that live adjacent to the Igbo are found to be assimilating to their numerically s'uperior neighbours. Existing ks also present taboo as a negative in junction on which the ethnic has on &nbsp;binary options of observance or violation. The Orring experience brings to<br>light a third category, avoidance. It is the strategy adopted in .these clans by the Christians who neither want to risk incUi,ing . the consequ~nces of infringement of the taboo nor violate the tenets of their imported faith which<br>· fro...; vns .. at _autochthonous rites as idolatry. I have introduced the three-gate schema. to · try to explain this</p> EZEH, Peter-Jazzy Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 L’IMPACT DU CAPITAL HUMAIN SUR LA CROISSANCE ECONOMIQUE AU TCHAD <p>Our study focuses on the impact of human capital on economic growth in Chad. Since 2003, economic growth has improved with oil. However neither the framework nor the standard of living of the populations they have truly transformed. The population becomes more both in rural and urban areas. Armed conflicts in the country have aggravated the crisis in the country. The social dimensions have not been spared, in this case the education sector.<br>The extreme poverty in which the Chadian population lives justified the choice of this topic. The objective of this work is to assess the impact of human capital through education on economic growth in Chad. Review of the literature on human capital and growth has led us to formulate the following hypothesis: The human capital positively influence national product<br>We estimated a production model in which we have incorporated variables of dull educational enrolment by OLS on the software Eviews. Education has a positive impact on economic growth in Chad corroborating these fact theories of capital and<br>endogenous growth. Given the impact of human capital on economic growth, investment in the education sector will increase economic growth and maintain over a long period.</p> Koulké Blandine NAN-GUER Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 L’approvisionnement en manioc en zone d'Owanda <p>Abstract</p> EYIKILI, François Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Insertion de l'économie marocaine dans la mondialisation de la communication : enjeux et perspectives <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Bahia KHAIROUNE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Labour use on smallholder food and cash crop forms : the case of momo division, North-west province, Cameroon <p>This study investigated labour use on smallholder food (cocoyam) and cash (coffee) crop farms in Momo Division, North-West Province, Cameroon, mainly because of competition for available labour between them in the area.<br>Multi-stage ·random sampling technique was u ed to select six villages and 120 farmers. Pretested questionnaires were administered to these farmers. Descriptive statistics and production function model were used to analyse the data. Results showed that most of the farmers were above 40 years and 58.5 % had no formal education. Farm sizes ranged from l ss than a hectare to approximately four hectares for cocoyam and less than one hectare to seven hectares for coffee. Most (55.2), of the farmers have been farming for over 20 years. Land ownership was mostly</p> <p>_through inheritance. The average number of farm'•fields was 3.4 for cocoyam and 1.6 for coffee. On the aggregate, family labour ranked first followed by exchange/communal labour and labour for the two crops. Women contributed most of the labour· (70.6%) in cocoyam production while men contributed most in coffee production (58.5%).<br>Weeding took 31.4% (highest) of the total labour required for cocoyam production, while harvesting took 52.9% (highest) for coffee production. Mixed cropping is the commonest cropping pattern.</p> FON, Dorothy Engwali Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Economics of cocoyam production by small-holder farmers in ihite/uboma local government area of Imo state, Nigeria <p>study arase from the need for fi.:trthe.t:' invest:igat:1.o·n into the econom:ics of cocoyqm production, i tf:'. pro fi tability, 1~ate of adoption of improved technologies and problem.s of growing the crop bearing in mind its place in the study area as a staple food, source of income and planting materi.aL, six communi ties and .siKi;y respondents were randomly selectede cocoyam field size and ylel'.j from indivicJu,ü farms surveyed were measured.i, Two sets of questionna.ire WE::re used to collect the relevant information. Means 9 percentages, gross margin, benefit - cost ratios, regression and correlation analyses were employed in data analysis. Research resul ts showed that ,:::ocoyam was cul ti vated on oSha out of 1o89ha cultivab,!d by the- sucveyed farmers durin9 the study., women contr:lbuted 66% of the labour lnput used in cocoyam production"'. Onl~ 13% of the respondents used cocoyam mlnisett<br>techniq1..1e to source mate,:lat while :;8% used fe.r.tilizer in cocoyam production~ . though the target crop in a cocoyam based crop mixture was cassavae None of the responde~ts ~sed pesticides, herbicides and improved coc•yam cultivar. ·The non-adoption of these technologies wa.s attrib1Jb:'!d to ~heir ncnavaiJ.ability, and fa.rmers0 belief tha.t they are&gt; devJ;-:i\t::t(.ms from normal practice and therefore could not take the risk~</p> EZE, Christopher Chiedozie Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Relationship between Parental Behaviour Towards Adolescents and their Manifest Aggression in Nairobi Secondary Schools <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of parental behaviour on adolescent manifest aggression in Nairobi Secondary Schools. lt examined whether adolescent aggression was related to: parents' emotional interactions with adolescents, parental supervision, parental methods : of controlling and disciplining adolescents, consistency of parents in enforcing discipline, family interactions and parents' socio-economic status. The study explored whether there were sex differences in manifest aggression of adolescents. The study sample consisted of 672 secondary school students (336 boys and 336 girls) from 6 schools stratified and randomly selected from Nairobi Province. The Chi-square test of significance at the p &lt; 0.05 level was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study showed that: adolescents whose parents were harsh were significantly more aggressive than th~ adolescents whose parents were loving. Adolescents whose parents were neglecting and rejecting were significantly more aggressive than those adolescents whose parents monitored their movements, activities and social contacts. Adolescents whose parents . ùsed punishment and threats were significantly more aggressive than those adolescents whose parents used inductive reasoning and reinforcement. Adolescents whose parents enforced discipline inconsistently were significantly more aggressive than those adolescents whose parents enforced discipline consistently. Adolescents who experienced tension and conflicts in their families were significantly more aggressive than those from harmonious homes. There were significant sex differences in manifest aggression of adolescents. Boys were found to be more aggressive than girls. Parents' socio-economic status did not seem to influence adolescent manifest aggression:</p> KINAI, Theresia Kavuli Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 An Evaluative Study of Child Welfare Services of Adoption in Enugu State <p>This atudy was concerned w1th the evaluation of the Child lllalfara 6orvic1Je1 at' Adoption in 1::nugu State, Tho basic aim of the study was to determine tho adequacy aid effectiveness of adoption ssrvices randerud to the adoptive clients by the Enugu State adaptive agency with "' viilw to identifying the inherent constraints and problems of<br>th,~ agency so as to make suggestions that can facilitatB EJ1d enhEJ1ce the opa1:ation s of tho adoptive agan cy.<br>Thu study covered all the three iJBnatoriBl zones of Enugu state, namely: Enugu, Nsukka and Abakaliki. In order to guide the study, four hypotheses ware teated, Four diffarunt sets of questionnaires were used ta collect data for the<br>study, Thu finding~ of the study showed that the level of services offurud by th,J social worl,ers or the adoptive agency did not enhance thu success of the adoption programme in the State, The objective of "cioption programme, as pur-suBd by the stata adoptive agency wasn r,rro ,., and considerably limi tad the scope of operation of thu<br>u Llnp tion "gen cy. Other major findings of the study are "s follows: ( a) uick of Funds, mabili tv problems, lack of trained social workers und lack of knowledge or what to do greatly constrained the eff'activeness or· adoption programme. ( b) Masses of thn State generally lack awareness, and are largely ignorant about adoption programme due ta ineffective information itrategiea &lt;Tid channels For informing and educating the masses about adoption,<br>(c) Cultural/traditional factors and lack of awareness accounted moro:, For the negative perception of adoption in the state tha, the religioue factors.</p> EZEH, Christian Aniemeka Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Gestion des ordures ménagères à Nouakchott (Mauritanie). <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> KHALIFA, Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Hétérogéneité des niveaux et des modèles de développement et problèmatique de l'intégration régionale au Maghreb <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> HZAINE, El Hassane Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Gender Disparity in Agricultural Production: Implications for Sustainable Food Security in Imo State <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> KANU, Winifred Nwabuaku Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 L'aménagement des zones côtières de la Mauritanie et ses incidences socio-économiques et environnementales sur le littoral : le cas de la nouvelle route Nouakchott-Nouadhibou <p>Depuis que l'environnement est perçu comme contribuant au développement durable, lors de la conférence de Rio de Janeiro au Brésil en juin 1992, il apparaît de plus en plus clair que les questions de « population et qualité de l'environnement sont indissociables au développement socioéconomique durable 1». Il est établi qu'actuellement environ plus de 60% de la population mondiale vit dans des zones côtières qui sont pour la plupart occupées par<br>des grandes villes dont leurs fonctions ne cessent de s'enrichir2. Pour les pays côîiers d'Afrique de l'Ouest, la zone côtière représente un espace de développement d'importance stratégique. C'est là en effet que sont situées les principales agglomérations urbaines et où vivent près de 60% de leur population3 • De ce fait, l'UNESCO et l 'UCAD, à travers le département de géographie ont initié le .. DEA de gestion intégrée et développement durable des régions côtières et des petites îles en vue de former des cadres dans la planification et la gestion des régions côtières pour un développement durable des littoraux ouest africains. Vu l'enjeu socio-économique et environnemental de ce milieu complexe et fragile si convoité, il mérite une attention plus sérieuse et une gestion rationnelle pour mieux orienter son évolution dans le sens de la préservation et de la sauvegarde des ressources naturelles pour le bien être des populations qui y vivent.</p> FALL, Dame Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Jurgen Habermas et les fondements de l'espace public <p>L'espace=public en general et africain en particulier esf sujet a de multiples bouleversements qui aboutissent a des conflits larves ou/et ouverts. Cette pretention guerriere, qui evacue de plus en plus !'existence de l'au'tre en· tant que<br>valeur indeniable et se refuse a embrasser l'horizon pour fonder une veritable theorie democratique, est a la base des mutations que connaissent de nos jours l'Afrique et le monde. En effet, notre travail consiste a reinterroger l'espace public en tant que reseau qui permet de communiquer des contenus et des prises de position dans la societe. S'appuyant sur une analyse lucide de la modemite qui embrasse l'Afrique a vive allure, nous avons voulu montrer que la tache de mediation de la rationalite est non seulement possible, mais essentielle. L'intercomprehension, qui soutend toute communaute communicationnelle, favorise des relations interpersonnelles et sociales depourvues de toute fioriture. La mecommunication, en tant que element declencheur de diverses crises, trouve un debut de solution selon nous dans l'ouverture qui rend possible une redefinition des rapports sociaux, redefinition dont la legitimite puise son fondement dans l'agir communicationnel. ' La complexification des societes africaines pousse a une redefinition des contradictions sociales afin d'entrevoir la possibilite d'un d.iscours rationnel indispensable au fondement et surtout au fonctionnement de la democratie comme gage d'un veritable processus de developpement. Pour cela, ii y a lieu de postuler a une ethique sociale qui mene inexorablement vers une societe emancipee ou la theorie de l'agir communicationnel demeure en son noyau une theorie de la societe en marche ou en mouvement.<br>En filigrane, notre defi etait de montrer que les citoyens des societes africaines, comme ceux de l'Occident industrialise et democratique, sont capables de produire un ordre d'abord democratique a travers leurs discussions<br>dans l'espace public qui debouchent sur un reel consensus; et ce, en redonnant toute sa place a l'idee d'une solidarite et d'une democratie venue d'en bas qu'on ne saurait remplacer sans provoquer une crise du tissu social. . Nous sommes parvenu a la conclusion que l'Afrique a un besoin criard qui pourrait etre le detonateur de tout processus emancipateur : ii s'agit juste d'une crise de conscience de nos realites, bref la culture des ideaux de paix, de democratie et de developpement fondarnentaL Notre veritable essor en depend</p> FOCHIVE, Jeannot Fils Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 A Critique of the Separability Thesis in the Context of an African Jurisprudence <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> IDOWU, William Oluwunmi O Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Bilan de la jurisprudence sénégalaise en matière de licenciements pour motifs économiques <p>Abstract</p> FALL, Moustapha Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 La musique Rap et la socialisation de la jeunesse congolaise : étude menée dans la ville de Kisangani <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> IYELI KATAMU, C. T. Dieudonné Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Les dynamiques d'appropriation de la communication politique sur les places publiques à Kinshasa : fondements, mécanismes et incidences du phénomènes des "parlements debout", République Démocratiques du Congo <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> KEITA, Naffet Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 VARIABLE NUMBER TANDEM REPEAT TYPING OF NON-TUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA ISOLATES IN HUMANS AND ENVIRONMENTS SAMPLES; TRANSMISSION STUDIES IN A BURULI ULCER ENDEMIC DISTRICT IN THE ASHANTI REGION, GHANA. <p>Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) also known as Environmental Mycobacteria (EM) are opportunistic and ubiquitous mycobacteria. Their mode of transmission appears to be dependent on the close proximity of humans with contaminated environments. One subset of NTMs, the Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM); Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii, Mycobacterium liflandii, Mycobacterium xenopi and Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), are of immense importance because of their pathogenicity in causing debilitating ulcers in both animals and man. Possible transmission routes will involve the interplay of the environment and humans.<br>This study aimed to determine and compare strain distribution of selected NTMs (focus on Mycobacterium ulcerans) from selected MU-infected environments and humans within four Buruli ulcer (BU) endemic communities in Ghana. Environmental samples (N=140) including biofilms, soil, detritus and water filtrates were obtained from 10 water bodies within four study areas. Following screening for Mycobacterium spp and MPMs using primers detecting the mycobacterial 16S rRNA and IS2404 genes, MU VNTR loci; locus 6, locus 19, ST1 and MIRU1, were used to genotype human (n=14) and environmental (n=20) isolates. Length polymorphism was validated using a reference strain, M. marinum DL and sequencing.<br>Twenty-seven percent (27%) of samples, mostly biofilms, from 9 water bodies were positive for Mycobacterium spp, of which 65.8% were MPMs, mostly M. ulcerans. Four MU genotypes, designated, W, X, Y and Z, which represented human isolates, matched those obtained in the environment, suggesting water bodies as major sources of infection. Additionally, previously<br>reported genotypes, A and B (MU), MLF (Mycobacterium liflandii) and MMDL (Mycobacterium marinum DL) were found only in water bodies. Genetic comparisons showed that for each community, at least one MU genotype is found both in humans and water bodies within it.<br>Genotype Y was shared by all human and environmental isolates from all four communities, suggesting wide dissemination within the Offin River. All repeats were confirmed with sequencing and phylogenetic analysis clustered isolates in this study with reference MU sequences from GenBank.<br>These findings support the hypothesis that transmission of NTMs, particularly MU, is dependent on the overlapping habitats of the pathogen and man. Further, it showed VNTR typing as a comparably useful tool for differentiating MU strains in BU endemic communities.</p> Charles Akugbey Narh Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 L’ACCÈS DES ENFANTS EN SITUATION D’HANDICAP DANS LES ÉTABLISSEMENTS SECONDAIRES PUBLICS À BISSAU (GUINÉE-BISSAU) <p>La question de handicap date de longtemps. Selon le Dictionnaire Encyclopédie de l’Education, le concept handicap a connu des mutations dans le temps et dans l’espace. L’homme a toujours cherché à fournir des réponses aux événements qui lui arrivent dans la vie.<br>Si le problème de handicap fait l’objet de préoccupation dans certains pays, dans d’autres, en revanche, il reste encore à l’état d’un simple constat. Sa définition même pose déjà problèmes. Le terme « handicap » est relatif et son interprétation varie selon les pays. C’est ainsi qu’en France, le nom handicap est interprété comme un désavantage social de l’individu, alors qu’au Canada (Québec) il se présente comme un obstacle social qui contraint l’individu. En revanche, en Afrique de manière générale, le handicap est encore considéré comme une fatalité à cause de certaines croyances et pratiques aveugles1. En Guinée-Bissau, la personne atteinte d’une déficience quelconque est, dans certains milieux, appelé ‘‘Moitié Homme’’ (en créole « metadi di homi ». Ce terme péjoratif sous-tend que la personne en situation de handicap est incapable de faire la même chose que les non handicapés. La violence de la métaphore a conduit à l’utilisation moins tranchée du mot « piquininu » (petit).<br>C’est vers les années 40, si l’on en croit Henri Jacques Stiker2, que le terme est employé au sens médical pour exprimer le désavantage né d’une infirmité ou d’une maladie. Ce glissement intervient en fait alors que naissent les lois et institutions fondant la réadaptation fonctionnelle, rendue nécessaire par l’augmentation brutale et exponentielle du nombre des handicaps du fait de la deuxième guerre mondiale. Ces appellations : infirmité, invalidité, etc. ne rendent pas compte d’une<br>situation sociale. Ils ne décrivent qu’un état, une différence entre l’Homme Normal et l’Homme Anormal selon une labellisation tirée d’une normalité supposée, fondée sur le sexe, l’âge, la religion, l’état physique ou mental, en fonction des croyances ou des représentations d’un groupe donné. Ces différentes conceptions confirment bien que le handicap est un rapport social qu’il s’agit d’équilibrer par des politiques et des attitudes. L’acceptation de ce fait est nécessaire pour appréhender les différentes politiques de promotion et de protection des personnes handicapées, car la réalité pose déjà problème dans la société.<br>C’est pourquoi, au cours de ce travail, nous mettons l’accent sur l’accès des enfants en situation de handicap dans les établissements secondaires publics à Bissau et nous évoquions les différents changements qu’apporte cette accessibilité. L’accès à l’école vise d’abord à favoriser la socialisation ou l’intégration du jeune handicapé, à lui permettre d’acquérir des savoirs : savoirfaire et savoir-être afin d’envisager un avenir professionnel et familial.<br>Dans la première partie désignée « La construction de l’objet de recherche » nous avons deux chapitres : dans le premier intitulé Cadre théorique, nous présentons la revue critique de la littérature, la problématique et les objectifs de l’étude. Dans le deuxième chapitre intitulé Cadre méthodologique, nous abordons le cadre de l’étude, la délimitation du champ, les techniques de recherche, l’échantillonnage et les difficultés rencontrées. La deuxième partie intitulée « Quelques généralités sur la Guinée-Bissau », comprend aussi deux chapitres : le premier porte sur la présentation de la Guinée-Bissau et les différentes mesures et réglementations du Ministère de l’Education National et de l’Enseignement Supérieur (MENES) et le deuxième chapitre concerne les différentes structures de prise en charge des enfants déficients. Enfin, dans la troisième partie nommée « Les facteurs rendant difficile l’accès scolaire des enfants en situation de handicap », nous analysons et interprétons les données recueillies pendant notre enquête sur le terrain.<br>Le premier chapitre de la troisième partie est consacré à l’analyse et interprétation des données collectées. Dans le deuxième chapitre, nous abordons les difficultés d’accès scolaire qui rencontrent les enfants au sein de l’école et en quoi cet accès favorise ou non l’intégration des enfants en situation de handicap dans les établissements scolaires publics à Bissau.</p> Baiole NACIA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Land transactions and Rural Devdopment Policy in the Domboshava periurban communal area, Zimbabwe <p>Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa has led to the proliferation of peri-urban settlements close to cities. Development policy in these areas is multi-pronged. Residents with local tribal, as well as migrant backgrounds take land matters into their own hands. This leads to diverse land transactions and changing household survival strategies. My research investigates the complex interactions between land transactions, Rural Development Policy (RDP), and the emergent household survival strategies between 2002 and 2012 in the periurban communal area of Domboshava in Zimbabwe located northeast of Harare the capital city. Domboshava is classified as 'rural' and is administered by traditional authority as well as a local authority called Goromonzi Rural District Cmmcil. This Council considers RDP as a solution to increased individualized land transactions. My thesis is based on field research of a case study comprising four villages ofDomboshava. Forty-one local residents, as well as<br>a number of key informants such as Traditional Leaders and local government officials were sampled for the study. Qualitative data were collected through structured interviews, review of pertinent documents, as well as observation. The research findings reveal that the rapid pace of urbanization across Africa is widespread and poses key challenges to policies on rural development and land tenure more generally. Research evidence shows the changing practice in access to land rights in Domboshava by migrants from other parts of the country. As a result, land transactions shift from customary inheritance in the tribal line to individualized land transactions such as direct land sales and renting thereby privileging financially betteroff<br>households. Household survival strategies also shift from farm based to off-farm and nonfann activities because of the influence of land transactions and a multi-pronged RDP. Changes in household survival strategies of community residents of Domboshava were however not influenced by land transactions and RDP alone, but also by wider political and economic shifts and state interventions such as Operation Restore Order/Operation Murambatsvina and the Fast Track Land Reform Programme. The practice of a multipronged RDP as a solution to land transactions in Domboshava became part of the problem<br>as land transactions proliferated unabated. This research is an important topic within the Sociology of Development, and provides useful insights regarding debates on land, policy, and survival strategies in peri-urban communal areas, not only in Domboshava in Zimbabwe, but in sub-Saharan Africa. Appropriate policies that address these peri-urban challenges in<br>Zimbabwe are sorely needed.</p> HUNGWE, Emaculate Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Nouvelles recherches à Kounoune <p>C'est en 1865 que le naturaliste anglais John Lubbock proposa de distinguer dans la préhistoire de l'humanité, le Paléolithique ou âge de la pierre ancienne (taillée), et le Néolithique ou âge de la pierre nouvelle (polie). Ces termes sont toujours d'usage mais leur sens s'est considérablement enrichi. Il s'agit maintenant de l'apparition d'un nouveau genre de vie pendant !'Holocène. L'homme chasseur-cueilleur du Paléolithique devient producteur: il pratique l'agriculture et l'élevage, se sédentarise, invente la céramique, la vannerie et le tissage etc. En 1930 Gordon Childe considère cette phase comme une « révolution néolithique ».La néolithisation est un phénomène très complexe et très dynamique qu'on ne l'imaginait. La sédentarisation, le polissage de la pierre, la production céramique, ne sont pas seulement des critères qui permettent d'affirmer qu'une population est parvenue au stade néolithique. L'homme modifie ses relations avec le milieu naturel en domestiquant les animaux en reproduisant les plantes utiles, bref en manipulant la nature, il cesse d'être uniquement<br />prédateur pour devenir producteur. Aujourd'hui, nous savons que le néolithique n'est pas né uniquement au Proche-Orient: il y a plusieurs foyers indépendants les uns des autres, et tributaires des ressources de leurmilieu naturel.1 « Le néolithique n'est pas une question de date, c'est un état de civilisation. On devient néolithique par créativité dans un milieu donné. Les hommes se néolithisent eux-mêmes par invention ou bien par invasion parce que des gens néolithisés, envahissent un pays où, il n'y avait rien, ou bien encore ils le deviennent par colonisation, par métamorphisme au contact de population néolithisées ».</p> Matar NDIAYE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 L 'Histoire du Kanem-Bornou du XIIIème au XVIème siècle: critique des sources et état de la question <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Nadoum NATOÏNGAR Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-07 2023-07-07 Le Kasongo des origines à la conquête coloniale <p>Le Kasongo est le territoire habité par les Kasena, un peuple situé à cheval sur la frontière Sud du Burkina Faso et Nord du Ghana. Les Kasena parlent le kasim. Jusqu'à présent, au Burkina Faso comme au Ghana, aucune étude historique d'ensemble n'était disponible sur cette population. Pourtant, dans la perspective de l'écriture de l'histoire nationale, il est indispensable d'étudier l'histoire de toutes les communautés qui composent le Burkina Faso. Notre problématique fut donc de suivre les Kasena dans leur longue évolution : mise en place du peuplement, organisation sociopolitique, productions économiques, vie culturelle et matérielle et leurs rapports avec l'extérieur depuis les origines jusqu'à la conquête coloniale, en essayant de faire ressortir tout le dynamisme et les mutations qu'a connu cette société au cours de l'histoire. Une telle problématique exigea une démarche globalisante. Ainsi, les sources d'archives, les documents laissés par les explorateurs et les premiers administrateurs tant anglais que français ont été dépouillés de façon systématique. Ensuite, les quelques rares documents écrits qui existent sur les Kasena, quelque soit le sujet qu'ils traitent ont été mis à contribution. Les sources écrites ont été complétées utilement par des enquêtes de terrain, aussi bien dans le pays kasena du Burkina Faso que du Ghana. Les données de terrain ont apporté des précisions pas toujours présentes dans les sources orales. Cette démarche nous permis d'obtenir les résultats suivants : Les Kasena occupaient leur zone actuelle bien avant le :xyè siècle. Cela confirme la théorie sur la mise en place du peuplement du Burkina Faso qui les classe parmi les plus anciennes populations du pays. Entre le xvt et le XIXè siècle on assiste à l'émergence d'une nouvelle forme d'organisation sociopolitique, le paare ou chefferie politico sacrée. A partir de la seconde moitié du XIXè siècle, le Kasongo fait face à des agressions extérieures et en particulier l'invasion zaberma ; Enfin, vers la fin du XIXè siècle, les premiers contacts avec les européens sont suivis de la conquête britannique et française de la région entraînant les Kasena dans la mondialisation et faisant perdre ainsi définitivement au Kasongo son indépendance.</p> GOMGNIMBOU, Moustapha Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Comparative Study on Mothers'Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Soyabeans and cowpeas as Food for Young Children in Orire Local Government Area of Oyo <p>This study assesses the present existing level of mothers' knowledge, attitude and utilization of soyabeans as compared with the traditional cowpeas. It also identifies the inherent problems associated with the utilization of these foods. The data indicate<br>that mothers were well informed about the value and importance of using both foods in the feeding of their young children. A comparison of attitudes shows that the mothers had significantly better attitudes towards the use of cowpeas than soyabeans.<br>Utilization of cowpeas was also significantly higher than that of soyabeans. Knowledge and attitudes associating diarrhoea, overweight and low status with consumption of these foods were found to exist among women. Flatulence was the major problem linked with cowpea consumption. For soyabeans, constraints associated with processing requirements, keeping properties of cooked products and increasing cost of raw soyabeans were highlighted. The role of soyabean food vendors was identified as an incentive for utilization. Future nutrition communication programmes involving these foods should be<br>participatory in approach . and should aim at improving maternal knowledge and attitudes towards the use of both foods, provision of appropriate village level technology for soyabeans processing, as well as encouraging of vendor activities.</p> EGUNJOBI, Folake Olukemi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La gestion du temps quotidien chez les cadres béninois : <p>Abstract</p> ELEGBE, Adoufé Victoire Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Mettre le monde en ordre: un art machiavélien <p>Mettre le monde en ordre relève d'un art politique. C'est un art qui s'efforce de s'appliquer à toute l'étendue du monde. Il s'agit d'envisager la politique ici comme le propre de ce qui consiste à procéder à l'organisation du pouvoir à l'échelle du monde, ayant pour ainsi dire une forme spécifique, un contenu précis et des modes d'opération qui lui sont propres. L'objet de cette étude porte donc sur cet art de la « grande politique » chère à Kant. Il semble révéler, en réalité, un effort permanent d'organisation des rapports de pouvoir entre les nations et parmi les hommes de telle sorte que l'idée du vivre ensemble fasse sens dans l'espace du monde et soit, autant que possible, une réalité intelligible, un vécu dont il faut réinvestir le sens. C'est probablement une opération dont il serait intéressant de déterminer clairement le cours, autrement dit une sorte de processus qui ne semble avoir rien définitif ni même d'absolu si l'objectif est d'atteindre la figure pure et parfaite de l'ordre. La tension des rapports de pouvoir qui anime ce processus et l'oriente vers l'ordre constitue précisément le mouvement-qu'il s'agit d'investir, d'interroger, de voir opérer et d'évaluer à l'aune d'une pensée précise, celle de Machiavel. Il faudrait peut-être considérer que c'est effectivement à partir de cette tension propre au processus de recherche de l'ordre dans le monde et<br>au renoncement à toutes les hypothèses cosmopolitiques que l'idée politique capable d'y prendre corps pourrait commencer à faire sens chez Machiavel, précisément à partir de sa façon de rendre compte de la démarche politique en tant qu'il est possible de la considérer comme porteuse d'une façon de faire singulière, de tout un art de gouverner significatif en soi. Dès lors, comment cet art d'organiser les rapports de pouvoir à l'échelle des nations, autrement dit l'art de gouverner la totalité humaine est-il de nature à traduire cette opération de mise en ordre du monde ? En quels termes précisément ce qui fait le propre de cette démarche est-il de nature à renseigner sur ce qui est à l'origine de son mouvement, ce qui rend pertinent son domaine d'opération, les moments de l'histoire qui permettent de la réfléchir et de la valider comme telle ?</p> André-Marie Yinda Yinda Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Déportation et mise en résidence surveillée des acteurs politiques au Cameroun: de la période coloniale allemande à 1990 <p>Essentially handled from a political history end, this thesis analyzes tlie System of House arrest and déportation of political figures in Cameroon in their multiple facets. It examines how the political figures were identified, how they were forcefully kept at home and surveyed as well as how they were deported, and their survival stratégies in their intemment camps. It goes further to handle the merciless treatment and amnesties some of them received. A broad spectrum of oral testimonies, colonial archives and some documents of the intelligence services and repression show that this practice in its modem form was introduced in Cameroon by the German colonial authorities (1884-1915). Consequently, it became a frightening weapon of the colonizers in the banishment of the Cameroonian political leaders who opposed in particular the conquest and/orthe abusive exploitation of their territory. Following the loss of German sovereignty over Cameroon following the Franco-British onslaught during the First World War, they (Britain and France) as new masters of the old Protectorate through the Mandate responsibilities assigned to them by the League of Nations made this practice an eminently effective weapon to reduce or to silence their adversaries thereby, destroying any feeling or action that could contest their authority over them. Thus, the Cameroonian nationalists incidentally became targets of a législative and police survey and this was particularly aimed at dismantling and fimstrating any concerted actions of the executives of UPC before there became mature. After the departure of the colonizers, the new leaders of Independent Cameroon went beyond the brackets of simple déportation by affecting a high coefficient of profitability by banishing of the political adversaries out riglitly. To legitimize the phenomenon of purging opponents, the leaders resorted to the exceptional measures which enabled them to legislate by way of ordinance. It is within this framework that the ordinance against subversion was promulgated. The immédiate conséquences of this law were the arbitrary arrests, the déportations, the création of the dispensaries of torture (DIRUOC, SEDOC, NDT, CENER, BMM) and the construction of concentration camps for the intemment and the suffocation of the rebellious spirits. This study puts forward the prétentions character of the concept of déportation adopted by the govemment of Cameroon since independence. Concretely, the administration adopted soft euphemisms to mask a complex practical policy. In other words, the study shows that from 1884 to 1990, much of the Cameroonians made the pilgrimage in the tropical goulags because of their political ideas. It then appears, beyond the recourse to a specious vocabulary, that the succession of the administrations (German, Franco-English and Cameroonians) tmly did not change anything with the quasi systematization of the déportation like political weapon.</p> WOUDAMMIKE, Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Widowhood and Property Inheritance among the Awori of Ogun State, Nigeria <p>The subservient position of women and the level of di scrimination that accompanies ·widowhood practices and property sharing is an acknowledged social problem f n many societies, widowhood ~esulting from sudden death gives ~room for a will or other preparations. Thus, property inheritance becornes a big challenge. Most stud ies on widowhood practices in Nigeria for in stance, focus on the Southeast and Northern part of the country. The gap detected in the litera ture and research on the subject as it re lates to the Awori sub-ethnic group of the Yoruba race is what this study intends to fill. Against this background, th e study examines the traditional practice of widowhood and property inheritance among the Awori of Ado-Odo/Ota Loca l Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Thi s study was carried out in six selected Awori communities: Agbara, Atan, Jju, Ilogbo, Igb~sa and Ota. The study was anchored on two th eoretical platforrns: tructural Functionalist Theory and the Feminist Political Economie Theory. Using a triangula tory proces , both quantitati ve (s urvey method) and qualitative ( lDls/KI Is, FGD and case studies) were used in co ll ecting the primary data. Widows, widowcrs, rn arri ed men and women, se nior c itizens, trad itional ru !ers and rel igious leader (in the stu C: y are a) const ituted the study popul at ion. The purpos ive and snowball sarnp ling techn ique were adopted usin g a 65-item questionna ire containing bath open and closed ended questions. The personal interview method wa...the in strument to Awori widows of different age categories and religions. Of the 997 copies administered, 982 were du ly compl eted and returned, rep rescnting 98 .5 percent completion rate. 942 were adjudged usa ble fo r analys is, ernploying frcquency di stribut ion, impie percentages, cross tabul ations, and linea r regress ion ta va lidate the three hypoth eses formulated for the stud y. For hypothes is 1, the independent variable wh ich include: (age, eduation. occupation, incarne and type of marri age(personal attrib utes of widows)were te ted again st widowhood practices and property inheritance. The result frorn the rcgress ,on analysis revcal. th at educati on of widow is signilïcantly and negative lyrclated ta widowhood rit e at ap value of. This wiJows with tert iary education who dcclined from ob erving widowhood rites cornparcd to thcir counterpan without schoo ling...</p> GEORGE, Tayo Ola Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Household Environmental Health Hazards and Childhood Mortality among Nigerian Ethnic Groups <p>Health hazards, such as poor air quality, contamination of water and inadequate sanitary facilities, are prevalent in household environment. Children are most vulnerable to these health hazards because of their unique physical and biological characteristics. Unlike in developed countries, where health hazards from household environment constitute little risks, most under-five deaths in Nigeria and other developing countries have been linked to childhood morbidity induced from the household environment. It was hypothesized that household environments and specific socio-cultural practices vary among different ethnic groups and could affect childhood mortality. This study,&nbsp; therefore, examined the effect of household environmental health hazards on childhood mortality among Nigerian ethnic groups. Mosley and Chen analytical framework and Ecological System Theory served as the theoretical framework for the study. Secondary data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2003 were complemented with 40 focus group discussions and 40 in-depth interviews among selected ethnic groups in Nigeria. A retrospective child file was generated from NDHS 2003 and live births within five years preceeding the survey were selected for the study, which gave a total of 5,531children. Ethnic membership was broadly categorized into Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, Yoruba, Southern minorities (SM) and Northern minorities (NM). Qualitative data were collected among these ethnic groups, with the Ijaw and Tiv representing SM and NM respectively. The quantitative data were analyzed using multivariational regressions while content analysis was utilized for qualitative data. There were disparities in the household environment of children among Nigerian ethnic groups; ethnic groups in the northern part were at relative disadvantage on basic household environmental variables that affect hygiene. There were about 74.3% of NM, 72.4% of Hausa-Fulani, 67.8% of SM and 57.9% of Igbo children constantly exposed to household health hazards. Yoruba children were least exposed (36.4%). An examination of the Direct Estimates and Cox regression on childhood mortality indicate significant difference (χ2 =11.8, p&lt;0.05,df=4) with ethnic groups in the northern part of Nigeria having the highest risk to childhood mortality based on household environmental health hazard. There are also significant (χ2 =166.9, p&lt;0.05, df= 31) mediating effect of demographic and socio-economic variables on household environmental health hazards and under five mortality in Nigeria. The values placed on children among all ethnic groups were reflected in different socio-cultural beliefs and practices with significant influence of urban residence and education of mothers. However, some ethnic specific socio-cultural beliefs that exposed children to health hazards within the household were still being practiced especially among the groups in the northern part of Nigeria. Household environment and specific socio-cultural practices were salient to the exposure of under-five children to health hazards within the household and childhood mortality. However, the differences observed were more of a reflection of mother’s socio-economic variables. Therefore, women should have more access to education and information on best childcare practices in the household environments. People’s belief should be taken into cognizance when developing policy on child health.</p> FAYEHUN, Olufunke Adekemi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La République Démocratique du Congo à l'épreuve de l'alternance au pouvoir <p>L'étude que nous présentons ce Jour est certes notre oeuvre, mais elle a bénéficié du concours de plusieurs personnes que nous tenons à remercier. Nous pensons en premier lieu au Professeur Emérite Victor Jean-Claude DJELO EMPENGE-OSAKO qui a provoqué en nous le goût de la recherche sans avoir eu l'occasion d'en récolter<br>les fruits. Nos sentiments de reconnaissance s'adressent particulièrement au Professeur Evariste BOSHAB MABUDJ-maBILENGE qui nous a encouragé à mener une recherche sur un sujet très peu exploité en droit constitutionnel et nous a offert sa disponibilité en assurant la direction de ce mémoire. Nous témoignons notre gratitude au Professeur André MBATA B. MANGU qui a accepté de lire le manuscrit de cette étude en y apportant des remarques et corrections utiles. Nos sentiments de gratitude s'adressent également au Professeur Grégoire BAKANDEJA wa MPUNGU Doyen de la Faculté de Droit pour ses encouragements et sa détermination à faire aboutir le programme de Troisième Cycle longtemps resté en veilleuse.</p> ESAMBO KANGASHE, Jean-Louis Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Crédit agricole et production ovine dans le bassin arachidier sénégalais <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mor Woré GUEYE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Examen de l'endettement extérieur de l'Afrique Subsaharienne : cas des pays de la zone BEAC <p>Le but de cette Thèse est d'apporter une contribution à l'étude des problèmes d'endettement extérieur d'Afrique subsharienne en général et de ceux de la zone BEAC en particulier, en étudiant successivement : - Le recours à l'emprunt extérieur et la crise d'endette~ent de ces pays; - Les voies de sorties de la crise et les politiq~es de limitation des problèmes d'endettement. Après avoir défini dans la première partie la nature de la relation de la dette, le concept d'endettement extérieur et les termes voisines, l'étude souligne l'importance du réctitins à l'endettement extérieur comme moyen d'accélérer<br>le développement de ces pays. Sont alors abordés les modalités de ce recours. Le financement de la croissance à l'aide d'emprunt extérieur est largement pratiqué par les pays de la zone BEAC, mais les modalités ex coaditions de ces emprunts sont diverses. L'étude présente une typologie des procédures utilisées, et des couditions d'octroi pratiquées sur le~ différents marchés. Cette analyse est complètée par un examen des effets du recours à l'endettement extérieur. Mais si l'endettement externe constitue en général une ''aide au développement", il peut par ses effets pervers représenter une source de blocage,<br>qui à la longue)installe le pajs dans la crise. L~étude définit alors le concept de crise d'endettement...</p> FAMBON, Samuel Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Jeux, historicité et enjeux de classes au Bénin : Théorie et jalons d'une autre modernité <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> HODONOU, Félix F Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Réflexions sur les impacts du droit communautaire de la concurrence sur l'ordre juridique interne des Etats membres de l'Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) <p>«Réfléchir sur les impacts du droit communautaire de la concurrence sur l'ordre juridique interne des Etats membres de l'Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine» ne peut paraître plus ambitieux voire audacieux mais légitime.<br>-Ambitieux, parce que le droit communautaire de la concurrence de l'espace UEMOA n'est pas encore unanimement perçu par la doctrine : il s'agit d'un droit en formation;<br>-Audacieux, du fait de la nouveauté du sujet dans un continent sous développé au moment même où les pays développés n'ont pas fini de préciser les contours de celui-ci.<br>En effet, l'UEMOA, lors de sa constitution, a pris à son compte les avantages de la concurrence dans le processus d'intégration<br>adopté par les Etats membres1. Elle s'est alors, assignée entre autres objectifs, de renforcer la compétitivité dans l'exercice des activités économiques et financières.<br>L'UEMOA ayant par ailleurs, compris que dans un contexte de libéralisation et de mondialisation, la survie des acteurs économiques est subordonnée à leur capacité de résistance face à une concurrence de plus en plus ardue, elle a tenté de définir la règle du jeu en instituant des normes communes de concurrence applicables aux entreprises publiques et privées ainsi qu'aux aides d'Etats...</p> Aboubakar YAYA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le langage et la question philosophique dans la pensée post-tractatus de Ludwig Wittgenstein <p>Qu'il nous soit permis ic"i d'adresser nos sincères remerciements à Monsieur le Professeur Abdoulayc Elimane KANE qui, malgré ses multiples occupations a su nous accompagner avec une bienveillante attention. Qu'il trouve ici l'expression de notre profonde gratitude. Nous avons aussi une dette de reconnaissance envers ceux qui, de loin ou de près, nous ont aidé à <br>réaliser ce travail. Nous pensons particulièrement à Monsieur OUEDRJ\OGO Luc et sa femme Alice pour l'hospitalité et leur appo11 matérieL et aux Frères Dominicains : Emmanuel DIATTA_ Léopold, Be11rand_ Augustin, Pierre-Paul pour leur soutien et encouragement.</p> DOVI, Tokêho Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 LES DÉTERMINANTS SOCIOCULTURELS ET INDIVIDUELS DES CONFLITS FONCIERS INTER-FAMILIAUX EN MILIEU RURAL : CAS DU DÉPARTEMENT D’ISSIA <p>Depuis près de trois décennies, la problématique du foncier rural se trouve au centre des débats concernant le devenir de la société ivoirienne, en général, et des systèmes de production agricole, en particulier. Les conflits liés à ce secteur vital de l’économie ivoirienne sont récurrents. Les conflits intercommunautaires, intrafamiliaux sont les plus traités par les spécialistes, peut-être parce qu’ils sont les plus spectaculaires. Mais, il nous apparaît nécessaire de tenir compte des conflits de proximité. Car, ils sont tout aussi révélateurs des dynamiques socio-foncières, que ceux mobilisant des groupes importants. Il importe, donc, de connaître cette variante, que sont les conflits fonciers inter-familiaux, en milieu rural. Ces conflits qui opposent les différentes familles, sont de plus en plus nombreux, et très difficiles à régler. Leur complexité résulte de ce qu’ils mettent au centre, les intérêts identitaires des familles concernées.<br>En plus, les études foncières expliquent généralement, les conflits fonciers par la raréfaction foncière, les conditions climatiques, la prolifération des normes et les droits de propriété. Il s’est agi donc pour nous, en dehors de ces aspects fondamentalement économique, géographique et juridique, d’aborder la thématique des conflits fonciers, sur les plans<br>socioculturels et individuels. Dans cette quête, nous avons formulé la question générale suivante : « Quels sont les déterminants socioculturels et individuels, des conflits fonciers inter-familiaux, en milieu rural ? »<br>Dans un cadre théorique combinant fonctionnalismes durkheimien et mertonien, individualisme contextuel et phénoménologie classique, la recherche s'est opérée selon les méthodes de l’anthropologie sociale, de la dialectique et de la phénoménologie. En outre, elle a porté sur un échantillon par choix raisonné et par réseau, grâce à ces techniques : étude documentaire, questionnaire, observations et interviews. Si, les données issues des observations et des interviews ont été analysées, manuellement, par analyse thématique de contenu, analyse phénoménologique et analyse ethnographique, celles issues du<br>questionnaire, l’ont été par le logiciel statistique, Le Sphinx version</p> <p>Enfin, les résultats obtenus révèlent que les conflits fonciers inter-familiaux sont liés, sur le plan sociologique, d’une part, au dysfonctionnement des institutions foncières communautaires et, d’autre part, au comportement anomique des acteurs socio-fonciers ; sur le plan culturel, aux représentations sociales ambivalentes des acteurs socio-fonciers ; sur le plan individuel, à la privatisation des ressources et des fins par l’acteur socio-foncier, qui exclut l’autrui communautaire de la propriété foncière. Surtout, les anomies constituent le facteur essentiel autour duquel gravitent tous les autres.</p> ZOHORÉ Togba Gagui Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Analyse de l'image de marque et de son influence sur la fidélité de la clientèle bancaire : approche relationnelle <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GAHUNGU, Dieudonné Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Women organisation and rural development in Nigeria : <p>0 µral èvelopment is a social construct and a social the ptoduct of a particular society,s history p;rtunately for Nigeria1s development, gender has become a navel issue The feminist imperative haq forced the search ito ans ers·t9 key questions related to rural development. first, it must be asked if the outcome envisaged is re lly cte elopment unless wome and - by intimate but not previously self-evident 'implication - rural· dwellers · e unequivocally serv d, society itself has not been served.<br>The second question is closely re-1 ë\tec:1 to the first., Because of the push to evaluate rural 'ctevelopment programme''s,<br>ît must be asked if N:lgerian social reality has been taken into ccount in rural development schemes0 The scientific accµracy of this development programme can be tested by asking .,, whett,et programme obj,ectives have been properly taken care of.. Im licit in the mandate of the study is t e understanding of rural development as a social process.. we cannot assess this process without considering the diilectical relation hip &nbsp;ween gencter and rural development A major purpo e of.this to show how combined r-esearch on women and rural-development might bec me the basis for future gender concerns. paid particular attention to the·dialectical na;l:ure development,. a process that can either d{sequip of</p> EJEZIE, Chinasa Ijeoma Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 L'impact des valeurs fondamentales sur les coopératives d'épargne et de crédit de Douala <p>L'objet de ce travail a été d'identifier dans le cas de Douala, les valeurs fondamentales des coopératives d'épargne et de crédit et de mesurer leur influence sur les indicateurs de performance dans le cadre associatif de la coopec. Nous avons utilisé l'enquête statistique pour atteindre cet objectif. Il ressort de cette étude que le bénévolat et la vertu de l'épargne sont les<br>deux valeurs fondamentales des coopératives d'épargne et de crédit de Douala. Ces deux valeurs influencent deux indicateurs de performance qui sont le chiffre d'affaires et le nombre de membres. On peut suggérer que l'amélioration de ces deux indicateurs de performance dépend de l'amélioration de la situation du bénévolat et de la vertu de l'épargne dans les<br>coopératives d'épargne et de crédit de Douala</p> EMENE KINGUE, Rose Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 An appraisal of the effectiveness of commercial banks loans and advances management strategies : a case study of some selected banks in Nigeria, (1980-1989) <p>T.lbte pro b].em .. o:f c:omm:erc:ial b.a.nki-ng; il11 Nig,eria isthe issu:e o:lr t,he in.creasing. uoe1authorised~ 1oans,~ Loan.<br>defauJrb.s, fraud].en.t pract:ic:es,. ar:ising from Jl?ûGlt acc.oun.ting proc:edures, the hjj_g,h;. risk. exposures an.d th.e r:i.sing,<br>provi.s:iLon . .t:oJr· bad ara,.d doubtfuJL debts which Ji.eaves mucllli to be Also,. t.he puoir and i.nef:f.:ii..cïent. managem.en,t stra of Eoans and Adwanc:es anrnn.g the medjj_ullili. and barok.s, is worr:iLsom.e ·· and deserves atten.tiol'ill iLf t,he industr;y. must contfu1u.e t.o and fl o urï.slnt... Thro1llig_h.,. prirniary data was gath.ered .flor the study .. The secondary data was c:ol].ected :f.rom publis"lnted Annua1 Reports and Sta'tements o:n. the c.:ase study banks.,. . the ec:onometri.c<br>tool1:3 0:f simtple and m.ul tipJt.e reg,ressi.on off. selec:ted -variables, the correlatï.on. analysis betweel'.ll. the net earnings and t.he EoaIDiS and Advanc:es variable,. the coat:iLngenc: y table and the dn-squarecli (X2 ) test, we were abJLe to analyse the data collec:ted. on th:li.s stu.d:y. The researc:h came up wi th the fiti, that., t.he Loans and Advan.ces v.ariab]e :ii.s allll :ii.miportant and signi.füi.can. t :i.tera: :iLn the portfolï.Oi manag_emen.t of c.ommerc:iaJl banks, that there i.s a positive c:orrelat.:i.on between the Loans and Advances. g,rant:ed by commercial balOEks especially the l1:ig_-si.z,ecli ba:nks aID.ld theiLr net earnï.ngs, suggesting_ that they can oeore effec.t.i vel;'t manage thei.r Eoans and</p> ENWEREUZOR, Bernard Okwudiri Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 The syncretising dialectic in the historical development of religion: the case of selected Western Kenyan cultural zone communities <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GIMODE, Edwin Atianyi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Effects of Irreversibility and Macroeconomic Uncertainty on Aggregate Private Investment in Nigeria, 1970-2001 <p>The study investigated the determinants of aggregate private investment and examined private investment decisions in the face of uncertainty. Specifically, it analyzed the effect of irreversibility on private investment decisions. It also examined how various dimensions of macroeconomic uncertainty affected private investment decisions in Nigeria. The trend patterns of Nigeria's private investment spendings were also analyzed. The study covered a period of thirty-two years starting from 1970 to 2001. Annual and quarterly time series data were employed. The time series data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin, Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), World Banks publications and IMF International Financial Statistics Yearbooks. Descriptive methods of analysis were employed in trend analysis while Error Correction Modelling (ECM) techniques were adopted in the estimation of the specified aggregate private investment models. Both nominal and real private investment models were examined using the logarithmic and growth rate formulations. The time series properties ofvariables were ascertained using the Dickey-Fuller (AD), Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests. The study showed that private investment behaviour of the Nigerian economy was highly unpredictable during 1970-2001 period. It was, however, more unstable in real private investment than its nominal counterpart. At 5 per cent level of significance, it was found that public investment, income, real interest rates, credit to private sector and debt variables explained about 80 per cent variation in private investment. Private investment in Nigeria was affected positively by income, public investment and credit to private sector while it was negatively affected by real interest rates and the size of debt. The negative sign of irreversibility measure, though not significant, revealed that there was reluctance on the part of private sector as regards investment spendings. It was also revealed that increased xivuncertainty depressed level of private investment in the Nigerian economy between 1970 and 2001. Indeed, inflation rates, exchange rates, interest rates and fiscal deficitsuncertainties were most detrimental to private investment recovery in Nigeria. For the Nigerian economy to achieve a 20 per cent increase in private investment, the overall level of uncertainty must be reduced by at least 5 per cent. The study concluded that high levels of uncertainty indicators caused private investment to decline between 1970 and 2001. Irreversibility affected the timing of private sector investment spendings only in the short run. Finally, macroeconomic uncertainty during 1970-2001 made private investors less eager to invest. Thus, irreversibility and aggregate uncertainty impacted negative effects on private investment spendings in Nigeria.</p> FOLORUNSO, Benjamin Ayodele Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Development financing and small scale industries in Nigeria <p>Previous studies by eminent scholars have shown the significant cohtributions an~ potentials of Small Scale Industries (SSI'.s) in the economic development efforts of Nigeria. These studies have also shown that, among other limiting factors, shortage of funds has been. critical. However, the emphasis of these studies has been on the availabi.lity of funds for the aggregate Investment Expenditure of sciall Scale Industries. Othèr empirical work~ showed that Small Scale Industries require funds for start-up (Fixed Asset) Investment, Working Capital and expansion of existing facilities. These studies have also shown that these Small Scale Industries obtain financial assistance from the formal financial institutions including Development finance Institution, mostly for expansion of existing facilities and working capital, while they obtain their initial start-up funds from personal savings, loans from friends and relatives and other informal institutional lenders. Given that prospective Srnall Scale Industrialists have little or no collaterals·as security for obtaining finance for start-up of the business, the current study tries to find out the extent to which Development Fin~nce Institutions have funded SSI's especially with regards to start-up (Fixed Assets), Working Capital and Capital for Expansion; while also determining the contribution of other credit sources e.g. commercial banks, non-bank financial institution and other inforrnal sources to the above enurnerated investment expenditure of Small Scale Industries. · In effect, my study tested the significance of each of these credit sources and thëir substitutability for development finance institutions in the finance of fixed assèt investment, Working Capital, expansion of facilities and total Investment Expenditure of Small Scale Industries. Finally, the study tried to deterrnine and assess other factors that could bring about improved funding of Small Scale Industries in Nigeria. To achieve· the objectives, the study explored and appraised the role of development finance institution in Nigeria' s industrial development with emphasis on their sources and uses of funds, credit policies, operations and existing activities. Specifically, the study using three hundred and eightly-two (382) Small Scale firms from Bende!, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo and Oyo States and an econometric model, tested the significances of the pararneters, IT (Investment in fixed Assets, INV · (Changes in Inventories) , EX (Capital for Expansion), TGI (Total Investment Expenditure), R (Interest Cost of Debt), S ·(Gross Sales Turnover), KE (Equity Capital), D (Debt Capital and M (Maturity of loan) ::and C (Credit variables) in each of the component Investment Expenditure of Small Scale Industries. In addition, the study t~ied to examina the substitutability of each of the Credit variables C(representing total accummulated debts, liabilities to bank and non-bank financial Institution (BNF), liabilities to banks (TLB), liabilities to Developrnent Finance Institutions (TDFI), liabilities to Non-Bank Financial Institutions (TNP) and Net Trade Credit (NTC) in the investment expenditure of Small Scale Industries in Nigeria.</p> GEORGE, Emmanuel Oladapo Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Impact du lancement des produits nouveaux sur la part de marché dans les entreprises camerounaises <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GOUANLONG KAMGANG, Nadège Ingrid Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 LIBERAL HUMANISM IN THE POETRY OF T.S. ELIOT AND WOLE SOYINKA <p>T.S. Eliot and Wole Soyinka are modem writers whose literary works share what several Western and African critics consider as obscure writing and controversial social visions. Also, both writers have been described as liberal humanists, though there is a<br>paucity of scholarly works in terms of an elaborate and systematic analysis of their art in the context of the theory and practice of liberal humanism. This study attempts to answer some of these questions about the two writers through a theoretical exploration of their poetry drawing upon the critical appliances of liberal humanism, which offers itself as the major ideological plank upon which the works of the writers are established. It explores the nature and elements of liberal humanism in the poetry of Eliot and Soyinka; it illustrates how their literary practice mirrors the essence of this humanism as a philosophical experience and a historical criticism of their societies; it identifies and explores differences in their liberal humanism; and it relates their liberal humanist assumptions and practices to contemporary social experiences in the West and in Africa.<br>It elaborately examines the idea of liberal humanism in its attempt to achieve the broad objective of a thorough ideological classification of the poetry of Eliot and Soyinka. This work draws upon four tools of literary criticism: practical criticism, comparative criticism, cross-disciplinary approach, and deconstructive criticism. It uses the close reading strategy of practical criticism to decode the nature and essence of liberal humanism in the poetry of Eliot and Soyinka. It employs comparative analysis to establish the similarities and differences in the works of the two poets. It adopts a crossdisciplinary approach to the knowledge of liberal humanism to give the study a comprehensive focus in terms of relevance to global human and societal development.</p> <p>Through the deconstructive technique, the study vividly illustrates the limits and ambivalences of the humanist imagination in the two writers. The study substantially draws on recent theory and criticism and is, accordingly, fairly speculative. The study contributes to the existing body of critical knowledge ofT.S. Eliot and Wole Soyinka as major liberal humanist writers by providing new insights into the workings of, and contradictions in, liberal humanism as represented in their poetry. It reveals that the nature and demonstration of the humanist influence on their poetry are essentially enigmatic and dialectical. Their works encapsulate commitment to the free spirit of tradition, as they strive to achieve poetic balance between humans as individuals and the communitarian essence of society.<br>The two writers share the ethos of humanistic writing in the contexts of classical, religious, cultural and pluralist thinking and practice. These contexts significantly impact upon the various characteristics of language that shape their works. Importantly, the study illustrates critical similarities and differences not only in the works of the two writers, but also in the context of the respective locales of the contemporary human and societal experiences that they represent.</p> YAKUBU, UDUOPEGEME MONDAY JOSEPH Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Une enquête d'histoire de la marge : production de la ville et populations Africaines à Dakar, 1857-1960 Tome 1 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> FAYE, Ousseynou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La politique de financement du logement au Maghreb <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> GHERIS, Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Community-based Sustainable Tourism on Commonages : an Alternative to Traditional Land Reform in Namaqualand, Northern Cape Province <p>Since 1994, the South African Government has developed two strategic policies that embrace the principles of sustainable development: Tourism and Land Reform. Both policies seek redress and economic development for previously disadvantaged black people, but both policies were not integrated to form part of a sustainable development strategy for communities. In terms of the land redistribution programme (as one leg of the land reform programme), the commonage sub-programme has primarily advocated an agrarian style development despite the decline in contribution of agriculture to the Gross Domestic Product. By promoting one development option, other livelihood opportunities such as tourism have not been explored. The White Paper on Tourism (1996) has also recognised the limited integration of local communities and previously neglected groups as an impediment to sustainable tourism development in South Africa. The aim of this study is to provide integrated planning guidelines for sustainable tourism development for commonages in Namaqualand. The study poses the question: What role could sustainable tourism play in commonage projects? In an attempt to fulfil the aim of the study and answer the research question, nine objectives were devised to guide the direction of the study. The objectives primarily focussed on conceptualising land redistribution and sustainable tourism through various local and international case studies in order to draw commonalities and identify negative and positive impacts of these approaches. ln so doing, the sustainability of a purely agrarian focus of land reform policies across the global spectrum was brought into question.</p> GOVENDER-VAN WYK, Sharmla Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 L'énigme de la "différence des sexes" : contribution philosophique à la perspective genre <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Béatrice FAYE cic Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Leadership Styles and Organisational Change in the Brewing Industry: a Study of Nigerian Breweries PLC, Lagos: 1986-1996 <p>Leadership is a complex phenomenon. It is acutely context sensitive. Leadership is the process of <br>influencing individuals or group activities towards the achievement of enterprise objectives. So, <br>it represents the ability of a manager to influence subordinates' to willingly perform specific <br>tasks associated with the goal accomplishment.<br>The successful organisations have one major attribute that sets them apart from unsuccessful ones; <br>dynamic and effective leadership. Organisations need to change and adapt in order to be effective. <br>lt is increasingly apparent to all that organisational change is a requisite for organisational <br>improvement, and that managed change is likely to be more effective than unmanaged change.<br>Directly flowing from this problem therefore are a number of questions relating to the effects of <br>leadership style on organisational change in industry. We therefore attempted in this study to <br>answer some ofthese questions.<br>lt was found in this study that leadership style does in fact influence change in organisations in <br>terms of how the change is managed. This change though may be infrequent but could be <br>revolutionary in nature. Consequently leadership is very important in times of organisational <br>crisis. lt was revealed in this study that the qualities that will enable the top executive of the <br>füture to stand out among his/her fellow presidents are his/her capacity to perceive meaningful <br>change and inspire his/her people to respond, and his/her skill in fostering participative <br>management without losing drive<br>and spirit in his/her</p> DEHINSILU, Yetunde Adebunmi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 REGIME INTEREST AND MECHANISMS FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN WEST AFRICA: THE CASE OF NIGERIA IN ECOMOG <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> JOSES GANI YOROMS Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology and Job Performance of Academic LibrariAvailability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology and Job Performance of Academic Librarians in Southwestern Nigeria <p>Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) enhance service provision to library clientele. Librarians use ICTs to perform functions like cataloguing and classification, serials management, collection management, budgeting, circulation management, referencing, indexing and abstracting in order to improve information services to library users. However, it has been observed that most academic librarians in Nigeria still struggle with manual library operation method. Consequently, library users show dissatisfaction and complain of poor information services delivery by the academic librarians. It is in the light of this that the present study investigated availability and utilization of information and communication technologies as they relate to job performance of the academic librarians in Southwestern Nigeria. The study was an ex-post facto type and adopted the descriptive research design. Only institutions that have made ICTs available to their personnel were selected for the study. The study population consisted of 195 academic librarians in 25 higher institutions in Southwestern Nigeria. The total enumeration technique was adopted. The major instrument used for this study was the “Availability, Utilization and Job Performance Questionnaire (AUJPQ).This was complemented with structured interview tagged Availability, Utilization and Job Performance Interview (AUJPI)” and an observation schedule. The questionnaire was validated. The reliability coefficient for ICTs availability scale was α=0.92; while ICTs utilization and Job performance scale were α=0.96 and α=0.97 respectively using the Cronbach alpha. The test- re-test reliability coefficient for interview checklist was 0.75 and 0.72 for observation schedule. Data were collected from 153 academic librarians which translate to a response rate of 78.5%. Data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment correlation and Multiple Regression analysis. The results revealed that there was a joint effect of availability and utilization of ICTs on job performance (P&lt;0.05). The study also found that availability and utilization of ICTs<br>accounted for (R2 adjusted = 0.353), that is, 35.3% of the total variance in job performance of the academic librarians in Southwestern Nigeria. The results further showed that there were significant separate contributions of availability of ICTs (β=0.204; t=3.317, p&lt;0.05) and utilization of ICTs (β=0.390; t=6.163, p&lt;0.05) to job performance of the academic librarians in the southwestern Nigeria. The study also showed that there were significant relationships between: the availability of ICTs and job performance of the academic librarians (r = 0.435, P&lt;0.05); utilization of ICTs and job performance of the academic librarians (r = 0.542, P&lt;0.05); the availability and utilization of ICTs and job performance (r = 0.594, P&lt;0.05). Availability and utilization of ICTs contributed significantly to the job performance of the academic librarians collectively and individually. As the academic librarians continually use the available ICTs, the job performance of the librarians keep on improving. It is recommended therefore that university administration should make funds available for the ICTs project in academic libraries and a proper ICTs training policy be put in place.</p> HALISO, Yacob L Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le français des scolaires au Burkina Faso : niveaux de compétence et déterminants de l'échec scolaire <p>Au Burkina Faso, "pays essentiellement multilingue et résolument francophone" (Prignitz, 1996a), le français est la seule langue officielle. C'est la langue des institutions, des relations internationales et des médias. Mais le français est également employé dans les échanges quotidiens. Loin d'être théorique (pour des mobiles géopolitiques, par exemple), son officialité est effective, hormis le fait que seulement une faible frange de la population le parle et, dans une moindre mesure, l'écrit : sa connaissance offre l'accès à de nombreux avantages. Dans les centres urbains, il est de plus en plus difficile d'entrer dans la vie active et de réussir professionnellement sans pratiquer le français. "En effet, comment se débrouiller à Ouagadougou quand on ne peut<br>pas s'exprimer dans la langue à laquelle sont attachés toutes sortes d'avantages sociaux et économiques?" (Batiana, 1998 : 28). Cette situation fait que la population manifeste un engouement pour son acquisition. Cela vaut même pour les familles de marabouts pour lesquelles la langue fait partie des "savoirs convoités" (Gérard, 1999a: 137-140).<br>Dans le système de l'école classique, le français est la langue d'enseignement principale: elle est employée à la fois comme matière et comme support d'enseignement. Dans un tel contexte, sa maîtrise, à l'oral et à l'écrit, est une condition capitale tant pour la réussite scolaire de l'élève que _pour son intégration dans la vie socioprofessionnelle.<br>La présente étude porte sur le français des scolaires au Burkina Faso. Elle s'articulera en cinq volets. L'étude commencera par situer la langue française au Burkina Faso. Après une présentation de la physionomie du français, des modes selon lesquels les<br>Burkinabè acquièrent le français et des structures de formation, nous évoquerons la manière dont la langue importée est pratiquée dans le pays, la typologie des locuteurs burkinabè du français et leur estimation. Ces préalables nous permettront de terminer par la question du français et des langues nationales dans la politique linguistique et éducative du pays.<br>Le second chapitre présentera la problématique, les hypothèses, les concepts et les méthodes de collecte et d'analyse des données...</p> YARO, Anselme Yimyé Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Informatisation de la bibliothèque universitaire de Dakar : <p>Abstract</p> DOUMTANGAR, Koulassim Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 ASSESSMENT OF FARM WASTE UTILISATION AMONG RURAL DWELLERS IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> OLAYINKA JELILI YUSUF Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le discours de crises politiques du président de la république en conjoncture démocratique: essai sur une gestion discursive des violences politiques au Cameroun (1990-2010) <p>In Cameroon, the political trends inform on the words used by political entrepreneurs alongside crisis. With democratizing process, mobilizations from various sectors of the society affect the power in place with an emphasis that takes the political violence up. The growing, the escalation and the decadence of violence effectively open up the way to a confrontation arena while challenging the presidential speech. In this context, the focus on stakes causes people to lawlessly undergo consequences and involves the protagonists in enlarged tactic interdependence. This work defends the institutionnal thesis of political crisis management in interacion with street and opposition. The interpenetration of actors develops a political setting where the symbolic position of the President of the Republic obstructs the continuity of the crisis and instinctively protects the established order. The endless search for peace and the focalization on the mystical national unity secretly disqualify the negative impulses of the violent movements from the street, “ghost Towns”, riots and social contestations. The presidential address, in this aspect of good values promotion, continuously spreads messages to praise the Republic while entangling the people in pincers of peace and national unity values. This process is completely in opposition with the numerous calls to manifestations launched by the opposition through crowd pulling speeches. Unlikely, it seems that the use of permanent shame and distrust by the actors contributes to the decompression of the socio-political environment. In this original configuration, words obviously have a persuasive power to mobilize or demobilize and consequently cause feed-back actions. The regulation of the political arena takes place through the power and the power of words that pacifies the political game by “curing” the actors. The crises for their enliven the Cameroon socio-political arena in the light of the ruling rhetoric and relative democratic illusion.</p> FOULLA DAMNA, Appolinaire Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 DETERMINANTS OF UTILISATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DELIVERY IN NIGERIA <p><br>Low level of information.sharing within the agricultural knowledge and information system limits growth in the sector. The Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has the potential ta bridge the gap. Utilisation of ICTs among agricultural researchers, extensionists and farmers bas ncit been adequately investigated in Nigeria. The extent to which ICTs are used by these stakeholders to advance agricultural practices in Nigeria was investigated.<br>Multistage random sampling was adopted ta select the respondents. Proportionate random sampling technique was used ta select three, two and two of the research stations in the South-Western, Central and North-Western agricultural zones respectively white the only research stations in each of South-Eastern and North-Eastern zones were selected. Ten percent of the researchers at the selected stations were randomly sampled. Then, 10% of the extensionists in the 6 state ADPs, where <br>the research stations have been selected were randomly selected. From the ADPs farmers' list in each of the selected states, 35 farmers were randomly selected. Three sets of structured questionnaire were used to elicit information from the different categories of respondents. Data were collected on perception of the use of ICTs, access, availability, level of use and knowledge <br>ofICTs, farmers' information sources, needs and use of available ICTs and willingness to use digital ICTs. Descriptive statistics, knowledge index and Iogit regression mode] were used ta analyse the data collected. Ail tests were carried out atp = 0.05.<br>Farmers ranked their information needs in order of importance as agricultural production, product price, marketing, community development, politics, education and weather. Seventy five percent of farmers were willing to use digital ICTs to access information. Mean ICT use score was 33.0±15.8 for researchers, 25.8±15.0 for extensionists and 3.4±1.7 for farmers. Most researchers (75.3%) and few extensionists (34.1%) had high ICT knowledge score. Farmers use the analogue ICT formats (2.33) <br>than the researchers (1.90) and extensionists (1.93). The log likelihood of researchers' use of ICTs was significantly reduced by g;rade level (P=-0.729), increased by access to ICTs (P=l .807), and increased by perception of sustainable use of ICTs (P=0.303). The log likelihood of extensionists' use was significantly increased by available ICT facilities (P=0.343), access to ICTs (P=l .410), and severity of constraint assessm nt (P=0.182). The log likelihood of farmers' use of ICTs was significantly increased by number of information sources (P=0.267) and marital status (P=1.490).</p> <p>The disparity in the available information and communication technology formats to agricultural development researchers, extensionists and farmers present a serious challenge to agricultural information management in Nigeria. Multiplicity of information sources predisposed farmers to use Information and Communication Technologies. Availability and accessibility were major determinants of Information and Communication Technologies used by researchers and extensionists.</p> OYEDEJI TAOFEEQ YEKINNI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 L'influence de l'article 73 alinea 1er de l'acte uniforme OHADA portant organisation des procédures simplifiées de recouvrement et des voies d'exécution sur le réglement des conflits de juridictions en matière de saisie <p>Abstract</p> ENONE EBOH, Théodor Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La politique de financement du logement au Maghreb <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GHERIS, Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Migration et développement regional dans le sud Tunisien <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> FETHI, Rekik Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Estudio Contrastivo de los Sistemas fonologicos español y attié <p>La lingüística es el estudio científico del lenguaje y de las lenguas. Y, como ciencia, es un término relativamente reciente en el ámbito del conocimiento. Pero, desde tiempos remotos, los seres humanos ya se preocupaban por conocer el origen de las palabras y las diferentes familias de las lenguas. A partir del renacimiento, hubo otro enfoque que es el enfoque histórico-comparativo. Este último consistía en un intento de descubrir y de explicar relaciones comunes o divergentes entre las diferentes lenguas a partir del estudio de su historia y de su comparación. Dicho enfoque dio lugar a lo que se conoce hoy como lingüística contrastiva.<br>En lingüística contrastiva, se contrasta, de modo sistemático y desde un punto de vista descriptivo dos o varias lenguas observando sus similitudes y sus diferencias. Sus planteamientos han intentado dar respuesta a las cuestiones que plantea el proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua, a través de sus tres modelos de análisis que son: el Análisis contrastivo, el Análisis de errores y la Hipótesis de la interlengua. Cabe precisar al respecto, que el análisis contrastivo es en sí mismo el fruto de los trabajos llevados a cabo por la Lingüística Aplicada desde los años 40. <br>El análisis contrastivo se enmarca dentro del proceso que supone el aprendizaje y la enseñanza de una lengua extranjera. Dentro de dicho proceso, ha desempeñado y sigue desempeñando un papel importante. Este papel se percata en todos los niveles de la lengua, sobre todo en el nivel fónico. <br>En este marco teórico, nos interesaremos más al análisis contrastivo ya que es él que nos ocupa. En el análisis contrastivo, la identificación de las diferencias entre la lengua materna (L1) y la lengua meta (L2), permitiría predecir las dificultades que experimentarían los aprendices así como los elementos de la L2 que no plantearían dificultad.<br>En el análisis contrastivo la lengua materna no se considera únicamente como negativa en la medida en que, el hecho de conocer una lengua puede facilitar la adquisición de otra...</p> KOUAMÉ FREJUSS YAFESSOU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 ACCÈS ET RECOURS AUX SOINS DE SANTÉ MODERNES EN MILIEU URBAIN : le cas de la ville d’Abidjan – Côte d’Ivoire <p>The city of Abidjan is located in the South of the Ivory Coast. It is the economic capital since 1983 and the first city of the<br>country. It concentrates human potential and health of dense care supply modern and diversified divided on weak physical<br>distance, giving the impression that everything is approachable. In effect, the State of the Ivory Coast approved important<br>investments to construct and equip services of health care since the emergence of the city at the beginning of last century to<br>improve the access to health care of abidjanais. However, in spite of a considerable increase among health facilities and among<br>their availability, the rates of uses and company of the services of modern health care in the spaces of the city of Abidjan remain weak and the indicators of health remain very worrying and the needs in care of health are important. On top of that, the space and demographic speeded up growth which knows the city draw away quick changes in her territorial organization preventing the public authorities made responsible with planning for following the rhythm of its urban growth. They did not always manage to equip new urban spaces with timely urban services and to integrate new citizens at the various origins.<br>This thesis allows to be studying, how, in a considered context as privileged, settle the problems of access and health care seeking in the services of modern health. To accomplish this plan, this study, from the combination of spatial analysis, statistics, and field work, analyses the socio- spatial inequality of access to the services of health to head with the problem of accessibility in care, so physical, cultural, material that social. It also measures the adequacy of health care supply at the needs in care of health of populations to identify zones and populations discriminated for the access to health care. And finally, this study analyses the city practices in the use of health care, as well as the determinants that hinder or facilitate access to health care in the city of Abidjan.<br>Study results show that the services of health exist, they are dense and manifold, but they did not leave again where there are most needs in care of health. In our study, they also underline a predominance of the taking care at home of morbid episodes notably across self-medication and a reduction of the use of the services of modern care. The seeking in structures of health care becomes rare in the space where the needs in care of health are the most important. Self-medication or street medicine are the most favouring in general. Structures of health care are solicited that when illness becomes very serious. Our results also show that it is difficult to allocate to a factor the role determining therapeutic seeking, because behaviours are determined at the same time by the socio-demographic characteristics of the individual, his family and by contextual parameters, but also by the characteristics of morbid episode, by the knowledge of the ambient the health care system and attitudes in relation to the health care system.<br>However, we can say that in Abidjan, the city practices of health care seeking are depend on the economic capacity of household with risk augmented to marginalize the most vulnerable persons.</p> Maïmouna YMBA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 The religious aspects of secondary school life and their effects on the youth in Nairobi <p>The world is a "mixed-grill" so to say. It is made of people with varied set ups- geographical, racial, cultural, etc. Each specific community or country's way of life is mainly determined by what the local situation has to offer and the approach taken by the people to fit in. Further still, each persan is expected to play their role in order to survive and to contribute towards the group's sustainance. For this need to be met and to be effective, it has been deemed necessary and important that a system of training through education be adopted to guide the individuals and society on what is expected of them and how to go about fulfilling it. This explains the different for ms and types of education offered the world overinformal, formai, non-formai. Whatever the form/type of education offered, it should be a diversified and all-round entity meeting the physical, mental, moral and spiritual needs of the learner. The emphasis of this thesis is on whether and how the spiritual aspects of the secondary school students are met, and the effects there-of. The area of concentration is Nairobi where 33 sample schools are studied, with a "peep" being taken in 2 peri-urban schools in Kiambu District and 4 rural based schools in Kisii District for comparison purposes. Kenyatta University is used to determine the long-term and post effects of religious aspects of secondary school life. In order to understand the category of people focused on the characteristics and problems faced by the students are looked at and these are found to be determined and linked to their stage of ·development as well as the home, school, and social set-up. It is also recognised that society has high expectations of and for this category of people. The study is concerned about the informai spiritual aspects of school life consequently the general co-curricular activities in the specified institutions are looked at. Those with a religious bias are then concentrated on. The role of the informai activities and the students opinions and attitudes towards these activities have been identified as well as the motivating factors and benefits derived from participating in them.<br>This is followed up with the products of the sample schools at Kenyatta University, where it is observed that there are informai religious activities. The motivating factor and the benefits are the same but the emphasis shifts. Spearman's Rank Correlation Test (see pp 2s;f·2SS) is used to determine whether the secondary school's religiosity has any correlation to the student's participation in religious aspects of university life. For students to reap effectively from the education system and in order to help them serve society more, ail aspects of the learner, including the spiritual, need to be recognized and satisfied. Variousrecommendations as to how this can be achieved have been given in this study. This study is limited in many ways, necessitating identification of areas for further research.</p> GETUI, Mary N Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le Saalum de la fin du XVe siècle au milieu du XIXe siècle : populations, espace et histoire <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Rokhaya FALL Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 The Diaspora and Nigeria-Ghana Relations: 1979-2010 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> FAYOMI, Oluyemi Oyenike Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 The migration patterns of the nomadic cattle fulani of the Jos Plateau-Nigeria <p>Cattle husbandry accupies a pride of place in · the agricultural sector of Nigeria. The nomadic Fulani dominate the livestock economy·of the country for they not only own but they also rear the bulk of her cattle. The need to cater for the well­ being of their animais has kept them constantly on the move from season ta season, and from one place ta another in search of<br>pastures and water for their herds the live-wire □f their economy. This constant movement has thus constituted some social,environmental, managerial and planning problems. Their constant movement has thus constituted a serious problem that is making rather difficult ta integrate the nomads into the current streams of rural development and the national life.<br>This study has set out ta generate and provide reliable base data on the so.cial, ec:onomic and demographic c:haracteristics of thenomadic Fulani in Jos and Bassa L.G.As., whic:h may serve as valuable inputs into planning efforts. The study also sought to identify, describe and analys s the migration fa.ctors a.nd pa.tterns of the nomadic (cattle) pastoralist in the study area. A well-structured questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. This was supplemented with data from secondary sourc such as existing works and maps. A skilful methodology with the partici ant observation in the field was employed. On the basis of 360 respondents, the study found out that: the sizes of the househalds of about two-thirds of the respondents are small with households ranging from 2 - 5 members in size; that an average nom8.dic Fulani ma.nfric:her tha.n most average Nigeria _, except that he. appears haggard; that over 60 percent are illiterates. That their mi9ratory tendency is fixed except in cases of emergencies-such as out break of diseases where the decision to move away could be taken overnight. The study also found that the Fulani nomads in Jas and Bassa L.G.As. have five major migration routes which tend to follow the edges of the Jas Plateau to the adjoining plains, that there is a significant variation in the direction of movement, within-and between- the wet and dry season; and that all the f ctors of migration do not play equal roles in motivating mov ment!:i. The study not only demarcated the major autlets and/or inlets of the nomadic p storalist in the study area but also sh6wed the intra-and-iht. r-state movements involved. The attendant problems involved in migration of the nomads were also discussed. The study ends by suggasting that future studies should foc:us attention on measuring the ratPs and volumes of migration of the nomadic Fulani· and on isolating the few 'push' and 'pull' factors of migration nlt cnly in the study area but also elsewhere.</p> DOGO, Bala Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le droit international de l'environnement marin en Afrique occidentale et centrale <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> FOMETE TAMAFO, Jean Pelé Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 L’HOMME ET SA TERRE AU PAYS DE BOKO-SONGHO DU XVIIe AU DEBUT DU XXIe SIECLES <p>Le nombre d’auteurs qui ont consacré leurs travaux au Congo en général et à la Vallée du Niari en particulier est considérable. Pourtant, en considérant la masse de documents consacrés aux sociétés étudiées, on est frappé de constater que le problème de la terre n’y prend qu’une place fort réduite, comme si la terre n’était qu’un aspect négligeable de la culture matérielle de ces sociétés où elle est le fondement même de tout : wa vuama bonso bua vuamina mu toto, wa sumba lufwa, qui va s’enrichir comme s’était enrichie la terre achètera la mort, dit le proverbe. Il faut comprendre à travers ce proverbe sundi que la terre représente chez les Kongo de la Vallée du Niari et les groupes qui leur sont apparentés, toute la fortune d’un individu ou d’un groupe d’individus. A ce titre, on comprend qu’elle soit au centre de tous les conflits.<br>Allons d’abord à la définition de la terre chez les Kongo, groupes auxquels appartiennent les Dondo et les Sundi de la Vallée du Niari. Ce que les Sundi, les Dondo et leurs voisins de la Vallée du Niari appellent la terre, mutoto ou kitoto, c’est un espace délimité et possédé en propre, susceptible de contenir des forêts, des espaces culturaux, des rivières et des lacs, le tout sacralisé par l’existence d’un cimetière qui a d’autant plus de valeur que des ancêtres du groupe lignager y sont inhumés. La terre ainsi définie occupe une grande partie de l’imaginaire de ces peuples. Et Raymond Verdier a raison d’affirmer que...</p> Jean Félix YEKOKA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Women in public life: the experience of al-akhwat al muslimat (muslim sisters) case from Sudan <p>This research deals with al-Akliwat al-M11slimat (Muslim Sisters), a group that was organized by the Islamist movement in the Sudan , to encounter among other things, the communist influence among the Sudanese women's associations. The study attempted to draw attention to on-going debates on the participation of Muslim women in public life, why Sudanese women were secluded from public life; and why the Islamist movement1s attitude towards participation of Sudanese women in public life changes from conventional, retractive perspective to a liberal one. Data for this research was collected through different methods. Personal interviews, life histories and archivai records were the main sources of information. Interviews with key informants from al-Akl,wat al-Muslimat had been helpful on the early history oftheirrnovement. In order to verify the accuracy of information which was provided by al-Akhwat, interviews with samples outside the movement was, also, used. To reflect the perspective of al-Aklnl'at al-Muslimat, purposive samples were chosen from those Muslim Sisters who hold leading position on institutions or organizations. The analysis of the data rested on cross-checking the various views of the interviewees and then conclusion was drawn. Integrating the concept of Patriarchal Islam with other concepts helped to furnish a framework of <br>analysis that proved to be useful in interpreting the data on the history and politics of al-Akhwat al-Muslimat. An important conclusion is drawn from the study is that al-Akliwat al-Muslimat as Islamic activists developed their own perspectives on their paricipation in public life which varies more or less from one generation to another. Their perspectives reflect al-Akhwat <br>pragmatism and tendency to encourage a more or less gender-sensitive interpretation of Islam .</p> EL-BASHIR, Nagwa Mohamed Ali Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 A FRAMEWORK FOR FACILITATING THE TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO UNIVERSITY IN SOUTH AFRICA: A CAPABILITIES APPROACH <p>Access to university in South Africa has been, and continues to be, a highly contested area that is plagued with many layers of complexity rooted in the social, political and educational past and present. Situated within an overarching commitment to fair and just higher education, in this thesis I have attempted to understand the complex field of access to university. I have done this by focusing on the transition from school to university, through the lens of the capabilities approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The capabilities approach provides a framework for seeking to understand what young people entering universities are able to be and to do and what limits their being and doing. As such, the capabilities approach requires us to move beyond measurable access statistics to a more nuanced understanding of the agency and well-being of students admitted to university.<br>Four research questions guided the study.<br>1. How do first-year students at the UFS experience the transition to university in their first year of study?<br>2. How do learners in Grades 10, 11 and 12 from local UFS feeder high schools experience the process of preparation for and access to university?<br>3. How can these experiences of the interface between school and university be theorised using a capabilities-based social justice framework?<br>4. Based on the evidence from the research, what interventions could support efforts towards a more socially just transition for these students?<br>Working within a pragmatic paradigm, the study employed a mixed methods research design. My starting assumption was that in order to thoroughly understand the transition to university, it is necessary to study both the final years of schooling and the first-year at university. As such, the study focused on the University of the Free State (UFS) and a sample of 20 feeder schools. A total of 2816 learners in Grades 10, 11 and 12 completed the quantitative South African High School Survey of Learner Engagement (SAHSSLE) (adapted from the version used in the United States) in September 2009. The SAHSSLE provides a<br>wealth of data regarding educational practices at school as well as learners’ experiences and attitudes towards their education. A smaller sample of 33 learners also completed qualitative reflections on their school experience, plans for universities and their ‘university knowledge’. At the university level, I collected qualitative data from 128 first-year students in 2009 using focus group methodology. In 2010 an additional sample of 142 first-year students were asked to provide a written description of their first month at university and to draw a picture of how they experienced the transition.<br>The thesis covers much theoretical ground related to higher education and social justice as well as in the specific study area of access. In the access domain I make use of Conley’s multidimensional model of university readiness together with research on effective educational practices that underpins the student engagement literature and instruments. Drawing on the theory and literature, I propose an ideal theoretical capabilities list for the transition to university. Following a detailed presentation of the empirical results structured in two main sections, namely: transition to university experiences and readiness for university; I then make use of the capabilities framework to theorise the transition to university.<br>Taking the well-being of students as the starting point, the capabilities framework for the transition to university asks what the outcome of a successful transition should be. Rather than defining success merely as measurable performance (such as changing enrolment demographics, credits passed in the first-year or progression to the second year of study for example) which does not take student well-being into account; the capabilities framework presented argues that educational resilience should be regarded as the outcome of a successful transition to university.<br>In this context, resilience is defined as follows:<br>• Being able to navigate the transition from school to university within individual life contexts;<br>• Being able to negotiate risk, to persevere academically and to be responsive to educational opportunities and adaptive constraints; and<br>• Having aspirations and hopes for a successful university career.</p> <p>A pragmatic capabilities list and framework for the transition to university is proposed and defended, together with specific recommendations for how this framework could be applied to facilitate the transition to university. The seven capabilities for the transition to university are as follows:</p> <p>1. Practical reason<br>2. Knowledge and imagination<br>3. Learning disposition<br>4. Social relations and social networks<br>5. Respect, dignity and recognition<br>6. Emotional health and reflexivity<br>7. Language competence and confidence.<br>These seven capabilities encompass the lessons learned from the literature review of university access and the first-year at university, the capabilities literature, and the empirical data within an overarching commitment to social justice and the promotion of the well-being of students. The thesis ends by considering what the UFS could do differently to facilitate the transition as well as what the UFS could do in partnership with schools.</p> Merridy Wilson-Strydom Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le consentement dans la recherche biomédicale au Sénégal : cas de l'enfant <p>L’état de santé de la population dans la plupart des pays africains n’est guère brillant. Il suffit pour s’en convaincre, de se rappeler quelques indicateurs de la situation sanitaire du continent. Selon Blaise Bikandou1, plus de la moitié des 6<br>millions de décès annuels d’enfants, dont la vie pourrait être sauvée, réside en Afrique. L’Afrique subsaharienne, peuplée de 10% de la population mondiale héberge tout de même plus de 70% du nombre de cas de VIH/Sida colligés dans le monde2.<br>D’autres indices vont dans le même sens et nous incitent à dire que, les objectifs de soins de santé primaire fixés à Alma Ata 3semblent encore plus éloignés. Car, les disparités et les iniquités de la santé restent encore un défi de développement majeur<br>pour le millénaire en Afrique où, les dysfonctionnements des systèmes de santé sont au coeur du problème. L’implantation d’une recherche en santé permettant de détecter les obstacles des systèmes de santé est une nécessité absolue pour le continent africain. Pour un contexte actuel de globalisation des économies et de l’augmentation des écarts nord/sud, il paraît peu réaliste qu’une Afrique toujours marginalisée puisse trouver sans une recherche adaptée à son contexte des solutions efficientes susceptibles de promouvoir le développement scientifique et technique, visant à améliorer les conditions de vie de ses populations vulnérables. En Afrique et au Sénégal en particulier, les enfants souffrent des diverses maladies à profil infectieux, parasitaire, nutritionnel voir génétique. Les moyens de prises en charge de ces enfants sont parfois limités par les pouvoirs publics car, le financement gouvernemental est très limité. C’est dans cette situation, qu’intervient la recherche en<br>santé orientée vers les pathologies pédiatriques qui sont des priorités de santé publique. De manière générale, l’essentiel des grandes avancées médicales de notre époque est lié à l’expérimentation, qu’il s’agisse des vaccins, des thérapies contre les</p> Frankline Peggy ENEDE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Code Switching in Business Transactions : a case study of Linguistic Repertoire in Maasai Market in Nairobi, Kenya <p>The study investigates language use in a multilingual urban setting in Maasai Market in Nairobi Kenya. It outlines the codes used in the market; the advantages of using different codes in such a setting and the factors that influence the choice<br>of these codes. In addition, the study examines the influence of variables of sex, age and race in code selection. All this is unraveled through an analysis of spontaneous speech tape-recorded from the buyers and sellers. The researcher tape-recorded spontaneous speech from the respondents. The taperecorded data was transcribed on paper and the extracts from the transcribed text were analysed based on the tenets of Speech Accommodation Theory and the Markedness Model. In the analysis of the factors that influence Code Switching, the two models above were used. The theories explain the communicative intent on the part of the speaker. The Speech Accommodation Theory explains the motivational factors for Code Switching while Markedness Model accounts for the normative factors that influence switching between languages. It was observed that speakers switch codes in an attempt to converge or diverge from their interlocutors. Speakers converged when they desired to communicate effectively; when they desired social integration and approval from their interlocutors and when they aimed at maximizing profit. On the other hand, divergence was employed when the vendors wished to retain all their clients and also maximize profit. The rapid back and forth switches were prompted by the unmarked, marked or the exploratory choices. However, each of the codes has specific functions and social symbolism. There were advantages of using one code over the other; code selection was<br>aimed at maximizing profit.</p> ERASTUS, Kanana Fridah Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Une enquête d'histoire de la marge : production de la ville et populations Africaines à Dakar, 1857-1960 Tome 2 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Ousseynou FAYE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La politique de financement du logement au Maghreb Tome 2 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GHERIS, Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le phénomène de la marginalité juvénile dans les grandes agglomérations africaines : le cas des enfants et adolescents mendiants d'Adjamé à Abidjan <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> GUEU, Denis Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Déterminants et implications sociales du recours des malades du Sida à la médecine traditionnelle au Togo <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> FANIDJI, Yaovi Kassigni Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Determinants of Road Traffic Crashes on the Accra- Cape Coast Highway in Ghana <p>Certain in-vehicle engineering safety features have been found to be associated with measurable human behaviour feedback and thus crash involvement. The intended effects of road-safety measures are sometimes offset by behavioural adaptation among road users. For instance, the hypothesis of risk compensation implies that as interventions reduce the risk associated with particular actions individuals will choose riskier actions (e.g., driving faster). The study set out to test the risk compensation hypothesis on the Accra - Cape Coast highway. Guided by the Jorgensen and Abane (1999) Model for Road Traffic Accidents and Peltzman’s Risk Compensation Hypothesis (1975), the study employed a questionnaire and observation as the main data collection instruments. A total of 104 private car drivers responded to the questionnaire. Binary logistic regression and chi square statistic were used in evaluating the hypotheses- driver speed choice and driver risk taking behaviour and effect of road<br>improvement on road traffic casualties. The study found that driver speed choice and driver risk taking behaviour were a function of many factors including gender, age, driving experience, the particular car model one drives and the safety devices installed in it as well as one’s confidence that the safety devices would work in emergency situations . The study concluded that drivers show behavioural adaptation to safety devices in their vehicles and the highway condition and males are more likely than females to take risk.</p> ENOCH, Frederick Sam Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Perceptions et stratégies d'adaptation des communautés rurales du Département de l'Atlantique face à la dégradation de la qualité de l'eau de consommation <p>Les perceptions et stratégies d’adaptation des communautés rurales du département de l’Atlantique face à la dégradation de la qualité de l’eau de consommation ont été analysées. Le choix de ce secteur d’étude est guidé par le fait que le problème de dégradation de la qualité de l’eau s’y pose avec acuité et les populations adoptent des stratégies d’adaptation. Afin d’être en mesure de résoudre ces problèmes autour de la qualité de l’eau, il est nécessaire d’arriver à une meilleure compréhension : - des perceptions populaires de la qualité de l’eau de consommation ; - des perceptions du lien entre variabilité pluviothermique et dégradation de la qualité de l’eau et la gestion des contraintes liées à cette variabilité; - des perceptions de la relation entre activités humaines et qualité de l’eau et les stratégies d’adaptation développées par les populations, car l’eau a une dimension<br>culturelle non négligeable et l’échec de la plupart des projets hydrauliques est lié à une ignorance des connaissances endogènes des populations. Compte tenu de l’étendue du cadre d’étude, il a été adopté une méthode de type probabiliste. La technique d’échantillon par grappe a été utilisée. L’unité de grappe est le village et les personnes ressources ont été interrogées. Les résultats montrent que : - dans de nombreux cas la dégradation de la qualité de l’eau a une forte composante culturelle résultant des perceptions de la qualité de l’eau ; - les populations sont assez conscientes des risques hydriques induits par la variabilité pluviothermique et du fait que le non respect des interdits engendre ces risques. Par contre en ce qui concerne leurs activités, elles ne perçoivent pas en tant que tel le lien avec la qualité de l’eau. Pour elles, la dégradation de la qualité de l’eau est due au non respect des règles divines suite à l’explosion démographique, à la pauvreté, à la prolifération de nouvelles religions et à l’abandon des traditions ; - les populations adoptent des stratégies d’adaptation pour pallier les<br>problèmes de pénurie et de dégradation de la qualité de l’eau. Pour parvenir à un développement durable, il est donc nécessaire de considérer les réalités locales en raisonnant à partir des logiques des populations, plutôt que d'importer uniquement des systèmes exogènes. Les stratégies d’adaptation locales, malgré leur efficacité, présentent quelques<br>insuffisances qui méritent d’être examinées et même comblées par des mesures de correction.</p> HEDIBLE, Sidonie Clarisse Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 L'impact du système financier sur la croissance : <p>The financial system of the Economie and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA) is dominated by the formai financial system, in fact the banking structure. The post-colonial period was marked by a strong officia interventionism. The authorities carried out the nationalization of the financial institutions inherited colonization and the creation of new banks. They maintained control on the interest rate in order to minimize the credit charges to the public companies and certain sectors considered to be priority. However, the interventionism of the authorities did not give convincing results. This situation led the EMCCA to liberalize its financial system with an aim ofreinforcing the mobilization of the saving and the redistribution of the resources in order to increase the economic growth. ln spite of financial liberalization, the banks do not grant therefore the appropriations.lndeed, the models of endogenous growth specify that the development of the financial system has a <br>positive effect on the economic growth because it makes it possible to allocate a greater quantity of saving to the investments. The matter of this research task is to wonder about the relevance of this assertion. A critica examination of the review of literature enables us to analyze, from the theoretical and empirical point of view, the relation between the development of the financial system and the growth. An econometric analysis will enable us thereafter to test the impact of the financial system on the growth of the EMCCA. The use of the data of panel over the period 1985-2003, has made it possible to estimate the model without effects, the model for fixed effects and the model for random effects. At the end of these estimations, the model for fixed effects appears more robust. Our research leads to the following results: - the financial system has a positive impact on the growth of the EMCCA but its contribution is modest. lts coefficient is an elasticity equal to 0,56 what means that increase of 10% of the bank deposits (indicator of the financial development) only induced one increase of 5,6% of the real production per capital. - the interior credit rather has a negative incidence on the growth. - the domestic investment has a positive influence on the growth but its contribution is very weak. lts coefficient is an elasticity equal to 0,11 what means that rise of 10% of the rate of investment involves a rise only of 1,1% of the production. - financial liberalization does not have an effect on the growth, ils coefficient is not statistically significant. These various results enabled us to make recommendations of policies in order to clean up the macroeconomic, legal and financial environment. Key words: Financial system, Financial Liberalization, lnterest rate, Save, lnvestment, Credit, Economie policy and Economie growth</p> DOURSIA, Fina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 An eclectic philosophical hermeneutics of African personality <p>In this work, we hold the view that African personality is Eclectic that there is no single concept that represents entirely African personality. In the same manner, it is our view, that African personality is not'a static concept. It is the articulation of the African being in the historicity. rt is a progressive revelation wuicn as a mutter of fact, is related to a philosophical, sociologic~l,<br>political, educational, religious and economic being of the.Af'rican. However, that may be, our ambition r1us been to<br>critidally review and analyse African personality or dignity as a historical and t;ocio-poli tical expression. We have argued st~ongly that various external f~ctors have cousti tuted the ma,jor hiuderance to tl1e authentic existence of the African or rather, the affirmation of African being, dignity and personality. These historical t'uctors (botl1 external and internal) we identified in the study were expressed in the statement of the problem. The pertinent ones<br><br></p> EMEAGWARA, Horacé E Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 L'éducation de base au Sénégal, 1952-2000 : historique, bilans et perspectives 2014- <p>L' éducation de base se définit selon son objectif. L'objectif principal de l'éducation de base est d'éduquer et de former. L'éducation renvoie à deux actions différentes mais complémentaires: l'action d'élever et l' action d' instruire. L' action d'élever est l'apanage des parents. Elle commence avec la maman dès la naissance. Après Ja naissance, elle est poursuivie par les membres de la famille, par la société toute entière. C'est une éducation par la tradition. Celle-ci ne se fait pas sur la base de l' écriture. Quant à l' action d' instruire, elle peut être l'oeuvre des religions (l' islam, le christianisme, le judaïsme, etc.), des pouvoirs publics-privés, des Organisations Non Gouvernementales (ONG), des Technologies de l' Information et de la Communication (TIC), etc. A ce niveau, les approches ne sont pas les mêmes. Mais, ce qu' ils ont de commun c'est l'apprentissage de l'écriture, de la lecture et du calcul, etc. De son côté, former veut dire donner une certaine compétence à quelqu' un. C'est la préparation de l'individu à telle ou telle fonction sociale. La formation peut se faire sous forme d' imitation et/ou d' instruction dans le formel , le non formel et l' informel. Elle est l'oeuvre de tout le monde et ne date pas de nos jours. C'est dans ce cadre que s'inscrit cette thèse. Pour ce faire, nous l'avons divisée en trois phases. La première concerne la période 1952-1956, la seconde commence en 1957 et se termine en 1990 et enfin, la dernière débute en 1991 pour être réorientée en 2000. Ainsi, ces trois parties nous ont permis de comprendre que l' éducation de base se résume à ces verbes d'action suivants : élever, instruire et former.</p> GANO, Mamoudou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Activity pattern, anthropometric and iron status assessment of pregnant women <p>Activity pattern, body mass index and iron status were studied during pregnancy. The results wereb obtained through questionnaire, 24-hour record of activities, height and weight measurements and biochemical analysis. A total of six hundred women were used for the study. Two hundred women each in Onitsha and Nsukka towns were used for the activity pattern study. Two hundred women were used for iron status study in Enugu town. Body mass index was found for all women in the three locations. Results of the study showed no statistical significance (p) 0.05) in activity pattern between the pregnant women living in Nsukka and Onitsha. Pregnant women allocated the longest time in their activity-time schedule to sleeping, which was not less than 9 hours. The time given to health care was 3.75 hours. In the third trimester, pregnant women slept longer than in the second trimester (t = 6.04; p &lt; 0.001). Leisure time was higher in the third trimester than the second (t 2.57; p &lt; 0.05). Time given to housecare was lower in the third trimester than in the second (t = 3.33; p ) 0.001). However, time for<br>shopping and food preparation was not different (p) 0.05) between the two trimesters. Pregnant housewives allocated more time to sleeping and leisure than other occupational groups, and less time to economic activities. Total household activities was performed more on weekends than weekdays (f = 22.47; p &lt; 0.001).</p> EGBUNIWE, CHineze Anene Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Valeur économique de la protection des petites retenues d’eau au Burkina Faso : cas du barrage de Yitenga dans la province du Kouritenga <p>The question of the management and protection of water resources is in the center of actual priorities of many countries particularly Sahelian countries like Burkina Faso. The main objective of this thesis is to analyze the profits of Yitenga’s dam protection for the border populations. For that, the study has used a process that combined statistical and econometric analysis of panel data coming from border households. The econometric analysis has been possible through the use of three models: Heckman model of two steps in panel data to determine the explanatory factors of the involvement of users to the improvement of the dam quality, the logit model multinomial unordered for the identification of determining factors of the implementation of waters and soils conservation (WSC) techniques and the model of the agricultural household in order to do a robust assessment of the value of Yitenga’s dam. The analysis has permitted to note that variables as the household chief sex, the profession, theactivities around the dam, the education, WSC practice and monetary transfers contribute significantly to explain the willingness to pay (WTP). Also, very few households have implemented WSC techniques in the area. Only 20.69% of the households investigated practiced at least one technique. It evident from the results that the stony cords, the zai, the grass strips and the quick hedges are the more adopted. Finally, the model of the agricultural household, valued by the SURE method permitted to calculate the surplus of the producer-consumer and the total value of the dam that rise to 63 289 411. 39 FCFA.</p> Tibi Didier ZOUNGRANA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Socio-economic and cultural factors affecting women's work, health and nutritional status <p>This study .was designed to investigate the effect of socio-economic. and cultural factors could affect women's work, health and nutritional status. Two farming communities - Eha-amufu and Adani both in Enugu State, Nigeria· were selected for U1e study. A total or 300 womt:n comprising of JOO each of Cachers, farmers and pelly traders were studied. This sn1dy was carried oul<br>by means of focus group discussion (FGD), questionnaiw, anthropometric meawremenl, activity pattern. and, nutrient intake assessment. Educatio~ inl1uenced type of work and therefore income ol' the women. Women spent long hours al work (6.0 - 11:l hrs.) daily depending on the season of the year. Teachers met the PAO/WHO recommended requirement for protein, calcium, U1iamin, vitamin A and ascorbic. acid. Farmers met their recommended requirement for .calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid. Petty traders met their recommended intake for calcium and vitamin A. The BMI values for the , teachers (23.8±2.5) was higher than those of farmers (21.1 ±2.5) and petty traders (21.0 ±2.3). Hqwever, these three BMI val'.1es wert.: · not statisticall~ different. Teachers had better health seeking behaviour as indicated by the fact that majority (67.7%} of them went to the hospital for treatment of diseases compared to 4.1 % farmers and 8.3 % petty traders. The number of teachers<br>that went for check-up was also significantly higher (P'&lt; 0.05) than for the</p> ENUGU, Gloria Ifeoma Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La construction sociale de la culture d'entreprise dans les institutions hospitalières. <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Houda Abdellaoui Ghoul Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 GENDER AND MANAGEMENT POSITIONS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES IN SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA <p>In most patriarchal societies, like Nigeria, women gender continues to face numerous barriers in every sphere of life. The labour market, in the manufacturing industry, is a site of complex and interrelated inequalities. Thus', job segregation and<br>occupational segregation, both horizontally and vertically, remain major problems. These have largely affected the terms on which women participated in paid employment, their choice of jobs and their opportunities for advancement. They are largely represented in subordinate work roles. Only a small proportion succeeds in breaking through the glass ceiling. This study, therefore, assesses women/men in management positions in terms of their perception of these jobs, the extent to which both genders are exposed to the same technology/opportw1ity, and their level of acceptance by their subordinates.<br>Four companies with fairly large female labour force were surveyed in Lagos and Oyo states. Interviews were conducted among a selected sample of 85 women / men managers at the entry, middle and top management levels. Sixty respondents were<br>females, while twenty-five were males. Focus group discussions were held among 480 subordinates working under these women/men managers. Ancillary instruments include the case study approach, content analysis, and a review of company records. The data gathered was processed mainly through qualitative method along with some frequencies and cross tabulation.</p> YETUNDE ADEBUNMI, ALUKO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 The effects of financial constraints on investment decisions : a case study of premier Breweries PLC, Onistha, Anambre State <p>The effects of scarcity of financial resources on the investment decisions of the Premier Breweries PLC, Onitsha, were examined. It was discovered that the company modified an4 in some cases, abandoned most of its expansion programmes as a result of dwindling financial fortunes which became apparent in the 1989 / 90 financial year and contirued till 1992 I 93 financial year.<br>Some management techniques were recommended to pull the company out of the financial wood, and to ensure future growth and development of the company.</p> EMEROLE, Okwudili Beede Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Family role overload and casework treatment techniques : an evaluative study in Enugu local government area <p>The study is aimed at finding out the factors and candi tians that would aff.ect the client~' perception of the effectiveness of casework services in Nigeria oe iv The population for the study is 412 persans. This is made up .of 400 couples ·from Asata, Uwani, New Heaven and Ogui New Layout who have received casework services from Enugu Welfare Agency from 1988 to 1991 as a result of family role overload. The population is also made up of all the 12 Social Welfare Officers from salary grade level 08 to 16, who are working in Enugu Welfare Agency. The respondents are 212 persans, made up of a random sample of 200 spouses (100 couples), and the 12 Social Welfare Officers from grade level 08 to 16 working in Enugu·Welfare Agency. The questionnaire method of data collection is used. In addition, Enugu·Welfare Agency case records are also utilized. In the study, :f_&lt;)~.'~f'.· hypotheses are used, hypotheses 1, a and 4 are supported, while hypotheses 3 is not supported~ The major findings in the study are that socio-economic level, type of casework services, ·and quality of interaction are not related to the respondents' perception of casework effectiveness, while the variable sex is related.</p> ENWEREJI, Ezinna Keziah Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 EXCHANGE RATE VARIABILITY, CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AND MONETARY POLICY IN NIGERIA (1986 - 2001) <p>This study examined the linkage between exchange rate variability and currency Substitution in Nigeria. Specifically, the study tested for the existence of currency substitution and attempted to gauge its magnitude in Nigeria. Also, causality between currency substitution and exchange rate volatility in Nigeria was investigated. Subsequently, the study analyzed the implications of currency substitution and exchange rate volatility for monetary policy in Nigeria.<br>The study covered a period of 17 years -1986(1)-2001(4). Quarterly time series data collected from the International Financial Statistics published by the International Monetary Fund (!MF) and Central Bank's Statistical Bulletin were used for the analysis.<br>The time series properties of the variables were determined using the Augumented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test and the Phillip-Perron Z-test. The study adopted the unrestricted portfolio balance model of currency substitution, incorporating exchange rate volatility within the framework of the Vector Autoregression (VAR) technique. This was complemented with Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model to determine the volatility or otherwise of exchange rate in Nigeria.<br>The ARCH and Component ARCH model indicated that the sum of the ARCH and GARCH Coefficients was 0.938711 for nominal parallel exchange rate, and 1.0049774 for real parallel exchange rates. These suggested that volatility shocks were quite persistent in both the nominal and real parallel market exchange rates in Nigeria against the U.S. Dollar. The estimate of the persistence of nominal parallel market exchange rate in the long run component was 0.83, indicating that the long run exchange rate volatility component converged very slowly to the steady state. The short-run exchange rate volatility was 0.641034. Also, official exchange rate was volatile in the short run especially in the early stage of liberalization but relatively stable as from 1992.</p> <p>Also, our econometric exercises revealed the presence of currency substitution in Nigeria. Major factors driving this process were domestic inflation, expected change in the Nigerian Naira/US Dollar exchange rate and real parallel market exchange rate volatility. The coefficient of current level of GDP in the models showed that currency substitution was for store-of- value purposes in Nigeria. Measured in terms of stock, the average currency substitution index for Nigeria was 5.5 percent, indicating that Nigeria could be classified as moderately dollarized economy. The empirical results of Granger causality test support a bi-directional relationship. However, causality from currency substitution to exchange rate volatility appears stronger and dominates Results from both impulse response and the forecast error variance decomposition functions suggest that exchange<br>rate volatility and currency substitution responds to monetary policy with some lags. Hence, a one-time standard deviation shock to monetary policy variable would tend to dampen exchange rate volatility and currency substitution in the medium horizon but might not be effective in the short horizon.<br>The study concludes that currency substitution was not an instant reaction to the slightest policy mistake rather; it was fallout from prolonged period of macroeconomic instability. The major sources of this instability in Nigeria were untamed fiscal deficits leading to high domestic inflation, real parallel market exchange rate volatility, speculative business activities of market agents in the foreign exchange rate market and poor/inconsistent or uncertainty in public policies. In terms of policy choice, our result favours exchange rate based monetary policy as against interest based monetary policy for stabilization in dollarized economies.</p> DAUDA OLALEKAN YINUSA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Sexual Pleasure and the Construction of Masculinities and Femininities: Understanding Sexuality in Ghana <p>Although sexual pleasure is an important aspect of human sexuality, we know little about how women and men construct sexual pleasure. Yet, understanding how individuals construct sexual pleasure is key making sense of how they perform themselves in relation to sexual practices. How do women and men portray themselves as active agents in sexual encounters as consequence of their sexual beliefs and symbolic interpretations and meanings of sexual pleasure? Drawing on the narratives of 20 women and 16 men aged 22 to 79 years in Madina, an urban settlement in Accra, Ghana, I investigate how women and men construct sexual pleasure in Ghana and highlight women’s sexual agency. Specifically, the study explores how sexual knowledge, beliefs and experiences inform the way women and men perceive sex and initiate sexual intercourse; notions of masculinity and femininity, and how they influence women’s sexual practices; and meanings of sexual pleasure, factors that stimulate women and men’s sexual pleasure, and how they are negotiated. Both women and men were constrained discussing sexual matters due to factors such as protection of privacy, secrecy and sensitivity. Media and friends were the main sources of knowledge of sexual beliefs and behaviour. Sexual experiences varied by age and sex but not by marital status or religion. Women believed sex should be guarded while men perceived sex as a declaration of their masculinity. Although men persuaded women to engage in diverse sexual practices, women used vagina to negotiate sex on their own<br />terms. Women were active initiators of sex. Although women framed ’proper’ masculinity in terms of stereotypical reproductive norms, they also acknowledged fluidity and multiplicity of masculinities. Femininity was more uniformly characterised in terms of physical attractiveness and beauty, responsibility, and reproduction. These features, especially those related to morally appropriate sexual norms (e.g., menstrual and bodily hygiene, unplanned pregnancy etc.), influence the way women engage in sexual relations with men. Meanings of sexual pleasure were direct and indirect and were symbolic (e.g., ejaculation, scream, and asking rhetoric questions during sex) based on subjective interpretations. Both women and men reported experiencing direct expressions of sexual pleasure, i.e. ejaculation. The experience of sexual pleasure was a product of sexual negotiation based on complex factors (e.g., eroticism, sex positions, and use of aphrodisiacs) and perceptions of sexual risk (e.g., fear of suffering an ill health). Although the women’s agency was expressed within the confines of masculinist ideology, women reported negotiating sex and sexual pleasure according to self-reflecting sexual choices. Therefore, dominant ideologies of masculinity are not threat to Ghanaian women's sexuality. However, the need to address issues that would make sexual pleasure seeking easier for women and men and the removal of barriers of fears is compelling.</p> FIAVEH, Daniel Yaw Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 DETERMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL INFORMATION NEEDS AND MEDIA USE PATTERN OF WOMEN FARMERS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> YAHAYA, KUTA MOHAMMED Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Prévention de l'infection à HIV au cabinet dentaire <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> FAYE, Christophe Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 EEC and ACP relations: the implications of Lome iv convention provisions on trade and aid for the Nigerian economy <p>The gsnesis of the relationship between Nigeria and the Euro:pean Economie Community could be traced to 1966 whèn Nigeria first signed an. &nbsp;agre.ement _wi th the Communi ty whicli was not ra.tifîed... Howeverl'I wi th the<br>entry of Britain in the EEC in 1973, Nigeria was one of the Anglophone Countries which .entered the.EEC -.ACP Partnershipat this timë and was inyolved in the succesaful· negotiation of the LoW.:i' I. convention which · ·was signed on 28 February 1975P Subsequently0 she-was invo~&gt;~ecl. in the-negotiationa and sigriing of Lome' Treaties in 1980, 1985 and 1'9,90 .. other The focus of this study is on the major provisions of the fourth Lqme' Conventiofj signed in 1990,. and their relevancè or lack of i t. for the Nigerian economy., . The se prm,isions that are analysed are mainly in the areas of Trade co-operation .and financial arrangements which we oonsider as the Lynchpin of the Lo~' · Conventi_ons .. The research problem of this stU1~Y consista of an 3-nalysis of the pro;visions of Lome' Ïv Convention·:~iith -regards to trade and Aid and to find. out from s·uch analysis if these .provisions hold out much· hope for the Nigerian economy~ or if there are basic problems inher8nt in these provisi·ons which may a.ffêot the Nigerian economy a.dversely if and when 'impl.,emented.. The question posed ·by this study is: - Are the Lorne' .Il<br>Convention Provisions on trade a..~d Aid capable of boosting Nigeria's trada. with the EEC and ancouraging its economic performance? In -order to answer the question .set abo'I.·~, the ·s'tudy procaedad wi th a hypothesis that:</p> ERUGO, Johnson Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Le droit des patients <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> FALL SIDIBE, Mintou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Adoption of energy saving technology in Khartoum state: the case of improved charcoal-cooking stove. <p>Environmental conservation is becoming an increasingly important issue, stressed allover the world. Factors that minimize<br>the eradication of the natural green cover are currently considered by· many countries world-wide. In the last decade, Sudan took practical steps for testing and disseminating energy saving technologies. Some Governmental° and non-governmental organizations exerted efforts to disseminate the improved charcoal-cooking stoves after they are proved to be effective and efficient in reducing the total amount of charcoal consumed by the household sector, which is considered as the main charcoal consuming sector in Sudan. This study is primarily accentuated to examine the adoption of improved stoves as energy saving technology in Khartoum State; factors affecting rate of adoption and respondent innovativeness. Primary data was collected through face-to-face interviews with stratified random sample of respondents in Khartoum State. Simple descriptive statistics and path analysis which use multiple regression method were used to analyze the data. The study revealed the limited knowledge of the population about the importance of conserving the· environment. The statistical result,s. showed that, the adoption rate of the improved stoves in Khartoum State is very low, and the possible factors beyond this low rate were examined in the course of this study. The regression results showed that, people accept new ideas when they feel their tangible relative advantages. Those who</p> ELWASILA, Mukhtar Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 On Ideology Change and Spatial and Structural Linkages between Formal and Informal Economic Sectors in Zimbabwean Cities, 1981-2010 <p>Zimbabwean cities have been experiencing wide-ranging economic restructuring since independence in 1980. The relationships between the declining formal economy and the growing informal economy concomitant with political and economic ideological shifts over the years have not been studied extensively and are not well understood. In this study the impact of political and economic ideological shifts on the growth, spatial and structural linkages between the two sectors over the three decades, from 1981-2010, in the country’s two main cities, Harare and Bulawayo, is investigated. Mixed-method approaches were applied to gather spatial, quantitative and qualitative data. Geospatial data were created using 1164 and 857 geographical positioning system locational points of informal economic enterprises in Harare and Bulawayo respectively. Maps of the two cities were scanned, georeferenced, projected and digitised. Longitudinal and crosssectional data were gathered from archival sources and through 300 and 600 questionnaire surveys of formal and informal economic operators respectively. Qualitative data was<br>generated from 30 interviews that were conducted with professionals that influence the operations of the two sectors. The data were analysed using GIS, SPSS and Statistica software to reveal the temporal growth of the two sectors, as well as their spatial and structural linkages. It was found that the informal sector grew by 17% under the socialist policies of the 1980s. This increase was partly attributable to overurbanisation because the urban labour force increased at an average of 3% per annum compared to the formal economic sector that generated employment at an average of only 2.2% per annum throughout the 1980s. The shifts toward neo-liberal economic policies at the beginning of the 1990s resulted in immense retrenchments, forcing many workers to join the informal sector. As formal firms adjusted their operations to fight global competition, employment generation declined to an average of 1% per annum throughout the1990s. The informal sector responded by employing 61% of the labour force by 2001. The adoption of authoritarian policies at the beginning of the 2000s accelerated the decline of the formal economy which recorded negative growths for most of the first decade of the millennium. This led to the rapid rise of informal sector employment to an astronomic level of 87.8% in 2008...</p> TRYNOS GUMBO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La poterie dans l'Adamaoua au xxème siècle : identités techniques et culturelles <p>The study of the assets for the practice of pottery by women permits ta identify the<br />advantages that permit the ceramic production by women from Adamawa during the 201h<br />century. These assets are many and condition the practice by women in this area. The<br />development of the ceramic production is the result of the combination of many ecological<br />factors. The disponibility of clay, wood and the presence of a favourable climate condition the<br />practice of this activity by the Adamawa women since centuries. This research equally<br />infocus on the economic advantages that permit the practice of pottery by women from that<br />region. This shows that women benefit frorn important market to sale the ceramic products in<br />Adamawa. This permits them to make profils in order to satisfy family needs. Meanwhile,<br />women also put to profit the effective culturnl aspects within their ethnie groups rcspectively<br />to practice pottery. These ones are linked to the social habilities and to the training they<br />receive to be apt to practice that craft.</p> Eboumbou Kalla Pauline Béatrice Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Dynamique du milieu naturel dans le bassin du Zou : <p>Dans les pays en développement le problème de l'environnement se pose de nos jours en terme de déséquilibre entre les ressources naturelles et les besoins sans cesse croissants d'une population en pleine évolution numérique et soucieuse d'améliorer ses conditions de vie. La pnse de conscience de la nécessité d'une gestion rationnelle des ressources naturelles pour pallier ce déséquilibre a été assez lente, et ce, pour les raisons suivantes : - des espaces non cultivés existent et donnent l'illusion d'une marge de manoeuvre; - les soucis du court terme sont plus pressants. Depuis quelques années, deux phénomènes maJeurs ont obligé les pouvoirs publics à faire de l'environnement une préoccupation.- Le premier concerne le déséquilibre écologique qui se traduit par l'avancée du désert dans le Sahel avec pour corollaire des problèmes d'insécurité alimentaire. - Le second est lié au fait que les pays industrialisés ont commencé par déverser leurs déchets toxiques dans les pays du tiers-monde. La conjugaison de ces phénomènes a entraîné une prise de conscience qui oblige les gouvernements à <br>initier des actions allant dans le sens de la prise en compte de l'environnement pour un développement durable. Au Bénin, la question de l'environnement focalise depuis quelques années l'attention des autorités qui ont à cet effet créé des structures et tout récemment un ministère chargé de réfléchir sur la question.</p> DOSSOUHOUI, François V. Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 La dimension culturelle du management dans les organisations camerounaises <p>· A l'ère de la mondialisation des économies, on note de plus en plus l'incapacité des modèles de management ·jadis considérés comme rationnels et universels à résoudre les problèmes actuels posés par la gestion des organisations. La priorité semble désormais donnée à l'adaptation des modèles de gestion au contexte local ou national. C'est dans la perspective de l'établissement des rapports entre management des organisations et cultures locales ou nationales qu'une enquête cross-culturelle a été menée dans le contexte du Cameroun. L'exploitation des résultats de cette enquête a ,permis de : • Calculer les· indices des aires culturelles ·sur les dimensions : distance hiérarchique, contrôle de l'incertitude, masculinité/féminité, orientation à long terme, orientation à court terme, individ~!3lisme/collectivisme, "human goodness", "rules and hierarchy", "importance .of religion", "traditional Wisdom", "sharing", "jealousy", "collectivism" et "country-resposability". • Dégager des ·dimensions culturelles dans le contexte camerounais. Dimensions : "intégration familiale; intégration au groupe ou encore solidarité du groupe", "négation des valeurs anciennes", "femme chef d'entreprise et collaboration ethnique sur le lieu de<br />travail", "confian~e ethnique au travail" et l'ouverture aux autres". • Établir les typologies .en délim_itant _trois grands groupes, le groupe sous l'influence de la culture peule ; -le groupe caractérisé par les valeurs bantou et semi-bantou et le groupe des minorités de la zone anglophone. Une .fois -déterminée ·:la position des aires culturelles camerounaises sur les différentes dimensions culturelles ; il a été établi des rapports entre culture et management. Il ressort ainsi, à partir de ces rapports, certains points -importants quant à la conception : • du leadership qui semble beaucoup plus s'appuyer sur les éléments du paternalisme, • de la motivation où, compte tenu des valeurs socioculturelles, les facteurs relatifs à la qualité de la vie semblent encore plus importants, • de la structure d'organisation ; la préférence va ici aux manuels de procédure et au modèle suédois de la démocratie industrielle.</p> FOUDA ONGODO, Maurice Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Impacts environnementaux de l'inondation à Cotonou : cas du quartier Avotrou <p>The concentration with Cotonou of the economic activities, administrative and political had as a consequence a fast increase in population. This increase involved an increased requirement in housing. But, this need, the policies of housing who existed were really not with the top of waitings. Thus to place itself, the populations occupied the easily flooded zones without worrying about the attack which it carries to the operation of the natural ecosystems. Worse, the State which should play the part of organizer without any provision posed of the inconsistent acts such as the allotment of certain easily flooded zones (DOSSOU - YOVO O., 2001) thus supporting the installation of the populations in entirely hydromorphic zones. Among the many difficulties to which must face the populations living in these hydromorphic and marshy zones, there is that of the flood which remains and remains unverifiable. Most of Cotonou's habitations (30 %) undergoes the consequences of water of raw and that does not cease worsening because of the anarchistic installation of the populations ever more many .and with the rather low incomes.We estimate that the phenomenon of the flood which constitutes a quite delicate and high-risk field requires sometimes only little efforts and few investments when it is a question of saving human lives, to reduce the material losses and to protect public health. It is besides why we hope through this study to leave the paths beaten in approaching not only problems involved in environment populations continuations with the floods but also by proposing a new axis of strategies through space planning and it cleansing of their care of life.</p> ETEKA, Foumilayo Sylvie Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 The politics of Nigeria's external debt crisis <p>This study 1s en the pQlitics of Nigeria's External Debt Crisis.• Despite the efforts of government to manage it, Nigeria•s external debt crisis ersists and intensifies. The cat1ses 0f the we&gt;rsening externill de'bt. crisis, are related to the collaboration f the Nigerian dcminamt class with the creditors te maximize their expleitatiom sf the Nigerian w0rking peoples.<br>As a result ef th,i. s collilbœratien the debt milnagement · strategies iid4i&gt;pted are but mere palliaïf ves whicb inrnically, serve the interest of t.hè crecii tœrs and n0t surpristt)11gly w0rsen the crises. The interests of the werking peoples are hardly put int0 seriGus considerati@n in the chsice 0f :debt man«gement strategies. The positien aèœpted by the contending social f©rces on strategies f0r managing tme matien•s external debt are designed te ensure that their respective interests are pr@tecteà. The<br>heat and pressure generated by the deminated classas i' result ®f the gr@win9°èebt burden have ferced the government t• ad0pt am. persistently ask f® /d 6t fergiveness. rhis gees t© underscc,re the fact ittilit altheugh the balance ef ferces weighed and faveur @f the/1èred'i t0r/governmemt,<br><br></p> EGBUNINE, Anthony Ukagha Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-06 2023-07-06 Servitude et rapports sociaux au Maroc au XIXe siècle <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> ENNAJI, Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: THE POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT OF COMMUNITY-BASED ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN KENYA <p>The experience with the quest to realize sustainable development, especially at the local level, has left a disappointing legacy for the majority of African countries. The adoption of development from below paradigm in the 1980s, which presented the 'bottom-up' approach to the realization of sustainable development as an alternative to the previous 'top-down' approach, has since generated a lot of interest in the role of local organizations among development scholars and researchers. Throughout the 1990s, local organizations were viewed as the panacea for the problem of realizing sustainable development at the local level. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of empirical evidence on what local organizations can actually achieve in this regard. Questions have been raised as to what type of local organization can make a contribution to sustainable development and in which social, economic and political contexts? This study identifies communitybased organizations (CBOs) as one type of the local organizations and assesses their contribution to sustainable development in the context of their political environment in<br>Western Kenya.</p> <p>'Development from below' paradigm provides the analytical framework for the study. It posits that for sustainable development to be realized, people ought to be enabled to take control of their lives and secure better livelihoods, with the ownership and control of indigenous productive assets as the basic element in this regard. It is argued that this occurs through people's participation in the activities for securing their livelihoods; a process that enables them to build their capacity to initiate durable development activities m response to their peculiar social, economic and political environments. The study is, therefore, premised on the assumption that members' popular participation in the activities of CBOs is a prerequisite for the realization of sustainable development at the local level; and that popular participation is a fonction of the internal leadership and management structures as well as the external political environment in which CBOs operate.</p> <p>Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to collect primary data in a survey of these organizations in four districts of Western Kenya. A self-administered questionnaire was used to interview 350 members of 80 CBOs. The samples of the members and organizations were drawn using a variety of sampling techniques at various stages of the survey. These included purposive sampling, stratified sampling, systematic sampling and simple random sampling. Informai and focused group discussions were also held with key informants, including selected members of these organizations and government administrators to obtain qualitative data. Secondary data from published books and articles as well as unpublished reports from government departments supplemented these primary data.</p> <p>The findings of the study show that though CBOs have been instrumental in facilitating local people's access to resources for improving their livelihoods, they are largely dependent on external assistance to fund their activities. This dependency has been attributed to the poli tics of patronage that is prevalent in Western Kenya. In order to align themselves to the local patrons that facilitate these organizations' access to external sources of fonds and other resources, the tendency has been for most CBOs to elect or select persons into leadership who can forge or have working relationships with the said patrons. By virtue of the positions that they occupy in the local patron-client networks and the assistance that they draw for their organizations, such leaders have subsequently dominated the leadership and management processes in most CBOs; leaving members to play the functional roles of contributing and sharing resources and services. The resultant functional participation has adversely affected local level capacity building for sustainable development. Indeed, most of the projects of these organizations do not have the capacity to replicate their activities or increase their contribution to rural livelihoods without external assistance. The study, therefore, submits that CBOs are unlikely to make significant contributions to sustainable development in the context of the politics of patronage that is prevalent in Western Kenya. This implies that the neo-liberal<br>assumptions for realizing sustainable development may not be well founded in the context of the political environment that obtains in the region.</p> <p>Since patronage is a major contributor to the dependence of CBOs, which has impeded these organizations from initiating self-sustaining development activities, it is recommended that the on-going democratization process be enhanced through civic<br>education, especially in the rural areas. In addition, external assistance to CBOs should be geared towards building the capacity to mobilize local resources. One way of doing this is to give aid in the fo1m of group guaranteed revolving credit schemes and not handouts.</p> FREDRICKOUMA WANYAMA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Rationalité technique moderne et logiques-paysannes : <p>Cette population active représente 48,% et va de 15 à population a un mode de vie communautaire. élargie en est la base. Les champg collectifs appartiennent è cette famille étendue. La terre ne se vend pas et ne se partage pas non plus entre les héritiers (selon le droit coutumier jadis en vigueur) une administration villageoise sert de courroie de transmission entre l'administration centrale et la communauté villageoise.C'est une zone climat s□Ltdanien si tuée.• entre les isohyètes de avec une t€:!mpé1 aturc-: moyenne de La végétation est une forte galerie f restière et une savane à haute tige, sur un plateau graveleux et peu profond, des vallées érodées en amont et comblées en aval par des alluvions.Sur le plan socio-économique, c"est un centre urbain qui bénéficie d'une position favorable. Il y a une possibilité de diversifier le commerce avec la Guinée Conakry. Déjà le commerce de tabac représente une importante ecurce de revenu avec la CSte d'Ivoire. La population locale est homogène m@me si certaines familles vont se faire distinguées par l'achat de matériels agricoles grâce è la main d'oeuvre qu'offrait l'organisation du travail collectif. C'est sur cette base qu'il y aura une certaine différenciation lors du partage du périmètre (part du maté iel ï::1qric:0J.E ).Nous avons fait remarquer, au niveau de l'analyse critique de la situation dans la zone du chez les populations locales f ites lors du transfert des d'assistance alimentaire). ban'-,;1gf.;?, qu• il y ,;1 une suscité par les fausses populations (problème La gestion moderne des terres (regime foncier moderne) ne repend pas à l'éthique de la population. Le test de la BNDA pour doter è crédit le paysans de matériels agricoles à toute la zone du périmètr rizicole ayant été un échec n'a pas pu @tre généralisé.Le système de distribution des terres compte d"un certain nombre de critère dont l'équipement et le nombre d'actif présent dans la.famille. Quiant ,:1u:-: conditic:ms d'1•?:-:ploitt.:1tion, lf.:? r ?.spect des clauses du calendrier agricole sont exigés à tous les réquerants. Cependant le bon devéloppement de l'activité rizicole<br>dépend de l'existence de matériels agricoles.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> COULIBALY, Abdoulaye S.N Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Rôle et impact de l'audiovisuel national dans la crise politique de 1997 à 2002 au Congo Brazzaville <p>Abstract</p> Kinmalia Anicette Armelle DAGBA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Enjeux de corps et logique de l'enseignement du français oral aux élèves diplomates de l'Institut Diplomatique et des Relations Internationales : une analyse sociolinguistique <p>La langue française. comme toute langue, est un système de règles car il existe entre les termes un ensemble de relations qui les lient les uns aux autres à tel point que l'équilibre du système est affecté si l'un des termes est modifié ou n'est pas à sa place. Cependant, contrairement à la linguistique structurale qui considère la langue en elle-même et pour elle-même, pour la sociolinguistique, il n'y a pas de société sans langue ni de langue sans société il n'existe pas de langue en dehors d'une société. En d'autres termes. il y a une certaine covariance entre fait de langue et fait de société. La langue subit en effet des modifications dans son utilisation selon la communauté qui la parle et selon le contexte d'utilisation. Chaque personne, chaque corps, chaque institution scolaire, chaque société ou groupe social s'approprie la même langue et lui impose des règles particulières. Les espaces scolaires sont des lieux propices d'apprentissage du fonctionnement de la langue française et de son utilisation. C'est dans ces espaces que les élèves et étudiants intériorisent cette langue à l'écrit comme à l'oral selon des normes pré-établies</p> COMPAORE, Evéline Marie Fulbert Windinmi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The impact of structural adjustment programme on Nigeria's manufacturing sector : <p>The Nigerian eêonomy has been ~lfed in crises since the early 1980s. Various policy measures have been enunciated to contain the arises; ranging f.:rom Shagari I s austeri ty mea_sures; through t6 Buhari I s stringent stabilisation measures and now Babangida's structural A.àjustment Programme, despite these~ however9 the crises seem to intensify •. This study examines ·the background to Nigeria' s structural Adjustme_nt Prog:r-amme focussing specifioally on the nature and ori~ine<br>f.lf the crises ·in· the manufacturing sector. The theoretical efficacy ~f f.AP policy instruments/measures in the specific context a~d background of the develtt,pment of Nigeria' s ma' .nufacturing sector i s examined with a view to highlighting tht, ties and contradictions these measures p:nevide~ Macmêconomic evidence on the empirical impact of<br>SAP on tho matib.facturing sector is suryeyed, the major findings of which reveal yariatiôhs in the impact of the SAP, with big companies (especially the subsidiaries. of T~ansnational Corpo11ations generally _strengt~_ening and widening their dc:,minapce and control of the sect9r, while m:,st of the indigeneous smal~ and medium scale enterprises are now having serious problems of adjustments. Ss,=ri.e of them have beèn forced to close,:..down while '()thers êontinue to face t:hrea"ts of qlosure~, bankruptcies and reduced scales of operations.The geriera..l levels of mamitacturing investment, employment &gt;<br>production and capaci ty utilizaiion remain very. low&amp;. While prices and_. 'P!'.?fi ts remain v_ery hi~h.; â.omestic sourcing of raw material~9 dev~lo:prnent of indigeneous têdimology and strategic sudh as th~ eng:i..tieering and eÎectrica1 and elect~hics9 and iron and steel .ind:ii::;rtriés reêè.i Ve .. li ttle atténtie_n unde:t the market regul::itefl env'rionment<br><br></p> DANJU, Danbala Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The Role of Government Decentralisation in Rural Poverty Reduction in Post 1992 Uganda : a Case Study of Moyo District <p>Since 1990s, government décentralisation has assumed a significant rôle in social service delivery and poverty réduction in Uganda. It is believed to offer an opportunity to bring public services doser to local demands and preferences, and build more responsive and accountable government from the bottom-up. In Uganda, there is commitment from the central and the local governments and a framework is in place to achieve valuable progress towards poverty réduction through improved service delivery. This stffdy endeavoured to critically examine the rôle of government décentralisation in rural poverty réduction in post 1992 Uganda taking Moyo District as a case study. A variety of data collection méthodologies were used to gather the secondary and primary data needed for the study. These included interviews, structured and non-structured questionnaires, direct observation, and focus group discussions. The findings from the study suggest that government décentralisation is a silver lining in the clouds as far as poverty réduction in Moyo District is concerned. This is because the link between government décentralisation and poverty réduction is not direct. Although power and responsibilities bave been devolved to the local government, they continue to suffer from a variety of constraints. The problem of resource mobilisation and severe human capacity limitation is a challenge to poverty réduction efforts under the contemporary décentralisation program in Uganda and Moyo District in particular. Although government décentralisation in Uganda is driven primarily by a political motive of power and popular participation, one of its main goals is to increase effîciency and effectiveness in social service delivery with the aim of reducing poverty. In Moyo District, significant progress still needs to be made in the area of primary éducation, primary health care, water and sanitation, feeder/community roads, and agricultural extension services. The top community priority concerns about the rôle of government décentralisation in poverty réduction in Moyo District were good governance, political commitment to pro-poor growth; improvement in the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of service delivery; establishment of a clear propoor policy guidelines about the rôles of the central and the local governments; collaboration with NGOs, the private sector, and the local community. Gender and governance have been considered as crosscutting issues in the study.</p> ESURUKU, Robert Senath Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Economie populaire et modernité endogène: les conflits de représentations dans la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat à Saint-Louis <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> FALL, Mouhamedoune Abdoulaye Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 L'asile dans les pays afro-arabes avec une référence spéciale au Soudan <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> ELMADMAD, Khadija Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Economie populaire et modernité endogène: les conflits de représentations dans la promotion de l'entrepreneuriat à Saint-Louis <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> FALL Mouhamedoune Abdoulaye Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 AN INVESTIGATION INTO CONFLICTS BETWEEN PARENTS AND THEIR ADOLESCENT CHILDREN IN KADUNA STATE: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION. <p>This study was carried out to investigate the nature of conflict between parents and their adolescent children despite the students exposure to Social Studies Curriculum for not less than eight years of Primary and Junior Secondary School. The investigation involved identifying the concept and areas of conflicts. It was also to ascertain individual and home factors that cause such conflicts as well as the conventional approaches used by parents in an attempt to resolve them.<br>The population of the study was third year students of Goverrunent secondary schools in Kaduna State and their parents. At the time, the students were between 15 and 17 years old.<br>Out of a total of 3,050 students from 12 schools (10 Day and 2 Boarding Schools) each representing the 12 Educational Zones of Kaduna State, 300 were picked as study sample. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used.<br>The instrument used comprised of 2 sets of questionnaires, titled:<br>1. Parenting Effectiveness Questionnaire (PEQ), made up of three (3) sections, was administered to the students.<br>2. Adolescent Discipline Study Questionnaire (ADSQ), made up of four (4) sections, was administered to the parents .</p> <p>The reliability of the instruments of r= 0.6985 was established using the split half method and simple correlation. The validity of the questionnaires was also determined through adaptation of items from three (3) fully validated and used instluments, experts' sc1utiny and a pilot study. Ten (10) hypotheses were stated for testing . at 0.05 level of significance (Table 5.2).<br>The data collected was analysed using stati_stical tools of T-Test, Correlation- Coefficient and One-Wa)'. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results show that 7 out of 10 hypotheses were rejected, while hypotheses 5,6 and 8 were accepted. and retained because of the non-significant relationship or differences existing between the two variables tested .<br>In general tenus, the study established that significant differences exist between parents and their adolescent children as follows:<br>• Parents' views and choice/ recognition of areas of conflict clifferecl from those oftheir adolescent children.<br>• Girls tended to have fewer areas of conflict with parents than boys a Boarding school adolescent children tended to have fewer conilicts with their parents than adolescent students in Day schools.<br>• The socio-economic status of parents did not really influence the areas or rates of conflict.</p> <p>• The style of discipline did not influence the frequency of parent - adolescent conflict.<br>• Parents' gender has no bearing on their choice of approaches to resolving conflict.<br>• Parents' level of education had significant impact on the control and prevention of conflict with their adolescent children.<br>• Intact and single families probably experience the same types of conflicts withJheir adolescent children.<br>• Parent-adolescent conflicts had negative effect on the students'performance in social studies.<br>• Respondents in urban areas had more conflicts than their counterparts in rural areas.<br>Based on the findings a proposed Social Studies Syllabus is provided as a tool for fostering harmonious relationship at home through the school (Appendix E).<br>Replicating this research in other States, longitudinal study over the entire period of adolescence and research involving non-literate parents and adolescents were also recommended.</p> LYDIA K. K. UMAR Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Coût du Capital et comportement de l'investissement au Maroc <p>This research has two main purposes : i) to assess the cost of capital in Morocco since 1961; ii) to measure the impact of capital cost change on priva te investment. We show that the cost of capital in _Morocco remains relative/y high in spite of incentive measures undertaken by decision-makers. We also point out that investment in construction has been more attractive than investment in equipment. ln 2002, the cost of capital associated to a marginal investment in construction has been estimated to be around 12. 7 4 percent against 23. 98 percent for equipment. We argue that regardless of the activity sector and the geographic area of investment, .the cost of capital offen converges toward the cost computed on the basis of the common fiscal law. This weak differential explains, among other factors, the failure of · incentive policies which have centered on the alloèation of fiscal advantages depending on sector-based and geographic criteria. We have estimated a variant of the neoc/assical mode/ in order to measure the degree of sensitivity of priva te investment to changes in the cost of capital,. Empirical results from Moroccan aggregated data differ according to the nature of the asset. The empirical validation of the mode/ has allowed us to confirm the negative impact of increases in the cost of capital on investment in equipment. Even though the estimated e/asticities are relative/y weak, they turn to be statistically significant. By contrast, regardless of the selected lags, the impact of changes in the user cost of · capital on investment in construction remains statistically insignificant.</p> ELMORCHID, Brahim Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The Worlds of Gikuyu Mythology : a Structural Analysis <p>This study addresses the methodological and definitional shortcomings in mythological analysis. Divesting the typological definition of "myth"; that sees myth as one type. of story as opposed to another, we define myth as any tale in the Gikuyu community. ln addition to this, we adopt a methodology that seeks not only the structural unity of Gikuyu mythology but also recognises the potential for signification of delineated mythological structures. We proceed from the postulate. that myth is like language whose various constituent elements, (phonemes) combine to make meaning. Corresponding elements in mythology are called mythemes. Taking the worlds of Gikuyu Mythology as the mythology's mythemes, we in the study test the hypothesis that the structural model of the transformationai· relationships of the wbrlds of Gikuyu mythology is related to Gikuyu society and culture and it thus provides a basis for analysis of the mythology.</p> <p>Using a corpus of twenty purposefully sampled myths, we proceed to identify the worlds of Gikuyu mythology. We have then constructed a structural model showing how these worlds relate. Through the transformational relationships of these worlds we have discovered that Gikuyu mythology expresses Iwo imaginative domains in Gikuyu modes of thought. These are Existential imagination, represented by a vertical axis on the structural model and the other is the Moral imagination represented by a horizontal axis. We have proceeded to relate these Iwo axes to the Gikuyu society and culture, with insights from the latter adduced from extensive and detailed ethnographie data.<br>The hypothesis formulated for this study has thus been sustained. With oil, our definition and method have proved productive.</p> Michael Wainaina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La gestion locale de l'environnement dans les cités du lac Nokoué : région urbaine du littoral du sud Bénin ANNEE ACADEMIQUE 1998- <p>Compris entre les parallèles 6Q20' et 6Q30' Nord, les méridiens 2Q20' et 2Q 35' Est, le lac Nokoué s'étend sur 20 km d'Est en Ouest et 11 km du Nord-Sud ; il couvre ainsi une superficie d'environ 160 km2 en période de hautes eaux. Le lac avec ses basses <br>vallées constituent le terroir dès hommes de l'eau et des cités lacustres. Douze mille (12000) pêcheurs vivent dans ces cités constituées par une constellation de villages disséminés autour du lac sur une superficie de 15000 ha. Ce sont des Tofin, qui ont su développer une civilisation de l'eau depuis leur première installation qui remonte à 1650. En effet, La gestion de l'environnement lacustre se traduit par: La gestion du plan d'eau qui a généré une civilisation de l'eau. La civilisation de l'eau a développé la navigation comme pri6ipale mode de communication. L'exploitation de l'écosystème aquatique a favorisé la suprématie de la culture co"tv-e s.,.iso"Jde pêche. La vie sur l'eau et au voisinage de l'eau a suscité la spécialisation des<br>_habitations sur pilotis. La transmission du savoir repose sur une culture orale. Les potentialités et les atouts naturels de ces cités lacutres font d'elles des pôles attractifs et des foyers commerciaux et touristiques fréquentés par les populations urbaines de la région du littoral du sud Bénin. Le lac Nokoué, exploité depuis des siècles, connaît aujourd'hui une dégradation environnementale poussée avec des menaces sur la biodiversité. L'urbanisation très avancée du littoral sud béninois, et la poussée démographique qui y est liée ne sont pas sans effet sur la dynamique de l'environnement lacustre. En effet, la <br>croissance de la poupulation lacustre, les aléas climatiques, le genre de vie, les techniques de pêche ( Akadja , Medokpokonou, filets à mailles fins), les pratiques agricoles en amont et conséquemment l'altération des granitoïdes du socle cristallin, la <br>dégradation mécanique et l'altération chimique du Continental. Terminal• qui s'en suivent posent un certain nombre de problèmes environnementaux dont les principaux sont :</p> CLEDJO, Placide F.G.A. Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Participation paysanne à la gestion des ressources forestières ligneuses : cas des bois villageois à Bambey <p>Les études sur le potentiel ligneux dans certaines régions du Sénégal montrent des ressources forestières limitées qui du fait de la sécheresse et du déboisement se dégradent continuellement. L’une des solutions préconisées face au problème est d’intéresser les populations à la gestion des ressources forestières et de les inciter à l’appropriation de ces ressources. C’est dans cette optique que le projet agroforestier (PAGF), dans le Bassin arachidier plus précisément dans le département de Bambey, a appuyé les populations des villages de Ndiéyène Thialaw et de Keur Mbar à la gestion des bois villageois. C’est à travers donc une approche participative que le projet met en oeuvre son intervention et sa communication. La principale question que nous nous posons dès lors est de savoir si la participation des populations à la gestion des ressources forestières ligneuses est effective ? Notre objectif principal est d’éclairer le processus de gestion participative des ressources forestières ligneuses dans le cadre des relations de communication entre les différents acteurs. La méthodologie adoptée est une étude comparative de la gestion de deux bois de villages (l’un bien géré et l’autre mal géré). Cette étude qualitative se base sur l’analyse genre et retient essentiellement les techniques d’enquêtes comme l’observation directe, les entretiens informels, les entretiens semi-directifs avec les agents du projet, avec les populations des deux villages et les focus group avec les hommes et les femmes. Les résultats de l’étude montre que l’approche participative et la stratégie développée par le PAGF avec le suivi permanent des activités de pépinière, de reboisement et d’entretien du bois villageois par l’animateur et le relais technique a permis aux populations d’être conscientes du rôle qu’elles doivent jouer dans le développement de leur terroir. Cependant<br>l’approche du PAGF n’est participative que dans le sens où le projet implique les populations ; mais les activités sont déjà définies sans les populations. Les paysans pour des raisons économiques et écologiques baissent les bras et préfèrent se tourner vers d’autres activités plus rentables. Dans l’attente de l’aide de projets pour surmonter leurs problèmes. Deux facteurs socio-culturels sont prépondérants pour une participation communautaire au bois de village et en générale à la gestion des ressources ligneuses : une dynamique organisationnelle et la présence d’ « activistes » du développement. Les facteurs qui freinent cette participation sont le manque d’eau, la précarité de l’agriculture et l’exode rural.</p> Adji fatmata K Daffé Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Analyse économétrique de la demande d'importation des produits laitiers en Côte d'Ivoire <p>La Côte d'Ivoire dont l'économie est principalement basée sur les cultures d'exportations dont le café, le cacao et le bois, éprouve des difficultés pour la couverture des besoins en produits laitiers à partir de la production nationale. Cette situation est principalement due à une offre domestique insuffisante limitée par de nombreuses contraintes et l'inefficacité de <br>la politique de développement de la production nationale de lait. Ainsi, pour satisfaire la demande ivoirienne en lait, la Côte d'Ivoire a recours à des importations massives de produits laitiers provenant en majorité des pays de l'Union européenne.Or, le marché laitier international est en pleine mutation avec une hausse des cours des différents produits laitiers principalement du lait en poudre largement utilisé dans la reconstitution des produits laitiers par les industriels ivoiriens. Par ailleurs, la Côte d'Ivoire traverse actuellement une période de récession économique marquée par une baisse de la croissance du PIB par tête.Ainsi, dans l'optique de la mise en œuvre de stratégies qui permettront à la Côte d'Ivoire de faire face aux aléas du marché international et de répondre aux objectifs de sécurité alimentaire tels que formulés dans le plan directeur 1992-2015, il est apparu essentiel d'analyser la demande d'importations des produits laitiers en Côte d'Ivoire. Deux objectifs spécifiques ont fait l'objet d'études; Il s'est agit: (1) de déterminer la sensibilité de la demande d'importation de produits laitiers face à une <br>variation des prix internationaux (2) d'identifier les relations de substitution et de complémentarité entre les produits<br>laitiers importés. Pour ce faire, le modèle AIDS a été le principal instrument économétrique utilisé dans l'analyse en <br>posant comme hypothèse de travail l'absence de différences entre les produits laitiers importés à partir du moment où ils proviennent d'une même origine l'union européenne. Les résultas des élasticités non compensées obtenues indiquent que : L'influence exercée par les prix internationaux est fonction du niveau de transformation des produits laitiers. Les produits de base pour l'industrie locale fortement sollicités par le marché laitier ivoirien comme le lait en poudre, le lait concentré et le beurre ont une demande d'importation inélastique. Par contre la crème de lait, le yaourt, le fromage qui sont des biens beaucoup plus élaborés et qui peuvent être reconstitués à partir des produits laitiers de base, ont une demande d'importation <br>élastique. Le lait liquide non concentré, produit intermédiaire entre ces deux niveaux de transformation a une demande d'importation a élasticité unitaire. Ces différents comportement s'expliquerait par le fait qu'il n'existe aucune possibilité de <br>substitution des importations par la production domestique, étant entendu que cette dernière n'est pas compétitive et couvre moins de 10% des besoins nationaux. L'identification des relations de substitution et de complémentarité entre les produits laitiers a révélé que les produits issus de la troisième catégorie à savoir le yaourt, le fromage et la crème de lait ont de très forts substituts parmi les biens de la première catégorie. Le lait en poudre, le lait concentré et le beurre sont par contre faiblement substitués par les autres produits laitiers. Par conséquent, un renchérissement du prix international se traduirait par un abandon _du yaourt, du fromage ou de la crème de lait au profit du lait en poudre, du beurre et du lait concentré.<br><br></p> COULIBALY YEKELEYA, Jeanne Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Les Ministres dans le système politique marocain <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> EL MASSAOUDI, Amina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Mushroom Value Chain Analysis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia <p>MUSHROOM VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS IN ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA<br>In this study mushroom value chain analysis was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The general objective of the study was ta understand the mushroom value chain which helps ta identify what interventions will be needed in order ta make the sector more competitive in the domestic and export markets and thereby improve the livelihood of the urban people. Primary and secondary data were collected from 120 producers, 5 traders, 8 spawn suppliers, 6 supermarkets, 7 hotels and restaurants and 40 end users. For analysis descriptive and inferential statistics, alternative specific conditional !agit and Cobb-Douglas production function were applied. On average about 13,477.5 kg mushroom was produced per month by sampled producers with the productivity of 4.4 kilogram per bed. The average price of mushroom was range from 30.7 to 64 ETB per kilogram. <br>Mushroom value chain actors are input suppliers, producers, traders, processors and consumers. There are eight mushroom market channels in the study area. The highest and the lowest amount of the total value added were 171.87 and 20.77 ETB per kilogram, respective/y. Spawn suppliers play the greatest role in the distribution of input and output along the value chain. The structural conduct pe,formance of mushroom producers revealed the characteristics of bath monopolistic and perfect competitions. Whereas the structural conduct pe,formance for spawn suppliers had show the characteristics of oligopolistic market structure. Alternative specific conditional logit mode! estimates showed that alternative specific variables, volume of mushroom purchased and mode of payment are significantly determining the choice of alternative market. Case specific variables such as sole proprietor business type, marketing experience, primary and tertiary education level, continuous production, being licensed and the amount of credit are significantly affecting the choice of alternative markets relative to the base alternative market. Cobb-Douglas production fimction result also shows that clzemical pasteurization and the quantity of spawn were significant at 1% level. Cast of spawn was also significant at 5%, while being partner business type; extension <br>access and experience were significant at 10% level. Based on the results it can be concluded that, demographic, cultural, socio- economic and institutional factors influence mushroom value chain. Higher educational and research institutes release of suitable mushroom production technologies and scale up may contribute for the commodity development. Relevant governmental bodies need ta create awareness about the nutritional and medicinal values of mushroom, generate <br>market information, ta facilitate licensing, ta establish standard and quality contrai mechanisms and link produters ta potential market.</p> DAGNE GETACHEW, Woldemedhin Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La protection des droits de la personnalité dans l'audiovisuel au Bénin par la HAAC : <p>Abstract</p> D'ALMEIDA, Codjo M. Modesto Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 EFFECTS OF AUTOMATED TECHNICAL DRAWING COMPUTER ASSISTED DRAFTING TECHNIQUE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND RETENTION IN TECHNICAL DRAWING <p>The study sought to determine the effects of Automated Technical Drawing Computer Assisted Drafting Technique AUTOTEDRACAD on students’ academic achievement and retention in technical drawing. A quasi experimental pretest and posttest design was adopted because random selection of subject into treatment and control groups was not possible without disruption of the school programme under the study. The population of the study was 2110 technical year two students in eleven technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State. The sample comprised 240 students drawn from four technical colleges. Simple<br>random sampling technique was employed to select the colleges with purposively sample method used to determine the experimental and the control group. The instruments used for data collection was Technical Drawing Achievement Test (TDAT) constructed by the researcher and validated by the five experts, one from the department of Technical Education, University of Uyo, one from Science Education, University of Nigeria, and three from the department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Automated Technical Drawing Computer Assisted Drafting (AUTOTEDRACAD) lesson plan<br>produced into software and conventional lesson plan were the instruments for treatment of the experimental and control groups. The research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation, while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study among other things found out that there is a significant difference in academic achievement and retention of students taught with AUTOTEDRACAD technique than those taught with demonstration method. It was recommended that technical teachers should make use of AUTOTEDRACAD technique as it highlights a shift from teacher centered to an inclusive and integrated practice. It further revealed that it Improves understanding, develops creativity and promotes problem solving skills needed in construction and engineering industries.</p> USORO, ANIEDI DANIEL Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Fishing communities' adaptation to climate change at Komenda-Edina-Eguapo-Abrem Municipality, Ghana <p>Adaptation to climate change in local contexts and fishing communities in Ghana has not received the desired attention even though these contexts are considered the mostat- risk and vulnerable. The objective of this study was to assess how fishing communities in the Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem Municipality adapt to climate change. The study was guided by the crisis management and timeline model, and the endogenous development adaptation system framework. Four fishing communities were purposively selected based on their community characteristics and observable evidence of a changing climate. Both primary and secondary data were collected for complementary reasons. Sixteen fishermen participated in in-depth interviews while 12 focus group discussions were conducted. In addition, a survey was conducted with 222 fishermen who had at least one decade or more experience in fishing and had stayed in their respective communities for two decades or more. A set of secondary data comprising temperature (1993-2011) and rainfall records (1980-2009), and satellite images of land cover change (1986-2002) from Landsat were also accessed. From observation and experiential knowledge, over 80 percent of the respondents expressed that temperatures and the sea level have increased while rainfall has decreased as observed over the last three decades. Spiritual factors were used to explain the reasons for the change in temperature, rainfall and sea level. The secondary data, however, did not show any consistent increase or decrease in temperatures and rainfall characteristics. Impacts of the changing climate were adverse on habitats, fish catch and indigenous knowledge in fishing. Temporary relocation, adaptive fishing practices and alternative livelihood strategies were implemented to adjust to the changing climate. These strategies reflected the local beliefs and practices in indigenous knowledge, although most of which did not yield the desired results expected. The co-evolution of knowledge and innovations towards adaptation to climate (based on the endogenous development adaptation system framework) was weak due to poor linkage between the indigenous and the conventional institutions. The Municipality and the local fisherfolks need to engage to develop a locally appropriate and applicable framework to guide and promote effective adaptation.</p> ESIA-DONKOH, Kobina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 SUBSTANCE ABUSE AS STRESS COPING STRATEGY IN A DEPRESSED ECONOMY <p>Substance abuse as stress coping strategy in a depressed economy was investigated in this study.<br>A sample of 236 participants (198 females and 38 males) were selected from schools located in rural and urban areas. Tlie participants are all teachers in the selected schools.<br>Two instruments were used in this study namely: (i) a 20-item stressful life events questionnaire and (ii) a 15-item substances of abuse questionnaire. These two instruments were developed and validated by the researcher. The following hypotheses were tested:<br>1. There will be positive relationship between perceived stress and substance abuse.<br>2. More males than females will indulge in substance abuse when faced with stressful life events.<br>3. Married people will engage in more frequent subsfance abuse than their counterparts who are single.<br>4. Literate urban dwellers will indulge in m9re substance abuse than the literate rural dwellers.<br>5. Married people will experience more stress than their counterparts who are not married.<br>The Pearsori-r and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were used to analyze the data. Results of the Peason-r indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between felt stress and frequency of substance usage. The higher the individual's<br>reported level of felt stress, the higher the level of substance usage. (p &lt; 0.05). r<br>Further analyses revealed that more males than females indulge in substance abuse as stress coping strategy (p &lt; 0.05).<br>Married people reported higher frequency of substance use than their counterparts who are unmarried (p &lt; 0.01).<br>The result also revealed that there was rm significant differenc;e between urban and rural dwellers on the frequency of drug use. The findings and the limitations of the study were discussed and some of their implications and areas of future research highlighted.</p> UGWU LEONARD Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Système de production du riz et pauvreté paysanne en zone office du Niger, stratégies d'adaptation paysanne : cas du village de Dogofry <p>L’intensification de la riziculture et la libéralisation du marché ont entraîné des changements très importants. Les systèmes de production en zone Office du Niger ont connu de profondes modifications à cause de l’aménagement des terres rizicoles.<br>L’utilisation plus intense des engrais minéraux ainsi que la culture attelée et mécanisée se répandent. On passe alors d’une agriculture de subsistance à une agriculture de marché sur des terres appartenant à l’Office du Niger mais contractualisées avec les paysans. Une étude en grande partie basée sur des enquêtes de terrain a été menée en zone Office du Niger, en vue de collecter des données relatives aux systèmes de production et aux stratégies d’adaptation des paysans aux contraintes de production pour l’amélioration de leur condition de vie. La riziculture devient de plus en plus exigeante en intrants et moyens financiers à cause du vieillissement des terres. Cette exigence se caractérise par l’endettement des colons et par conséquent, la détérioration de leurs conditions de vie. Il s’agit de la pauvreté monétaire, de conditions de vie et de potentialité. Le capital d’exploitation est principalement constitué de 56% pour le prêt engrais par le biais des Associations villageoises (AV), 25% pour les autres types de crédit (de particulier en particulier) et 19% pour le micro crédit. La population active est insuffisante si bien que les exploitants font recours au travail salarié. Les principales activités de la transformation du riz sont : l’étuvage, le décorticage, le blanchiment, le tri et l’ensachage. Le développement et la multiplication des décortiqueuses privées, ont permis à de nombreux producteurs de se lancer dans la transformation artisanale de leur riz paddy (Gambiaka, Adini, BG etc.).<br>Avec la monoculture du riz, sur les 38 exploitants enquêtés, dix sept (17) sont très pauvres ; seize (16) sont pauvres et cinq (5) sont riches. Les superficies des exploitations agricoles sont petites (2 hectares en moyenne) face à une population<br>croissante. Les revenus de la seule culture du riz, ne parviennent pas à satisfaire les besoins fondamentaux des exploitants. En conséquence, des exploitations éclatent et des</p> COULIBALY, Brahima Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La discrimination salariale sur le marché du travail au Bénin : un essai de mesure <p>Abstract</p> DANSOU, Blandine M.C Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 An Economic Analysis of the Domestic Resource Cost and Effective Protection in Selected Nigerian Manufacturing Industries : 1970-1985 <p>The study set out to appraise the foreign exchange saving or earning of import substi tuting industrialization wilh particular reference to the Nigerian manufacturing industries; examine the extent to which the tariff structure has affected industrialization;<br>and examine whether there was any bias in the manipulation of the tariff structure against or in favour of any group of industries.</p> <p>Two basic approaches were adopted in the area of methodology The first dealt mainly with the evaluation of domestic ressource cost and the various measures of tariff protection in the Nigerian manufacturing industries for selected years. The second approach formulated models to examine the relationship between tariff structure and industrial development, employing the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique.</p> <p>The study revealed that activities in the capital goods sector with the lowest protective measures had the lowest domestic<br>resource cost in terms of foreign exchange saving or earning while those activities in the consumer goods sector with the highest protective measures recorded the highest domestic cost of foreign exchange. The bias of the tariff structure was clearly in favour of the consumer goods sector and against the intermediate and capital goods sectors. In addition, the discriminations against experts as expressed by negative net effective protection were more the intermediate and capital goods sectors. The statistical methods employed revealed that, there were statistically significant relationships between the measures of tariff protection and industrial development in some versions of the models.</p> UNIAMIKOGBO, Samuel Ogbomeda Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Leadership and organizational performance in selected South-Western Nigerian universities <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> ERERO, Ezaena John Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Les accords politiques dans la résolution de conflits armés internes en Afrique <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> EHUENI, Manzan Innocent Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Le Supply Chain Management : un levier d'intégration des Global Value Chains. Le cas de la Xylo-industrie au Cameroun <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> EYENGA, Doline Pulchérie Marie-Hortense Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La métallurgie ancienne du fer dans le Bwamu (Burkina Fasso): <p>Le présent rapport a été élaboré au Centre de Recherches Africaines ( C.R.A.) - Paris I ( Panthéon-Sorbonne). Il constitue notre projet de thèse. Avant d'en exposer le contenu, nous tenons à manifester notre gratitude à tous ceux dont les <br>conseils , enseignements, et autres soutiens matériels et moraux ont permis sa réalisation Nous pensons particulièrement à M. J. DEVISSE Professeur émérite d'Histoire et Archéologie Africaine. Son calendrier de trpvail très chargé ne l'a pas empêché de suivre avec beaucoup d'attention les différentes étapes de confection du présent dossier. Qu'il trouve ici satisfaction. A MM. les professeurs J. POLET et J. CHAVAILLON pour leurs enseignements et leurs conseils. Qu'ils en soient infiniments remerciés.</p> <p>A M. P. BENOIT Maître de conférence à l'U.F.R. d'histoire de Paris I, pour la sollicitude dont il a toujours bien voulu nous témoigner. Notre reconnaissance va également à M. A. HESSE, Directeur de CNRS au Centre de Recherches <br>Géophysiques de Garhy, pour nous avoir permis d'effectuer un stage à ses côtés. Nous ne saurions tourner cette page sans adresser une fois de plus nos vifs Conseil de la Recherche Economique et sociale en Afrique <br>(C.O.D.E.S.R.I.A.) dont le soutien matériel et financier a permis la réalisation de notre mémoire de Maîtrise.</p> COULIBALY, Elisée Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 A socio-economic appraisal of inland water transport in Sudan <p>The aim of this study is to contribute in the scientific knowledge with some insights of Sudan's experience in inland water transport. Such an effort can not be materialized unless it is based on some elements of the social sciences. Although we are making use of the differen! human knowledge available at different branches of science, of both natural and social ones, our major theme is based on some of the theories of sociology of development and the economics of transport. At a very general level of both sciences, we are going to consider specific and relevant theories which are to be under careful analysis in testing river transport in Sudan. Thus, we are planning to apply cost - benefit and inductive analysis to base -line data and address the systems' poor fleet capacity utilization and check the rising cost - revenue ratios. Sudan, as an underdeveloped country, should build up a genuine development strategy which can improve the conditions of the total population .To do this, among other economic measures, there is an urgent need to restructuring transportation net works which are currently designed to provide removal of the export product to the capitalist centres and reorienting other infrastructural facilities to meet the needs of domestic production for the producers' consumption. On the other hand, for the sake of making comparative advantages with other international systems, we have to analyse the empirical situation in Sudan. By doing so, we are attempting a practical interest, hoping to come up with a comprehensive strategy and policy recommendation, that can enhance social and economic. returns to river transport in Sudan and other developing countries, particularly in Africa.</p> EL KHIDER, Mohammed Osman Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 L’ARTISANAT DU CUIR DANS L’EXTREME-NORD DU CAMEROUN DU XIXè SIECLE A 2007 <p>Based on different written documents, oral and iconographic sources and field observation, this work intends to analyse the evolution of leather activity within the context of its development, the methods of acquiring skins, the production, the use and the trade of leather and leather objects. This thesis emphasize also on the impact and the problems faced by the leather handicraft. It was between the 19th and the 20th centuries that pockets of leather activities in a high scale developed in the<br>localities of Maroua, Bogo, Mindif and Doumrou. It was introduced by the Kanuri and the Hausa peoples. The latter migrated into Northern Cameroon during the Fulani Jihad of the 19th century and developed traditional trade and industry in many domains among which was leather. Skins of animals such as cows, sheep and goats were transformed into leather through techniques which make use of products retrieved from nature in their majority. Fabricated items include prayer mats, covers for the Koran, shoes, war arsenals, G-strings and horse-riding paraphernalia destined to trade. Between the 1940s and 2007, Maroua leather artwork has particularly witnesses various changes caused by many factors. Measures taken by: the French colonial masters, the development of tourism and the advent of NGOs working the leather sector, the creation of associations, cooperative groups and common initiative groups, have contributed in changing the face of that sector of activity not only from the perspective of tanning, but also from the fabrication of leather objects. As a result of this, leather handicraft were organised, the models of products were then changed taking more and more the shape of western civilization. Such structures for the sale of leather objects have been created such as the Maroua Artisanal Centre in 1955 and the Artisanal Complex in 2007. In the other localities, however, leather artwork has not undergone major influences. Fabricated items objects remained almost the same as those of the 19th century. Those localities specialize more in tanning and the leather is forwarded to Maroua. From the 19th century to 2007, leather objects were sold in markets and other market centers created in localities of leather activities and their environs, in the areas of the ex-Adamawa Emirate, in the Southern parts of Cameroon, . These objects are also sold in other African and even European countries. The local populations, foreigners living in Cameroon, tourists and people from other parts of Cameroon are the main buyers of the Far Northern artworks. Objects which are fabricated serve various purposes especially for clothing, esoteric and esthetic purposes. In other localities of leather activity, the Kanuris and the Hausas have always taken the lead, whereas in Maroua, it does not go the same. The changes that took place there have contributed to break the ethnic monopoly and to involve people from diverse origins among whom some women. As an activity providing useful products for the people, the leather craftsmen thus occupied a privileged position in the 19th century society and even during the French colonial period in Maroua. The advent of modern products which progressively replaced those of local handicraft has had an impact on the social consideration on operators of this sector. In spite the prejudices on the leather work, it is worthy to note that in Maroua, for example, certain leather workers still enjoy a respectable social position thanks to their incomes. On the whole, leather craftsmanship has a multidimensional impact. It is a source of income to the whole chain of operators who are involved; it takes part to interethnic mixing, supplies the market of tourism and through its products, it contribute to the promotion of cultural identity of the Far North region worldwide however, it pollutes the environment through its nauseating smells and destroys it by the use of wild animals’ skins, attracts young school drop-outs thus contributing to illiteracy. For some years now, this local craft suffers from the scarcity of skins and other materials which contribute in tanning and the making of leather objects. Conflicts between craftsmen, leather products dealers, and NGOs mars this sector of activities whose products’ quality, sometimes doubtful, affects its sale.</p> WASSOUNI François Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La protection internationale des droits de la propriété́ industrielle dans quel but ? <p>La Société Juridique mondiale repose sur un système dans lequel des normes ont été définies au moins sur les points suivant : qui est protégé, quels droits sont garantis et à qui appartiennent - ,ils, de quels façons les droits sont - ils lini.ités <br>dans l'intérêt de la société et enfin par quels n1oyens et de quelle manière ces droits sont - ib garantis et protégés».<br>Cette assertion est du professeur Heiki Pisuke qui se prononçait au cours d'un colloque organisé conjointement par l'organisation mondiale de la propriété 'intellectuelle (OMPI) et la direction générale des brevets et de l'enregistrement de la Finlande. Il est évident pour nous, que ces propos constituent un bel illustré de la construction qui a été entreprise depuis 1883 dans le cadre de l'haimonisation des régimes juridiques du droit de la propriété intellectuelle en général et des droits de la propriété industrielle en particulier. Au centre de cette réflexion se trouve la créativité humaine, socle du progrès et de l'évolution des sociétés. Le genre humain a h· s tôt appréhendé l'intérêt qu'il y avais à promouvoir lfi sécurisation de l,a <br>propriété industrielle afin d'encourager l'innovation. Indubitable :.vecteur de développement économique, les « créations industrielks » vont ici, au delà du seul secteur industriel pour s'attacher au domaine des affaires et de la consommation.<br>Les droits de la propriété industrielle sont constitués par le brevet d'invention, la marque, les dessins et modèles industriels, l'indication géographique, le nom commercial. Le régime inte111ational de la propriété industrielle a pour but d'instaurer un équilibre économique assurant les conditions de la concurrence et protégeant les droits exclusifs d'exploitation. Initialement organis par L'OMPI, le régime de la protection de la propriété intellectuelle va basculer sous l'autorité de l'organisation mondiale du commerce· (OMC). L'Afrique, acteur infortuné de ce nouveau système qui consacre la rnarchandisation de la propriété industrielle continue de défendre sa plaidoirie. Mais pour des questions aussi déterminantes que la protection des <br>obtentions végétales ou le brevet des produits pharmaceutiques, le chemin à parcourir est encore long.</p> DADI, Zirignon Aristide Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Le Franc CFA à l'heure de l'Euro : <p>This study examines optimality for ëight African countries of the franc zone (PAZF) for adopting a fixed exchange rate. The focus is ciil the nature of the shocks affecting the economies ofthese countries and the degree of asymmetry of the shocks compared to those~ prevailing in four countries of the ëuropean Union. The two-stages methodology, largely used under this circumstance by Charnie, DeSerres and Lalande (1994) and J. M. Goma (2000) is applied. From the observations of the real produciion, price level and money supply over the period 1989: 1 to 1998: 4, 'the estimate a vectorial system autoregression (VAR) identifies tlu:ee types of structural shocks: real and monetary demand and supply shocks. These· shocks are then <br>strucµ.rr..e,:;Lînto yrnmetrical and asyrrünetrical components. The results show on the one hand that, contrary to the shocks of demand, a large part of the variance of the production of the PAZF is due to the shocks of supply either in the short and long run. On the other hand, Côte d'Ivoire, Central A:frica, Chad, Senegal and Togo could be at the core of a monetary union. Moreover, each african country of the franc zone seems to be affected by shocks of supply having n;,ore common characteristics with the: mainder of the PAZF than with the european Union. Since there rnay exist mechanisms which could <br>facilitate the quick aùjustment of the african economies, the fixed exchange· system could be adopted ·without any prejudlce either in the short or medium tenn. Still, the PAZF must think over an· integral franc area which could free itself from a fixed<br>exchange system in the long run.</p> DEDEHOUANOU, Fidèle S. A. Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The Economic and Social Effects of Mobile Phone Usage: The Case of Women Traders in Accra <p>Research on the impact of mobile phones - and associated information and communication technologies (ICTs) - on micro and small enterprises (MSEs) is on the ascendancy in the contemporary "JCT for Development" (ICT4D) scholarship milieu. There have however been relatively few studies focusing on both access and the quality of mobile phone use in the informal MSE sector. This is particularly conspicuous in the case of Ghana, where there is not much research on the impact of mobile phones on the businesses and lives of informal micro-traders. This thesis explores the manner in which women micro-traders have integrated mobile phones into their businesses and how this has affected their lives. The research takes the form of a multi-sited case study and uses semi-structured interviews and participant observation to explore patterns of mobile phone use among women in four markets in Accra - Makola, Agbogbloshie, Kaneshie and Madina. The study focuses specifically on microtraders working in the wholesale and retail markets for vegetables and textiles. Two broad conclusions follow from this research. Firstly, at the level of individual experiences, the women traders recount how mobile phones have become indispensable to their trading activities. The study finds that mobile phones improved the working routine of the women in<br>a number of ways: by improving the exchange of market information (via calls and to some extent texting); by enhancing the coordination of micro-trading activities; by strengthening relationships and trust within trading networks; and by helping to reduce transactional and transportation costs. The effects of mobile phones on these women's micro-trading activities have extended positively into their social lives. As profit margins have increased and costs have been reduced, the resulting improvement with respect to incomes has enabled these women to attain an improved 'self-image' and a new level of socio-economic status within the informal economy of Accra. Secondly, notwithstanding the benefits reported by the women micro-traders, the study also suggests wider patterns associated with digital inequality. The women had limited technological knowledge of their mobile phones, and made limited use of more advanced mobile services, such as mobile money transfer and mobile banking. These patterns are explained in terms of inequality with respect to various forms of literacy: basic language literacy; technical literacy; and information literacy. Key dimensions of inequality include age/intergenerational differences and educational differences. While the study explores these patterns of inequality with respect to mobile phone use, it concludes by arguing that the integration of mobile phones into micro-trading has introduced some formality into the domain of informal micro-trading in Accra.</p> Yvette A. A. Ussher Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The identification of psycho-educational factors that inhibit first year student performance <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> EXNER, Rosemary Joyce Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 ANALYSIS OF TOPOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND DRAINAGE PARAMETERS IN THE ABOINE BASIN OF NIGERIA <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> UMEUDUJI, JOEL EKWUTOSI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Adult Rape Survivors' Experience of Self-Disclosure to Significant others at Mamelodi Hospitals Crisis Centre <p>This study explored adult rape survivors’ experience of self-disclosure to significant others at Mamelodi Hospital Rape Crisis Centre. Rape is a worldwide phenomenon that is reported daily, drawing attention to its devastating effects on rape survivors, their families and communities. A qualitative exploratory descriptive research design was employed. The researcher chose to utilise purposive sampling for this research study whereby individuals who experienced a rape and who were seeking treatment at the Mamelodi Hospital Rape Crisis Centre were interviewed on their experiences of self-disclosure to their significant others. An in-depth face-to-face semi-structured interview was utilised to collect data from the eight participants who participated in the research study. Data was analysed through content analysis following the Tesch Model of content analysis (Creswell, <br>1994). Results indicated that that five of the participants chose to disclose their rape experience to their mothers, four participants chose to disclose to their boyfriends and six participants chose to disclose their rape experience to their best friends. The motivating factors that encouraged disclosure were trust and a close emotional relationship. Although seven of the <br>participants feared judgement and blame from their significant others, the motivating factors was seen as a stronger contributing factor for their disclosure. The participants also indicated that they were very apprehensive about the feedback they anticipated to receive if they would disclose their rape experience to others in their community and feared judgement, blame and stigmatization from them. Further results from this research study indicated that three</p> DE VILLIERS, Derika Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Projet de système d'information cartographique (SIC) : structuration d'un référentiel ou modèle de base de données et outils méthodologiques pour la gestion carthographique dans quatre (4) pays membres de l'Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Afric <p>Le présent projet professionnel marque la fin de notre formation de master2 en science de l’information documentaire : option technologie de l’information, à l’Ecole de Bibliothécaires, Archivistes et Documentalistes (EBAD), de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD), au Sénégal. Il est la continuité de nos travaux antérieurs portant sur la réorganisation des fonds cartographiques de l’Institut Géographique National du Niger (IGNN) et de la Direction des Travaux Géographiques et Cartographiques (DTGC) du Sénégal.</p> DADE, Ibrahima Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Knowledge and Perception : <p>Ethnographic film theories, like the social sciences, are divided between positivist theories and interpretive theories. The literature of ethnographic filmmaking only implies this distinction, with the assumption that a certain theory of filmmaking will lead to a certain type of film. However, there are no explicit distinctions in the contemporary literature of what makes a <br>theory, and thereby a film, either positivist or interpretivist. This dissertation makes an explicit distinction between these types of theories in ethnographic film theory, and then makes use of a semiotic film analysis of each type of film in order to assess if the distinction holds, both theoretically and practically.</p> CORREIA DA VEIGA, Eduardo Jorge Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La société politique de l'Afrique post-coloniale dans l'univers romanesque de Francis Bebey <p>Sorne critics have been showing that Francis Bebey's nove! is only interested in portraying african nature and culture; other critics have succeeded in establishing that the cameroonian novelist is focusing on the issue of love and all related matters. The objective of this work is to bring forward a totally different viewpoint which is no longer basing analyses on a thematic approach, but rather on a new paradigm which is politics. Consequently, our research assumption in that: Francis Bebey's nove! is a political nove! interested in the questioning and ironical demystification of the post colonial african society. To corne to that conclusion, our· analyses are based on a theoretical approach which is sociocritics.· _'That scieritific approach tackles altogether, historical, social, ideological and cultural data within a nove!, only expecting to be analyzed and interpreted. Taking into account these conditions, our work is divided into three main parts. The first ·one. entitled les procédés de référentialisation pour la lisibilité du roman de Francis Bebey, aims at emphasizing the interaction that exists between Bebey's nove! and its socio-cultutal environment. Iri the second part referred to as la textualisation du discours politique de Bebey, we. investigate Bebey's rhetoric and political writing, by bringing out pertinent aspects of his aesthetics. Firially, · in the last part labeled De la -geste· romanesque au discours l'idéologique de Bebey, we try to question the writer's political and ethical viewpoints and see how they flock together in identifying his ideology, taking into' accoùnt his status as a member of the group of novelists of 1980s. We finally conclude that Be bey' s ideo~ogy is nothing else but the African ideology.</p> EYENGA ONANA, Pierre-Suzanne Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Txoru falado e txoru cantado: Género e emocionalidade nas narrativas em torno dos rituais de morte em uma communidade rural de Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde <p>0 trabalho caracteriza-se como um estudo etnognifico sobre as variantes do choro que acompanham o <br>ritual da morte em Santa Catarina, particularmente no meio rural de Achada Falcào. Pretende-se de <br>modo especifico etnografar as formas performaticas do choro falado e do choro cantado por mulheres <br>no contexto das narrativas sobre a vida social local que se tecem na ritualizaçào da morte. <br>Busca-se assim captar através da emocionalidade os micro­ dramas que pontuam as relaçôes de génèro <br>no quotidiano local, uma vez que chorar no espaço publico depende de uma série de preceitos e <br>interditos entre homens e mulheres. Para o estudo que se pretende recorre-se ao trabalho de terreno <br>inspirado na proposta de etnografia densa de Clifford Geertz e na concepçào do ritual enquanto um <br>evento peculiar na perspectiva de Gilmara Sarmento, .procedendo-se ao cruzamento dos registros de <br>observaçôes, diarios,<br>conversas e entrevistas abertas.</p> DA VEIGA CORREIA, Maria Madalena Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Le lépreux dans la littérature : des textes sacrés aux textes profanes (étude de quelques cas) <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> FALL, Banda Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Les Déterminants de la productivité dans le secteur manufacturier : cas du Sénégal <p>Cette étude a pour objectif d’identifier les principaux déterminants de la productivité dans le secteur manufacturier au Sénégal.<br>Deux approches lui ont permis d’atteindre cet objectif, une approche théorique qui expose une bonne partie de la littérature sur les déterminants de la productivité. Et une approche pratique qui a permis d’identifier les variables les plus importantes pour la productivité au Sénégal. Il ressort de cette approche pratique que le capital humain, le degré d’ouverture commerciale, la profitabilité et le ratio capital par tête, influencent positivement la productivité des manufactures. Par contre la contrainte financière à laquelle les manufactures sont confrontées agit négativement sur leur productivité. Au vu de ces résultats, une série de recommandations ont été proposé, allant dans le sens de l’amélioration de la productivité des manufactures. Celle-ci passerait entre autre par, une main d’oeuvre bien adaptée au besoin de l’entreprise, un renforcement de la libéralisation du commerce, une amélioration de la qualité de l’intermédiation financière et enfin une poursuite de la simplification des procédures administratives.</p> CONTE, Facinet Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The Politics of the African Refugee Problem: the Case of Refugees in Ghana <p>For some years now, the African continent has seen a lot of refugees thrown up by various forces and this has affected nearly all the countries on the continent. Refugees have been forced to seek asylum in various countries across Africa. They have been received by African countries struggling to implement IMF\World Bank sponsored programmes of economic idjustment. Ghana has for sometime now hosted refugees from various countries. This thesis attempts to find out the causes of the flight of three groups of refugees to Ghana, namely refugees· from Southern Africa, .Liberia and the Sahel Zone; how they have iurvived in the country, the kind of assistance they have received and official policy towards asylum and residence. The results of the study show that the. Southern African refugSes were forced into exile by the apartheid system in South Africa and the system of apartheid and colonialism in Namibia. The refuqees from Liberia have been forcSd te flee due to the struggle for the state started against the late President Samuel on~ and which has ended in a long drawn out civil war. The refugees from the Sahel have been forced to flee the drought and famine, which is the result. of the decision of the gavernments of the zone, ta follow a development strategy which tended to degrade the Sahel, environment.The three groups o+ re+ugees have received di+ferent levels of assistance. The refugees from Southern Africa have been relatively .better assisted. The refugees from Liberia have not been accorded +ormal refugee status but are being treated as de facto refugees ...</p> ESSUMAN-JOHNSON, A Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 The Relationship between Inflation and the Structure of the Nigerian Economy <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> UZOWKEM, Magnus Chiro Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 CONSTRUCTION DE RAPPORTS DE GENRE ET REPRESENTATION POLITIQUE DE FEMMES AUX ELECTIONS PROVINCIALES DE 2006 DANS LA VILLE DE KISANGANI (PROVINCE ORIENTALE) <p>Cette thèse se propose d’étudier les causes de la sous-représentation des femmes aux élections provinciales de 2006. En effet, depuis la sortie des conflits et la normalisation de la vie socio-politique, la RDC s’est engagée dans un processus de démocratisation et de reformation des institutions. Ce processus se traduit par la production de normes visant à la fois à améliorer les conditions de vie de la population et à réduire les inégalités entre les catégories sociales et sexuées dont la parité en constitue le point de mire. Malgré la volonté du législateur de protéger les enfants, de promouvoir les femmes et d’accroître leur participation dans les organes de décision, les femmes demeurent sous-représentées à tous les échelons de la sphère publique. Les élections provinciales de 2006 l’ont confirmé. Tout en centrant la préoccupation sur les déterminants de la faible représentation politique des femmes, ce travail vise à cerner la manière dont les statuts et rôles sociaux des femmes dans l’urbanisation déterminent/affectent l’accès des femmes à la politique; à explorer les images féminines de la ville de Kisangani et leur influence sur l’accès des femmes à la politique; à analyser les rapports de genre au cours des élections provinciales de 2006. C’est en s’inspirant du constructivisme structuraliste de Pierre Bourdieu croisé à l’approche genre dans une perspective intersectionnelle que l’étude tente d’expliquer la sousreprésentation des femmes aux élections provinciales de 2006. Pour y parvenir, recours est fait de façon éclectique aux techniques qualitatives que nous offrent le récit de vie, l’entretien semidirectif<br>ainsi que l’observation désengagée pour décrypter la réalité sociale.</p> Camille WELEPELE ELATRE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 OIL CAPITAL, ETHNIC NATIONALISM AND CIVIL CONFLICTS IN THE NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA <p>This study investigated the background to, and the various dimensions of the violent conflicts that have engulfed the oil-rich Niger Delta of Nigeria in recent times by exploring the interface between the historical experiences of the region and contemporary factors responsible for the spread and exacerbation of the violent ,conflicts. The central research question of the study was that foreign ( oil) capital exacerbated militant ethnic nationalisms and violent civil conflicts in the Niger Delta, and ultimately, accelerated the collapse oflaw and order in that region of the country.<br>Primary data were collected using Interview Survey, In-depth Interviews, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Direct Observation. Two oil communities each were selected from three of the nine oil-producing States in Nigeria: lbeno and Eket (Akwa Thom State), Obunagha and Elebele (Bayelsa State), and Ughelli and Uzere (Delta State). A total of 284 respondents completed the interview survey, while 30 participated in the indepth interviews. The respondents for the interview survey and in-depth interviews were selected from a cross-sectiol). of the stakeholders in the Niger Delta: government officials,&nbsp; staff of multinational oil companies and representative groups within the host communities- traditional rulers, opinion leaders, officials of town unions, youth groups, farmers and fishermen, artisans, and so on. A total of 36 focus group discussions were conducted separately with male and female community leaders, adults and youths in each of the six study communities. Basic information about the target oil communities was documented using direct observation forms. Secondary data were drawn mainly from existing literature, newspapers, newsmagazines, and institutional publications by relevant governmental and non-governmental agencies, oil companies,. as well as archival materials at the Public Record Office in London.</p> <p>A major finding of the study !was that multinational oil companies and the Nigerian State played pivotal roles in the exacerbation of violent conflicts in the Niger Delta. The study found that the historical raison d'etre and mandate of the post-colonial Nigerian State, as defined by its role as a pliable and subservient agent for international capital, foreclosed any genuine effort by successive governments to address and resolve the oil-induced crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta. The study revealed that the complexities of formal and informal networks between the Nigerian State and multinational oil companies<br>continued to facilitate the acquisition, monopolization and dispensation of violence by the State as demonstrated by the large-scale militarization of the Niger Delta. Also, the mutuality of interests between the State and multinational oil companies continued to determine how they related and reacted to one another, and how they perceived and responded to other actors in the region, especially the local oil communities.</p> <p>The work found that relying solely on contemporary factors and events to account for the prolongation of violent conflicts in the Niger Delta is theoretically and methodologically limited, hence the need to investigate in detail, the complementary role(s) played by history in this process of collapse of public order in the region. The study further established that the process of incorporating the Niger Delta into the global political economy, from the era of slave trade to oil palm trading, was marked by chaos and instabilities- a trend that has continued and intensified in contemporary times; and that there is also strong continuity in the mismanagement and manipulation of ethuic issues and relations dating back from the colonial period.</p> <p>The work revealed that the eventual exclusion and immiseration of the non-elite segments of the Niger Delta society from the material benefits accruing from increased crude oil earnings, at the same time that oil communities were left to bear the adverse externalities of crude oil-induced economic marginalization, political domination and environmental degradation, was a central factor fuelling the logic of violent conflicts in the delta region. This situation has also continued to push and pitch different ethuic groups in the region against each other in intense and protracted violent conflicts. Finally, the study found that the narrow notions of security, law and order in public policy circles, as demonstrated by government's preference for military rather than political solutions to the crises in the oil region, have continued to make the search for durable peace and meaningful development an elusive task in the Niger Delta.</p> <p>The study concluded that the conditions and circumstances precipitating conflicts in Nigeria's Delta region might not change significantly to pave the way for dialogue, reconciliation and partnership among the stakeholders; and that existing initiatives to address the plight of oil communities, especially the Niger Delta Development Commission, NDDC, would be a catalyst for development in the region only if government and multinational oil companies allowed oil communities to have a meaningful and free voice in, and effective representation on matters affecting them.</p> UKEJE, Charles Ugochukwu Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Political Poetry in Contemporary Nigerian Literature : the Example of Remi Raji's Poetry <p>Remi Raji is one of the irrepressible poetic voices in the decades of military dictatorship in Nigeria, spanning the early 1980s to the late 1990s. With a social vision that is hinged on what he refers to as “connecting poetry to nationalism,” his poetry captures the socio-political realities of the era. But, more importantly, Raji’s poetry, given the political consciousness that underpins it, performs two functions: one, it attacks the “military emperor” and his acolytes who are responsible for the despoliation of Nigeria; two, it sympathises with the oppressed populace and offers them an optimism to enable them keep dreaming even in the face of tyranny. This research is an exploration of the political theme in Raji’s poetry with emphasis on its social functions. Raji has published four volumes of poetry, namely, A Harvest of Laughters (1997), Webs of Remembrance (2001), Shuttlesongs: America – A Poetic Guided Tour (2003) and Lovesong for My Wasteland (2005). The methods of interpretation used in this work are Marxism and New Historicism. Raji’s political poetry belongs to the domain of protest literature and it is appropriate that our exegesis of it is done through the Marxist theory. New Historicism is deployed to account for the historical realities on which Raji’s poetry is based. The conclusion reached in this work is that Raji’s poetry fits into the canon of committed literature in Nigeria because it succeeds in historicising, with a great deal of artistry, the decades of military oppression in Nigeria, and exemplifies the engagement of new Nigerian writers in political theme. It is<br />hoped that this study will be a contribution to the critical interpretation of new Nigerian writing which has suffered a dearth of criticism.</p> EGYA, Sule E Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Bourgeois rationality in Nigeria <p>Capitalism is. in·herently· contradictory. There are the contradictions between particular capitals and social capital g For the system to thrive there-. fore contradictions have to be contained by bourgeois rationality which restrains particular capitals inthe bid to pre serve social capi t aL This· done a capitalist _country can then progress, sophisticating productive for ces and improving the general wellbeing: of societyu But none of these is happening in Nigeria, although it is capitalistu This is what has led to this inquiry into _the character of its bourgeoisieu The finding is that bourgeois rationali ty is weak in Nigeria .</p> ERESIA-EKE, Kudodi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 DETERMINANTS OF TREATMENT ADHERENCE AMONG TUBERCULOSIS-INFECTED HIV PATIENTS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA <p>Concurrent tuberculosis and HIV treatment is a standard practice in co-infected patients. However, adherence to combined treatment is challenging because of multiplicity of drugs involved. Although studies exist on adherence to either HIV or tuberculosis treatment, negligible attention has been paid to adherence among patients on combined HIV and tuberculosis<br>treatments. This study therefore examined the factors influencing treatment adherence among tuberculosis-infected HIV patients in Cross River State (CRS), where prevalence is higher than the national average.<br>Parsonian Social Action theory, Social Cognitive theory and Health Belief Model were employed as theoretical framework. The study adopted a cross-sectional design using 333 patients. A threestage purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents. This involved identification of treatment facilities across CRS, selection of facilities that had up to 10 co-infected patients and selection of patients who had received concurrent treatment for three months or more prior to the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to generate data. Adherence was assessed with a 14-item scale categorised as low (&gt;7), moderate (2-7) and high (0-1). Knowledge was measured using a 17-item instrument categorised as low (≤8) and high (&gt;8). Four Focus Group Discussion sessions comprising seven discussants each were conducted and four case studies were undertaken with patients. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and ordinal regression test at 0.05 level of significance while qualitative data were content analysed.<br>The mean age of respondents was 34.5±9.6 and 61.9% were female. Fifty-seven percent of respondents had high knowledge of treatment and 48.7% did not link poor adherence to poor treatment outcomes. Level of adherence was high (38.1%), moderate (29.4%) and low (32.4%). Adherence to tuberculosis treatment was significantly higher than to HIV treatment. Respondents‘ reasons for missing drugs included not being at home (64.7%), not having eaten (45.5%), being busy (44.9%) and avoiding status disclosure (25.1%). Having good knowledge of treatment was significantly related to low level of adherence. The likelihood of adherence was significantly high among males (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 0.4-2.4), those with a minimum of secondary education (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-3.4) and those not living in the same community as the location of their treatment facility (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-3.5). Patients who received adequate social support showed the likelihood of better adherence relative to those who received little or no support (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.3-4.7). Patients reported that when in the midst of other people, they did not want to be seen using drugs to forestall stigmatisation.<br>Respondents demonstrated enthusiasm at the start of the treatment but adherence reduced when difficulties were encountered. Respondents whose spouses or regular sexual partners were not infected encountered more difficulties with adherence because they were believed to be under spiritual attacks not HIV. Patients benefitted much from counselling and good careprovider/ patient relationship.<br>Treatment adherence among tuberculosis-infected HIV patients was influenced by personal characteristics and health facility location. Training on how to overcome the stigma, initiation of patient-selected treatment facility options and policies that emphasise sustained patient counselling could improve adherence.</p> BONIFACE AYANBEKONGSHI E USHIE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Ruralization of Malian Fundamental Education : the Relationship Between its Degree of Implementation and Teachers' Perceptions <p>Abstract</p> COULIBALY, Issa Meyes Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 L'intégration scolaire des enfants handicapés dans les pays en développement : <p>Le but de cette étude, intitulée « l'intégration scolaire des enfants handicapés dans les pays en développement : cas du Mali » est de faire ressortir les difficultés face à la scolarisation des enfants handicapés et de trouver une solution à leur intégration dans le système éducatif ordinaire. Pour atteindre notre objectif, nous avons émis des hypothèses sur lé rapport handicap et <br>apprentissage ; handicap et fatalité. Nous avons ensuite défini la taille de notre population et présenté nos instruments. Quatre questionnaires ont été élaborés et soumis respectivement aux enseignants et autorités éducatives, aux parents, aux enfants handicapés et aux enfants non handicapés. Un questionnaire comportant une seule question a été exclusivement réservé et soumis aux directeurs d'institutions d'éducation spécialisée. La présentation et l'analyse des résultats obtenus nous ont permis de · savoir ce que les enseignants et les autorités éducatives pensent de l'introduction de l'intégration scolaire des <br>enfants handicapés dans le système éducatif ordinaire. Les résultats de notre recherche nous ont également montré les points de vue des parents face au système. Toutes les cinq hypothèses émises ont -été largement confirmées dont deux à 100 %, deux à 94 et 90,50 % et le plus faible pourcentage est de 85 % dé confirmation. En somme les résultats obtenus au terme de cette étude montrent que l'éducation intégrée au Mali est possible si les moyens nécessaires sont mis en œuvre : moyens humains, financiers, institutionnels. Ces résultats nous ont aussi donné l'opportunité de formuler des recommandations destinées aux <br>autorités politiques, éducatives, aux enseignants, parents, partenaires techniques et financiers pour que chacun puisse p_leinement jouer son rôle dans la réussite de l'intégration scolaire des enfants handicapés.</p> COULIBALY, Mamoutou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Intellectual Tradition in Sokoto Emirate 1903-1960 <p>This study is on the history of intellectual tradition in Sokoto Emirate of Northern Nigeria during the 20th century. Jp.e specific issues about intellectual tradition discussed in this study is on the activities of the Muslim intellectuals known as the ulama (Arabic; sing = alim). The study concentrated on the role of the intellectuals in their traditional function in the field of learning and scholarship.</p> <p>The work is divided into seven chapters. We tried to trace the early history of intellectual tradition in the region ofHausaland as far back as the 15th century in Chapter One. It was in the 15th century when Islam was introduced in our area of study ,that an intellectual culture along the Islamic tradition started to evolve. The main issue that was highlighted in Chapter Two was the colonial invasion of Northern Nigeria and the subsequent occupation of our area of study early in the 20th century. This development led to the imposition of a new socio-political order by the British. The reaction of the ulama to the imposition of colonial rule was expressed in different ways, and this formed part of our discussion in Chapter Three.</p> <p>The role of the ulama of Sokoto under the colonial administration as advisers, judges (alkalal) and in some other administrative capacities has been analysed in Chapters Four and Five. We tried to highlight the symbiosis that existed between Islamic system of education and the newly introduced Western School System in Chapter Six. In particular, the impact of the Western Schooling (boko) on the Islamic School System had been discussed at length. Most significant being the emergence of the Islamiyya Schools ( called Nizamiyya in Sokoto) which are the schools operated along the formal Western Schools also formed part of Chapter Six.</p> <p>The focus of Chapter Seven is on the contribution of some selected intellectuals. We discussed the role of such ulama in bringing about social changes in Sokoto Emirate in particular and Northern Nigeria in general.</p> MUHAMMAD TUKUR USMAN Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Les stratégies paysannes face aux contraintes foncières et à l'économie du marché : essai d'analyse diachronique de l'occupation du sol dans la région de Bobo-Dioulasso <p>90% des Burkinabé vivent essentiellement de l'agriculture. Cette activité a été &nbsp;marquée dans les années 1970 et 1980 par des déficits pluviométriques sévères entraînant d'importants mouvements de population du Nord vers le Sud du pays.<br>La province du HOUET, l'une des zones d'accueil des migrants (54,5 % en milieu rural) selon les données de l'INSD a connu un accroissement rapide de ses surfaces mises en valeur. La charge démographique modifie de facto le régime foncier traditionnel. Par ailleurs, les populations. élaborent des stratégies qui tiennent compte aussi bien des contraintes foncières que de l'économie de marché.</p> DA, Nibado Gilles Omer Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 La prolifération des nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication au Burkina Faso : <p>L'Internet a été inauguré au Burkina Faso en décembre 1996 pendant le sommet France­ Afrique qui s'est tenu à Ouagadougou. Il connaîtra une exploitation commerciale qui s'est ouvert au grand public en mars 1997 après l'atelier national sur les NTIC au Burkina. Le Burbina Faso est un pauvre avec un PIB de 300 dollars US (le rap port des Nations Unies de 1998), où 44,5 % vivent en dessous du seuil de pauvreté avec un revenu annuel de moins de 41 099 FCFA/habitant/an. Dans ce contexte, une grande partie de la population vit dans des conditions précaires. Elle n'a accès ni à l'éducation, ni aux soins de santé primaire, ni à l'eau potable... Au recensement de 1996, 81 % de la population ne savaient pas lire et écrire en français (INSD, 2000). L'accès à l'information et aux technologies de la communication reste un mirage pour une grande partie de la population. En janvier 1999 trois ans après l'inauguration de son accès au grand public, on estimait à plus de 4000, le nombre d'abonnés dans la ville de Ouagadougou (DELGI,2000). Au 31 décembre de l'année 2001 sur les 350 cybers centres que compte le pays plus de 90 % sont concentrés à Ouagadougou. Pendant la même période, les internautes de la ville sont estimés à plus de 30000 (DELGI, 2002). Malgré la précarité de la vie dans nos cités l'engouement pour l'Internet est d'une notoriété. Ce constat suscite des interrogations sur les facteurs psychologiques, culturels et économiques qui expliqueraient l'engouement des Ouagalais pour cet outil. L'Internet est perçu par les ouagalais comme un outil de communication, de travail et de recherche. Son accès exige un certain capital social, économique, et culturel difficilement réunit par certaines couches de la population. Son utilisation est sujette à des représentations sociales que les populations se sont forgées. Il faudrait être issu d'une couche aisée pour aspirer à son utilisation. Cette situation s'explique en partie par le déficit d'information sur le sujet. Ces représentations sociales sont des stéréotypes de la réalité de l'Internet à Ouagadougou.</p> DALLA, Charles Félix Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Loisirs et changements sociaux A Kinshasa 1881-1991 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> ELENGESA NDUNGUNA, Pascal Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Psychosocial Factors Determining Psychological Disorders among Prison inmates in Nigeria: Implications for Treatment Intervention <p>This study was designed to assess the role of psychosocial variables in .determining psychological disturbances among prisoners, in Nigeria and initiate a psychological treatment intervention programme for use among prisoners; Stratified sampling. was used to select four medium· prisons in Nigeria. These were Kaduna, Agodi, Benin and Enugu prisons.Using a table of random numbers, 150 prisoners were .a ndomly selected from the_ four prisons and another 150 non-prisoners from the .general population; Also, 211 prisoners were involved in· the treatment programme at the Agod_i prison, lbadan. These were randomly' assigned to both experimental and control groups. Data were. collected using the Personality Inventory Questionnaire (PIQ), comprising Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Awaritefe · Psychological.- Index (API), the Crown Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI), ·and ldemudia Prison Stress Scale .(IPSS). Nine hypotheses were tested in this study...<br><br></p> ERHABOR, Idemudia Sunday Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Partage international de risque en Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine <p>This study analyzes the effectiveness of risk sharing as an alternative to traditional coping mechanisms in the West African Monetary Zone. Based on the method of decomposition of the variance of the growth rate of GDP, the results show that the asymmetric distribution of risks between WAEMU' countries is 27.5 to 29.8%. Savings is the main channel of risk sharing that<br>· •· smooth 26.1 to 26.9% of shocks. In addition economic integration changes the distribution of the degree of stabilization of shocks between different channels of risk sharing. The frequency of shocks over time reduced the percentage of shared risks in the union and increases the fraction of stabilized shocks by savmg.</p> DEDEHOUANOU, S. Erick Abel Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Les jacqueries dans le périmètre Semry : analyse socio-économique du dynamisme paysan de 1950 à 2006 <p>Le paysan du moyen âge féodal se définit comme une personne vivant en milieu rural, caractérisée par son attachement à la terre notamment à l’agriculture et à l’élevage. Les populations rurales d’Afrique noire à l’heure actuelle ne souscrivent pas à cette définition, elles font partie d’une catégorie qui constitue le socle des activités agropastorales de leurs régions respectives. En outre, dans certaines campagnes africaines, comme c’est le cas du périmètre hydro rizicole du Mayo-Danay au Cameroun, il existe une agriculture à deux vitesses. D’un coté on a l’agriculture qui se veut intensive et moderne sous la tutelle de l’agro-industrie qu’est la SEMRY1 et de l’autre une agriculture traditionnelle composée de cultures de subsistance. Le périmètre SEMRY en général et celui de Maga en particulier, se présente selon les termes de Engola Oyep J., comme une zone "chichement" dotée en ressources2. Dans cette région, le sol argileux est très peu ou pas favorable aux cultures vivrières. C’est cette situation qui explique la pratique massive de la riziculture irriguée ou par pompage dans les localités de Maga et de Yagoua respectivement. En effet, dès son introduction, l’activité rizicole est présentée aux populations de la vallée du Logone non seulement comme une culture nouvelle, rentable mais aussi comme un moyen devant assurer et promouvoir leur<br>bien-être ainsi que le développement de la localité. Seignobos C.3 pense que « l’idéologie coloniale en matière économique visait à faire entrer les Musgum, comme le reste de leur voisin Masa, dans une économie monétaire ». L’économie monétaire dont il est question ici, n’est plus ni moins que la pratique rizicole dont l’adéquation et l’adaptation à la région a été attestée et confirmée par des études préalables commanditées par l’administration coloniale. La crise conjoncturelle et structurelle qui s’annonce à partir de la fin des années 1980, commence à sévir dans le périmètre SEMRY au début des années 1990, entraînant de ce fait, un certain nombre de déséquilibres dans la formation sociale et économique de la</p> DANEBAI LAMANA, Antoinette Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 SENTENCING PATTERNS AND PRACTICES IN NIGERIAN LOVER COURTS <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> HILARY AGEVA UBWA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-05 2023-07-05 Les sources norvégiennes de l'histoire du Cameroun, 1924-2004 : inventaire, thématiques et critiques ANNEE ACADEMIQUE 2006- <p>L’écriture de l’histoire est l’aboutissement d’un long processus qui débute aussi avec la<br>collecte et la confrontation des sources. Cette position privilégiée qu’occupent les sources<br>dans la science historique a toujours été au centre des débats entre historiens, très souvent,<br>imprégnés de la philosophie épistémologique et méthodologique de leurs écoles respectives.<br>Dans le cadre de l’historiographie africaine en générale, il faut tout de même relever que les<br>sources couramment usitées étaient dans un premier temps des documents écrits par des<br>Européens expansionnistes qui n’avaient pour seuls desseins que la légitimation de leur<br>politique et leurs actions. C’est avec une certaine facilité qu’en parcourant aujourd’hui ces<br>oeuvres de l’esprit, que le lecteur décèle des thèses européocentristes qui traduisent surtout la<br>vision du colonisateur, le « vainqueur », sur l’Afrique. C’est ainsi que l’histoire de l’Afrique<br>fut de prime abord considérée comme celle des Européens colonisateurs en Afrique. A titre<br>spécifique et illustrative, l’histoire du Cameroun fut dans un premier temps celle des<br>Allemands (1884-1916)1, des Français et des Anglais (1916-1959)2 dans cette partie de<br>l’Afrique. Sur tout autre plan, lorsqu’il fallait consulter l’historiographie du continent africain,<br>jusqu’à une période récente avec l’accession des pays africains à l’indépendance et la réaction<br>des intellectuels de ces différents pays postcoloniaux, les seules sources disponibles<br>provenaient du colonisateur dont l’objectivité des thèses développées était très souvent mise<br>en doute.</p> BORIS, Bouba Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 La transformation artisanale des produits de la pêche le long du littoral Sénégalais : étude géographique <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Oumar DIOP Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Levels of welfare provisions in the rural Areas of the Jos plateau Nigeria <p>Defining and measuring levels of rural development has remained unsatisfactory. Hence a new approach of measuring rural development has been put forward in this study using certain surrogates and proxy-surrogates. to arrive at rural development indices (RUDEVIs). Thus. through the use of RUDEVIs a rural development typology of the Jos Plateau has been produced. A combination of pre-coded questionnaires and field observations were used for data collection. Field surveys of varying intensities were conducted in 1989, 1990 and i991, whiie the main field survey was conducted from May to July, 1991. In all. 86 rural settlements were studied, based on~ sampling ·covering more than 70 percent of the Jos Plateau, of at least one settlement in a 20 km by 20 km grid cell. At least one community was studied from all the districts on the Jos Plateau. The data collected from the field were coded using an SFSS(x) file.They were later -transferred into QUATRO-PRO spreadsheet to produce tables showing the distribution of social faciJ.ities in the study area. Based on this, the l~vels,of welfare provision were also determined. These information were further fed into the MAPICS computer software to produce t~e rural development typology and maps showing the lev.efs of welfare provision in the study area. The map of the Jos Plat~au was digitised using ISIS. The study has reve,3.led that only about 10 per cent of the studied settlements enjoy a very high degree of rural development, shown by RUDEVI of 70 and above. The 86 rural settiements were classified into seven categories and their RUDEVIs were subjected to analysis of variance. An F-ratio of 3.47 was obtained. This led to the rejection of the null hypothesis at both 5% and 1% significance levels. This implies that the leveis of ~eifare provisions as well as the levels of rural development vary significantly over the Jos Plateau.</p> DOGO, Bala Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 UNE CONSTRUCTION IDSTORIQUE A BASE D'ORALITE. LA DEUXIEME GUERRE MONDIALE VECUE D'EN BAS AU SENEGAL. EVENEMENTS-REPERES, MEMOIRE COLLECTIVE ET CONSCIENCES INDIVIDUELLES. TOME II <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Abdoulaye TOURE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 The influence of an urbanised catchment area on storm water disposal: <p>An investigation is made here of the ini'luence of the 182 km 2 instrumented urban basin of Enugu on storm water disposaio The cha.racteristics of 20 sub-catchments m the urban water shed are ana.lysed and 16 variables are generated, viz: overland flow (Horton•a), rainfall amount, ra:i.n:f'all intensity, lagtime, catcbment area, building density, discharge (rational Method), rainfall du.ration, peak of etorm hydrograph, cross sectional areas of stream in artificial drains, angle of slope, in:filtration capacity, strearn frequency, poor state o:f maintenance of' artilicial drains, man-made impermeable surfaces and naturally pervious areas. In the more urba.nised subcatchments, overland flow is 2 ta 3 times as large as the flow from the less urbanised ones. The base flow separation lines for the 6 natural stream hydrographs :ln Enugu show a drastic reduction in low flows due to low infiltration capacitY. T.he ICA model is employed to anaiyse our da with orthogonal varirnax rotation ta maximise the variance of the load:ings on each component. !lhe 16 urban hydrological predictor variables are parsimoniously transformed into 6 underly:ing dimensions that account for 86.6% of the total variance in u.rban basin runoffo These are:<br>(i) !lhe degree of built up environment which accomits for the highest contribution (22.2%) of variation in urban basin runoff.<br>(ii) Temporal characteristics of storm.</p> CHUKWU, Kevin Ejike Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 La question du peuplement Dendi dans la partie septentrionale de la République populaire du Bénin: le cas du Borgou <p>Abstract</p> BAKO, Nassirou Arifari Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 CHANTS SONINKE : TYPOLOGIE ET ANALYSE LITTERAIRE <p>Domaine d'expression libre et complexe des peuples africains, la littérature orale exerce depuis quelques années un attrait sur les chercheurs du continent noir et d'ailleurs, cependant tous les genres que recouvre ce domaine n'ont pas suscité le même engouement. Ainsi, des travaux remarquables ont été consacrés au conte, au mythe et à l'épopée alors que le chant jusqu'à une date récente, a très peu intéressé les chercheurs.<br>Il est heureux de constater aujourd'hui qu'une nouvelle génération de chercheurs considère ce mode d'expression multiséculaire comme un domaine pouvant contribuer à la saisie objective du système littéraire traditionnelle et de la vision du monde qu'il véhicule : Les chansons sont l'histoire d'un peuple, vous pouvez apprendre plus sur les gens en écoutant leurs chansons que de tout autre manière, car dans les chansons s'expriment toutes les expériences et toutes les blessures, toutes les colères, toutes les craintes, tous besoins et toutes les° aspirations. disait John STEINBECKl.<br>Co=e pour renchérir, LUNEAU fournit des arguments complémentaires : «tout peut être chanté, et il est étonnant de voir combien les chansons restituent le visage de la vie».<br>L'intérêt de ce sujet est tel qu'il doit occuper la place qui lui revient dans la recherche en tradition orale. Mais, avant d'aller plus loin, disons un mot sur l'état de la recherche sur le Soninké dont une partie de la littérature a fait l'objet de la présente étude...</p> Aliou Kissima TANDIA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Incidences du crédit formel sur la productivité des petites exploitations agricoles : le cas de Koundara (République de Guinée) <p>L'introduction de systèmes productifs plus performants dans l'agriculture guinéenne vise essentiellement l'amélioration des rendements. Toutefois, un tel objectif, pour être atteint, doit forcément être accompagné d'une politique conséquente de financement des activités agricoles. Ce travail qui s'inscrit dans ce cadre a pour objectif principal d'examiner la performance du créd_it agricole institutionnel au niveau des petites exploita- paysannes, et de dégager des éléments d'appréciation des contraintes techniques et économiques qui affectent cette performance. A cet effet, les objectifs spécifiques poursuivis par l'étude sont: analyser l'impact du crédit sur l'utilisation des ressources, et déterminer également ses incidences sur la rentabilité de l'activité agricole au niveau de l'exploitation paysanne. Les résultats, sur la base de comparaison statistique indiquent que le crédit pourrait accroître l'utilisation des intrants et des superficies cultivées au ni veau des petites exploitations. Du point de vue de la rentabilité financière des cultures, il est apparu à travers deux indicateurs principaux (la valeur de la production par heure de travail et le coût moyen de production du kilogramme) que les exploitations agricoles bénéficiaires du crédit sont plus rentables que celles non bénéficiaires. L'analyse, basée sur un modèle de programmation linéaire dont la fonction objectief~est la maximisation du profit suggère que le potentiel de rentabilité financière des exploitations bénéficiaires de crédit est ~lus élevé que celui des exploitations sans crédit. Toutefois, l'analyse de l'utilisation du capital et du crédit a permis de conclure que les montants de crédit octroyés sont en deçà des besoins des paysans. L'analyse de sensibilité, faite sur la base qes paramètres rendement et plafond -de crédit, a mis en exergue un lien entre la disponibilité du crédit et la diversification des cultures au niveau de l'exploitation. Elle a révélé que l'augmentation du plafond de crédit pourrait accroître le niveau d'utilisation des intrants, ce qui améliorerait la production et le profit. A la lumière de nos résultats, nous avons fait des recommandations qui s'articulent autour de trois points: 1- la mise en place d'un système intégré de recherche appl iguée pour identifier les contraintes de production en vue de 1 'accroissement des rendements des cultures · ; 2- la définition par catégorie de paysan des besoins de financement en procédant par l'analyse critique du système actuel de crédit, ce gui pourrait aboutir à une amélioration des opérations de crédit, et 3- les axes de recherche future qui suggèrent que des études complémentaires soient menées sur le système informel de crédit existant dans la zone. Ce gui aura pour avantage de mieux cibler le crédit formel pour la rentabilisation des activités agricoles.</p> Dioum, Macky Amadou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 ADVANCE FEE FRAUD <p>The focus of this thesis is on Advance Fee Fraud (419 scams) on how it is executed and more importantly, on how it can be prevented. The research addresses the origins of AFF, the nature and extent of this crime and how the perpetrators are able to defraud their victims. The research described, examined and analysed the crimes, the perpetrators, the victims, adjudication and the prevention strategies of this fraud. Information was gathered through literature and empirical research. A qualitative research method was used to gather information from AFF offenders who were incarcerated in South African prisons in 2005. The results of the empirical research were carefully examined, analyzed and integrated into the various chapters of this thesis. A theoretical framework was also developed in an attempt to explain this complex phenomenon. The findings and recommendations in terms of the crimes, the criminals, the victims, adjudication and prevention were also made and some suggestions for further research thereof were also cited.</p> DENIS YOMI TANFA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Commercialisation du Maïs dans le Département de l'Ouémé (Sud-Est Bénin): Efficacité de la Formation des Prix <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> DISSOU, M'hammed Yazid Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Etude de la toxicomanie en milieu sénégalais : évolution du phénomène durant ces dix dernières années (1979-1989) <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> DIONGUE, Awa Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Socialisation et sociabilité: les lieux du politique en Algérie: 1895-1954 ANNEE <p>L'intitule rnerne du sujet propose souleve d'emblee deux difficultes interdependantes. L'une ressortit a la ternr,oralite,<br>l' autre a la problematiqu~·. En fixant pour borne l 'annee 1954, on definit un terminus ad quern fonde sur l'evidence<br>d' une cesuni rnajeure, celle que represente la guerre d' independance, mais non un terminus a qua.</p> CARLIER, Omar Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Rythmes hydro-climatiques et pathologies en Milieu lacustre <p>&nbsp;Ce sujet de bioclimatologie humaine s'inscrit dans le cadre des recherches menées au laboratoire de climatologie de. l'Université Nationale du Bénin. Sa particularité réside dans le choix du cadre géographique, c'èst à dire le milieu lacustre. Les <br>sous-préfectures de So-Ava et des Aguégués occupent la basse vallée de l'Ouémé et de la Sô, plaine deltaïque saisonnièrement inondée avec un paroxysme entre Septembre Octobre. La méthodologie s'inspire d'une part des méthodes de recherche en biogéographie pour la répartition des germes pathogènes, et d'autres part des méthodes de recherche en climatologie et en hydrologie continentale. La Collecte des données spécifiques s'est effectuée à la direction de 1'hydraulique et à 1'ASECNA. <br>Les données de terrain----··· relatives aux affections sont obtenus par le dépouillement des régistres de soins curatifs, au centre de santé de So-Ava, Houédomey et à l'hôpital de So-Tchanhoué; où. une étude expérimentale à l'aide du baro-hygro-thermographe a été faite, en vue de co parer les· données de ·l'ASECNA à celles du milieu lacmstre. Les traitements statistique et graphique ( LOTUS, QUATTRO, et GBX ) ont .été exécutés au Laboratoire de Climatologie. Plusieurs indices bioclimatiques ('l'.H-+Î. K, TVAP.) à pas de temps pentadaire ont été utilisés pour.appr. ci(:ff 1 ',influence du climat sur la santé des populations <br>lacustres · Des diagrammes donnent la répartition spatio-temporelle du confort physiologique de ce milièu; et la combinaison des valeurs µe.s indices a été obtenue par la· superpositian de ces diagramm _f?· ,L'étude de corrélation entre paramètres climatiques_ et maladies a été possible grâce au calcul des coefficients de corrélatio_n. Les regroupements des affections par...catégories (Paludisme, Gastro-entérites,. Maladies des.. . voies respiratoires, Bilharzioses. ) mettènt en exergue. de.s...périodes de forte ou de faible préval nce. Au total: - l'étia_ge coïncide avec la . recrudescence du paludisme hyper-endémique et la bilharziose;_ - la période de crue est synGhrone.des gastro-entérites; - quant aux maladies des voies .;respiratoires ( Rhume et tuberculose), elles évoluent avec la s.tccité de l'air. Cette corrélation entre ry:th,me hydro-climatique et affections n'est certai.neinent pas synonyme de causalité • Les véritables causes sont à reche c:::her , i,.u rang . des contraintes biotiques et de celles liées aux açti;vi:1:;és du lacustre. Une éco-prophylaxie( -c'est-:- ;. q.i,_re une prophylaxie à<br>fondement écologique) est propqsée.</p> CLEDJO, Placide F.G.A Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 L'islamisme au Sénégal : crise de société et, ou dynamisme de l'islam <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Moustapha DIEYE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 ANALYSE DES INFRASTRUCTURES ROUTIERES INTERURBAINES DANS LES PAYS EN DEVELOPPEMENT: essai dé modélisation du trafic et évaluation de la rentabilité du cas ivoirien <p>Les infrastructures routières, de part leurs effets structurants sur l'ensemble des activités économiques et le bien-être des populations, relèvent de l'intervention publique. Aussi, depuis toujours, la plupart de ces ouvrages se font-ils sur financement public. Mais, avec le développement des techniques de péage, du fait même de la nature de ces biens, outre la construction, le secteur privé marque de plus en plus sa présence dans ce domaine d'utilité publique, en ce qui concerne le financement et l'exploitation.<br>Dans les pays en développement, particulièrement en Afrique subsaharienne et en Côte d'Ivoire, le secteur du transport routier connaît des difficultés aussi bien dans la mise en oeuvre des infrastructures que dans leur exploitation. En effet, depuis un peu plus d'une décennie, compte tenu des fortes contraintes budgétaires de l'Etat, qui doit répondre aux priorités sociales, le développement des infrastructures de transport, en général, et routières en particulier, est fortement entravé, on assiste même à une déliquescence des acquis. Aussi, les demandes de transport interurbain ne semblent pas répondre aux exigences que requièrent les investissements en termes d'infrastructures performantes. Le secteur privé ne peut donc s'engager dans un défi aussi important que la réhabilitation et le développement des réseaux routiers interurbains, que par une appréciation claire et lucide de la structure de la demande (choix des individus) et de son évolution.<br>Cette approche a pour objectif d'opérer un dimensionnement des investissements à mesure d'assurer le bénéfice social maximum. Cela est nécessaire, en vue d'arrêter la dégradation progressive des infrastructures existantes, ainsi que de ses effets pervers sur le développement.<br>Pour permettre à la mise en oeuvre d'un mécanisme de financement capable de lever les contraintes susmentionnées, nous proposons le financement par l'usager au travers du péage, pour les axes à trafic élevé. Nous préconisons un système hybride3 de financement contribuable - usager, pour les axes supportant un trafic bas. Les termes des contrats doivent prendre en compte l'évolution du trafic, en vue de la recherche de la taille optimale des investissements, et de la détermination de la<br>durée de l'exploitation. Cette façon de faire protège aussi bien l'Etat, que le concessionnaire des risques de demande et des risques de renégociation.<br>Aussi, paraît-il fondamental que les déterminants de la demande de voyage interurbain soient identifiés, et les dispositions à payer des populations évaluées, afin d'éviter les distorsions pouvant accroître les coûts du transport.</p> Paulin A. TANO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA AND THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO <p>This study compares the transitional justice mechanisms adopted in the RSA with similar mechanisms adopted in the DRC. The main goal is to make a scholarly contribution to the existing body of knowledge by analysing the role played by criminal prosecutions and the TRC in both countries. The study relied on legislation, literature and empirical fieldwork as its sources of information. To collect data, 50 key informants were interviewed and three focus group discussions were held.<br>Findings reveal that during the political transition in the RSA, the legal order was not reformed, and the judiciary used the threat of prosecution to compel perpetrators to make full disclosure of their activities in exchange for amnesty. Although the TRC recommended the prosecution of those who refused to testify, it is remarkable that none of the high profile cases was prosecuted. However, the political leadership supported the TRC to ensure that reconciliation efforts were prioritised. In the DRC on the other hand, little reform was made in the judicial sector, and though few cases were prosecuted, alleged perpetrators who had been integrated into public institutions were not prosecuted. Under the complementarity principle, the<br>ICC helped to prosecute a handful of the thousands of perpetrators. Due to fragile peace, insufficient funds, and lack of political will, the TRC in the DRC failed to investigate a single case.<br>The study recommends that in order to restore victims’ dignity in the RSA, the State needs to fulfil its obligation to implement the TRC’s recommendations especially the obligation to grant reparations and to prosecute anyone who failed to apply for amnesty or who was denied amnesty. If the State continues to neglect this obligation, the SACTJ should consider holding the<br>government accountable or submitting cases to a neutral country which subscribes to the principle of universal jurisdiction. In the cases about the remains of missing persons, it is suggested that the SACTJ should continue its dialogues but involve elders from different South African communities in order to encourage those with information about such cases to disclose it.</p> <p>In the case of the DRC, the importance of restoring peace and the State’s authority is stressed. Considering the regional dimension of the conflicts, the study also calls for a regional rather than a national approach to handling the cases that would see to the creation of a Great Lakes Regional Court and a Great Lakes Regional TRC. If this call is not taken seriously, the civil society organisations from the ICGLR Member States could consider organising a roundtable talk from which an unofficial regional Commission of Inquiry that would investigate the crimes committed in the DRC would emanate. The final report of the Commission should then be submitted to the different parliaments of affected countries, to the ICGLR’s Executive Secretary, to the AU’s Chairperson and to the UN Secretary General.</p> TUNAMSIFU SHIRAMBERE Philippe Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Ethique et esthétique dans les stratégies de séduction au Nord-Cameroun: <p>Dans ce travaîJ, il est question dans un cadre géographique occupé par les peuples de cultures <br>différentes et influencés par des traditions culturelles étrangères, d'étudier les implications de <br>la virginité sur la séduction n mettant en exergue les traditions, les survivances, les mutations <br>et les changements. En effet, d'où vient-il que malgré l'érosion du temps, la virginité demeure <br>toujours une stratégie de séduction et une préservation de l'honneur de la femme? Pour trouver <br>réponse à cette problématique, nous avons associé les sources écrites orales, documents <br>iconographiques, audiovisuelles, matérielles et la méthode d'observation sur le terrain. Après la <br>collecte des données, nous les avons traitées et interprétées. Nous avons adopté pour cela une <br>approche diachronique et synchronique pour débarrasser de toute subjectivité le travail <br>scientifique. Ceci nous a permis d'obtenir les résultats suivants : la virginité est une affaire <br>des filles dans les sociétés Arabes Choa, Guizigua, Mbororo et Mboum. Les considérations sociales <br>de l'interdit de la virginité ont poussé les peuples à développer des stratégies pour la protéger <br>ou la reconstituer en cas de perte. Enfin, l'obligation de la virginité, impliquant l'interdit de <br>la sexualité préconjugale, occupe une place centrale dans leurs représentations et dans leurs <br>appréhensions régulières,<br>portant sur réducation sexuelle et ses avatars.</p> BRING, Fanta Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 THE LAW OF THE SEA AND NIGERIA'S MARINE POLICY : A CRITICAL EVALUATION <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> WONOTANZOKAN NZEDA TAGOWA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Kant et Habermas: réflexions sur la modernité juridique <p>Notre siècle ,quoiqu’ il soit arrivé au degré supérieur de la civilisation sur le plan économique,scientifique,intellectuel,est encore en retard sur le plan juridique au regard des nombreuses crises d’ordre politique et social qui secouent bon nombre de pays à travers le monde à cause de législations le vouloir être des peuples .Il y a aujourd’hui le problème du fondement du droit qui se pose avec acuitè.Ces nombreuses crises, notés ça et là impliquent que le droit doit être repensé sous l’angle de la légitimité,si on peut soutenir que ,pour la modernité ,c’est la raison publique qui gouverne dans un certain sens .Il faut du coup parler de la loi puisque parler d’elle c’est parler des bienfaits qu’elle apporte. Comme le soutient Michèle Ducos.Nous devons repenser le fondement des législations contemporaines à la lumière de l’impératif catégorique de Kant et de l’éthique de discussion de Habermas. Pour le premier, tout législateur, placé devant sa propre conscience, doit en légiférant, se soumettre à cet impératif catégorique « agis de telle sorte que la maxime de ton action puisse devenir une loi universelle. »Ici la seule contrainte qui s’impose à lui c’est celle de la raison.Mieux, les actes législatifs du législateur doivent se subsumer sous l’universel. Pour le second, contrairement à Kant, pose le principe selon lequel « chaque norme doit satisfaire à la condition selon laquelle les conséquences et les effets secondaires qui, de manière prévisible, résultent de son observation universelle dans l’intention de satisfaire les intérêts de tout un chacun peuvent être acceptées sans contrainte par toutes les personnes concernées. <br>»C’est là sans doute qu’une loi tire sa légitimité,et partant ,son effectivité.Ce principe a le mérite de se prêter à la critique de chacun et de tous afin que son application ne rencontre aucun obstacle.C’est une vertu qui manque aujourd’hui à bon nombre de dirigeants,car ils manquent de moralité. Or le service de l’Etat, comme l’a dit Hegel, réclame au contraire le sacrifice des satisfactions individuelles et arbitraires et donne le droit de les trouver dans l’accomplissement du devoir mais en lui seulement.On le perçoit d’emblée en quoi</p> CAMARA, Boubacar Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Les vestiges de l'occupation humaine ancienne dans la province du Gourma, des origines à la pénétration coloniale : cas de Kouare et de Namoungou TOME II <p>Nous avons entrepris dans le cadre du programme de formation doctorale, une étude archéologique centrée sur l'Est du Burkina Faso, principalement sur deux villages à savoir Kouaré et Namoungou. Il s'agit d'une recherche consacrée à l'étude des restes des activités humaines dans le passé et à la connaissance de l'histoire du peuplement du Gulmu ou pays Gourma où se trouvent ces deux villages. Cette étude passe nécessairement par la présentation du thème de recherche.</p> <p>La présente étude qui a pour thème : « Les vestiges d'occupation ancienne humaine dans le Gulmu, des origines à la pénétration coloniale : cas de Kouaré et de Namoungou», constitue une contribution écrite à la connaissance de l'histoire des Gulmanceba du Burkina Faso. Elle s'appuie sur les données archéologiques pour tenter de remonter le temps et de reconstituer le peuplement des deux villages considérés que sont Kouaré et Namoungou. Pour cela, voyons d'abord quels objectifs nous visons à travers une telle démarche ? Quels sont les principaux centres d'intérêt et les limites de l'étude...</p> THIOMBIANO Foniyama Elise épouse ILBOUDO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Etude des toponymes du Gungbe <p>Abstract</p> CHANVOEDOU, Yeyinou Cyprienne Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Déterminants de la performance des entreprises publiques en Afrique subsaharienne: l'exemple du Cameroun <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> TAMBA ISAAC Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 MIGRATIONS RURALES, STRATEGIES FONCIERES ET GESTION DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES DANS LE DEPARTEMENT DU ZOU: CAS DE LA SOUSPREFECTURE DE SAVE <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Philippe TCIIEGNON Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Land Reform and Changing Agrarian Labour Processes in Zimbabwe August <p>This study examines the transformation of the agrarian employment in the former large­ scale <br>commercial farming sector (LSCF) after the implementation of the Fast Track Land Reform Programme <br>(FTLRP) by the government of Zimbabwe that redistiibuted over 80 percent of the farms to mostly <br>landless peasants from the communal areas. The key question posed is whether the transfer of land <br>from the former large-scale commercial farmers has created or inhibited opportunities for rural <br>labour to gain incomes and/or livelihoods through self employment as own agricultural producers or <br>in paid wage work. The study was based on a questionnaire survey administered in newly resettled <br>households in Zvimba District and secondary data sources. Vaiious statistical tools were utilised <br>to answer the study's research questions. Firstly, descriptive statistics were used to characterise <br>the forms of labour that have emerged in the newly resettled areas. Secondly, the Analysis of <br>Variance (ANOVA) test was used to examine the differences in the labour utilisation across the <br>different farm sizes allocated under the FTLRP. Lastly the Chi-Square test was used to relate <br>different factors which were thought to affect the utilisation of labour in newly resettled areas. <br>The study found that FTLRP bas been accompanied by the degree of self employment as own producers <br>among newly resettled households in the former wage labour market, although some hired in labour. <br>Hired labour was dominated by casual workers. In comparison to the past scenaiio the size of the <br>agricultural employment had increased, but new and former farm workers earned unviable wages and <br>benefits and were thus less protected than those in other LSCF subsectors. There was also <br>underutilisation and Joss of skills of former farm workers employed in the former LSCF sector. <br>Larger farms with access to capital equipment such as tractors tended to use more absolute hired <br>labour and permanent workers per unit of cropped area, whilst the smaller farms utilised more <br>family and casual labour per unit of cropped area. Across the small and large farms in newly <br>resettled areas, labour use per unit of cropped area was higher compared to the former LSCF sector. <br>In conclusion the land reform programme has the potential to generate employment and thus solve the <br>growing unemployment problem in Zimbabwe, but the capacity of new farmers bas to be enhanced to <br>fully utilise their land which is still below its potential through the resolution of production <br>constraints that include finance, skills, input shortages and extension<br>services.</p> CHAMBATI, Walter Spear Simbarashe Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 UNE CONSTRUCTION IDSTORIQUE A BASE D'ORALITE. LA DEUXIEME GUERRE MONDIALE VECUE D'EN BAS AU SENEGAL. EVENEMENTS-REPERES, MEMOIRE COLLECTIVE ET CONSCIENCES INDIVIDUELLES. TOME I <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Abdoulaye TOURE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Femme entrepreneur et coopération internationale : <p>Abstract</p> CHOKOTE DJANKANG, Sariette Batibonak Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 La vente illicite des médicaments au marché parallèle de "Keur Serigne bi" <p>Depuis plus d’une décennie, la vente illicite des médicaments gagne du terrain à Dakar avec le développement des circuits officieux d’approvisionnement. En marge des circuits pharmaceutiques légaux, on voit se multiplier l’offre sur le marché ou au porte à porte des médicaments aux quantités chimiques douteuses, aux posologies fantaisistes.¹ Cette pratique peut être inscrite dans le registre de l’informel et se développe dans un contexte d’automédication généralisée. Parmi les lieux d’approvisionnement illicite en médicaments, « Keur Serigne bi » est l’un des plus remarquables grâce à sa position géographique et à la disponibilité de beaucoup de médicaments. Il est par conséquent une destination privilégiée. Il faut signaler que depuis presque 2 ans, on assiste à une série s’organisent de cambriolages (plus de 50 pharmacies ont été cambriolées de 2005 à nos jours). Face à ce phénomène, les pharmaciens pour la sauvegarde des intérêts de leur corporation tandis que l’attitude des pouvoirs publics prête à équivoque. Pratique illégale sans nul doute, elle se développe davantage à Dakar à cause de l’action conjuguée de plusieurs facteurs socio-économiques voire politiques tels que :la défaillance du secteur officiel d’approvisionnement en médicaments, la perméabilité des frontières et l’échec des politiques de promotion des soins de santé primaires et des médicaments essentiels en particulier. Avec la demande grandissante des populations en besoins médicamenteux, les vendeurs qui, conscients de l’inégalité de cette pratique y persistent car ils y trouvent leur compte.</p> CAMARA, El Hadji Malick Sy Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 TARIFICATION ET DEMANDE RÉSIDENTIELLE D’ÉLECTRICITÉ AU SÉNÉGAL <p>Energy policy has always been at the heart of the concerns of public decision-makers in Senegal. Significant resources are mobilized for its implementation, a heavy burden for public finances. Its application, in terms of appropriate sectoral policies including good pricing policy in relation to the current difficult environment, impact on electricity demand of households. In this thesis, we study the explanatory factors of the demand for electricity in the residential sector in Senegal and the effects of the pricing on this request. We apprehend it by the calculation of elasticities. The methodology used is based on a model of expenditure of Stone (1954) on pseudo-panel data. Our results show that with the exception of the variable "number of pieces" variables are significant and have an effect on the expense of household electricity. Better analysis of the expenditure of electricity depending on the level of life shows that the pricing of electricity impact pas of the same scale the expense electricity of easy, average and modest households.</p> Thierno THIOUNE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Le cautionnement bancaire <p>Le cautionnement bancaire, en tant que mode de garantie traditionnel longtemps usité dans les <br>pratiques bancaires,pose aujourd'hui plus que jamais le probléme de son actualité.<br>Aù vu des multiples évolutions dont il a été sujet et face àl'apparition de nouvelles formes de <br>garanties, cet instrument de credit ne peut manquer de susciter des interrogations quant à sa place <br>dans le nouvel environnement juridico-économique. Certes, comme nous avons eu à le développer dans <br>la première partie, le cautionne­ ment bancaire a connu une periode d'apogée marquée par sa <br>prééminence sur les autres types de garanties. Cette situation s'est traduite par son usage <br>permanent et préférentiel, pour ne pas dire monopolistique, dans les relations d'affaires de <br>l'époque. C'est pour cette raison que nous avons tenu à le spécifier d'abord,à définir ses domaines <br>d'intervention ensuite, pour enfin terminer avec l'analyse du contrat proprement dit.</p> <p><br>Toutefois, au terme des développements de la seconde partie, nous avons soulevé des difficultés <br>liées à la procédure de réalisation du cautionnement bancaire, notamment les cautions constituées <br>en faveur des banques créancières.<br>Concernant ce dernier point,.il convient de rappeler que dans le cadre de notre étude, nous avons <br>opté pour une acception large du cautionnement bancaire englobant aussi bien les cautions données <br>par les banques, que celles reçues par elles.</p> <p><br>Ces difficultés précitées ont été accentuées par une application jurisprudentielle largement <br>favorable à la caution- tiers au point de précariser l'institution.</p> <p><br>Cependant,en dépit de ces considérations, l'abandon ne s'avère pas être la solution car cette <br>institution n'en est pas pour autant désuète. Tout au plus, il urge de penser à sa réactualisation <br>notamment son réaménagement juridique en vue d'une<br>application plus adaptée aux réalités économiques de l'heure</p> CISSE, Rokhaya Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 ETAT ET PERSPECTIVES DE L'EDUCATION ET DE LA FORMATION ENVIRONNEMENTALES NON FORMELLES DES AGENTS DE SANTE COMMUNAUTAIRE FEMININS Cas du projet de restructuration d'un quartier sous-intégré de Dakar : Dalifort <p>Cette étude se veut une contribution au développement à la base. L'éducation ·relative à l'environnement a donc servi de prétexte pour approcher une partie des agents de développement dont les femmes qui jouent un rôle important dans le développement en Afrique, même si ce rôle n'est pas toujours apprécié à sa juste valeur. Il nous a alors semblé urgent de prendre en charge les femmes pour leur assurer une formation leur permettant de mieux gérer leur environnement. Aussi <br>la santé nous paraît-elle un thème très implicateur des femmes des quartiers "Sous­ intégrés" dans le développement.</p> <p>L'amélioration du cadre de vie étant la base de l'épanouissement de la personnalité, sous-tend le développement, parce que la production d'un homme reste tributaire de son état de santé. Le rôle de la femme dans cette amélioration du cadre de vie n'est plus à démontrer. Par conséquent nous nous attachons à mieux faire jouer ce rôle par les femmes par le "biais de l'éducation et de la formation relatives à l'environnement.</p> GAKOU FANT A CAMARA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Fornadjeras da Ribeira de Principal : Poder, resistência e identidade feminina no espaço de produçao <p>Na Ribeira de Principal – localidade rural agrícola e de abundante produção do grogue &nbsp;as mulheres começam a adquirir uma centralidade, cada vez maior, no espaço público de produção, pois, aparecem ocupando espaços de organização socio-económicos tradicionalmente masculina. Por isso, questiono como se processa a configuração do espaço público e privado com a saída masculina do espaço de produção da “fornadja” e a entrada da mulher nesse espaço. Observei que a incorporação significativa de mulheres no espaço público de produção remunerado fez com que o trabalho, a família e o mercado de trabalho passassem por profundas transformações, nestes últimos trinta anos na comunidade. A entrada de mulheres como força de trabalho remunerada deve-se, de um lado, à emigração masculina para a Europa e, por outro lado, ao desempenho de outras actividades laborais fora do espaço agrícola e, por vezes, fora da comunidade. Esta situação trouxe transformações que se vêem, principalmente, no papel de cada um desses sujeitos, nas relações que se estabelecem dentro do grupo doméstico, no espaço da produção e na própria construção simbólica dos sujeitos sociais. As mulheres, ao articularem as experiências da vida privada com as do espaço público, questionam a hierarquia de género, não só no grupo doméstico, mas, também, no espaço de produção, pois, o trabalho das “fornadjeras” permite a articulação do mundo privado com o mundo público, rompendo com<br>os protótipos de fixação das mulheres nos espaços privados. Na comunidade de Principal, as mulheres inseriram no espaço de produção da “fornadja”, num primeiro momento para apoiar a provisão do grupo doméstico e, num segundo momento, como uma forma de afirmação da sua identidade nesse espaço enquanto sujeito político no espaço público. Pois, a sua presença não se limita a de “ajudante” do membro masculino no grupo doméstico, mas de produtora de grogue e sujeito activo nas<br>relações comerciais que se estabelecem nas “fornadjas”.</p> CARDOSO, Carla Santos de Carvalho Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Changement culturel et développement social : la nouvelle place des femmes en Guinée <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> DOUMBOUYA, Oumar Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 MULTIPARTISME ET POUVOIR POLITIQUE AU BENIN : 1951-2006 TOME I <p>Deux modes de pouvoirs caractérisent la gestion de la vie politique au Bénin, hier Dahomey, de 1951 à 2006 : il s’agit, d’une part de la gestion du pouvoir suivant des normes démocratiques (1960-1963 ; 1990-2006) et d’autre part, de l’exercice du pouvoir selon des principes autoritaires (1963-1989).<br>Le choix de ces deux bornes chronologiques (1951 et 2006) se justifie par plusieurs raisons. En effet, l’année 1951 marque le début du multipartisme au Bénin, ex-Dahomey. Le premier parti politique créé dans le cadre de la représentation de la colonie du Dahomey dans les assemblées de l’Union française en 1946 est l’Union progressiste du Dahomey (UPD). Ce parti regroupait toutes les élites dahoméennes d’alors. Par la suite, les ambitions personnelles des hommes politiques de l’UPD et les luttes d’influence entre ces hommes ont conduit à l’éclatement du premier parti dahoméen. Cet éclatement favorise en 1951 l’avènement du multipartisme marqué par la création d’une floraison de partis politiques comme le Parti républicain du Dahomey (PRD) de Sourou M. Apithy, le Groupement ethnique du nord (GEN) devenu Mouvement démocratique dahoméen (MDD) puis Rassemblement démocratique dahoméen (RDD) de Hubert K. Maga, l’Union démocratique dahoméenne (UDD) de Justin T. Ahomadégbé, le Groupement des indépendants du Dahomey (GID) de Maximilien Quenum...</p> Rogatien Makpéhou TOSSOU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Les migrations intellectuelles dans le bassin Tchadien : cas du Cameroun, du Nigeria et du Tchad aux XIXe- XXe siècles <p>Le présent travail étudie la quête et l’expansion du savoir à travers la mobilité, les biographies et les œuvres des savants « païens », d’érudits de l’islam, d’étudiants et chercheurs africains dans le bassin tchadien. L’élaboration de ce travail est axée sur la collecte des données orales et écrites. Les enquêtes et interviews sont conduites auprès des personnes ressources, <br>témoins ou acteurs du sujet que nous abordons. A cet effet, nous élaborons un questionnaire et effectuons des entrevues. Ce questionnaire est préétabli sur la base de l’âge, du statut socio - professionnel et de l’appartenance ethnique des répondants. Pour recueillir les informations, nous utilisons les blocs notes, les dictaphones et les calepins. En outre, nous avons recours aux <br>appareils photos pour les prises de vues. Bien plus, les recherches se poursuivent dans les bibliothèques, les centres de recherches et des documentations pour la collecte des données écrites constituées. Des ouvrages, des articles, des <br>chapitres d’ouvrages, des thèses et des mémoires sont consultés. Les archives et les disciplines connexes constituent une source importante. Après la combinaison de ces sources, nous procédons à leur exploitation minutieuse puis à leur critique. Pour les sources orales nous les critiquons à travers le recoupement pour vérifier les faits et ceci, en confrontant les informations des diverses personnes pour établir le noyau dur qui constitue l’élément utile à la réalisation du présent travail. Les données écrites recueillies sont organisées selon un enchaînement chronologique et thématique après avoir effectué le dépouillement et critiqué les données obtenues. Les difficultés rencontrées sont d’ordre matériel et méthodologique. Une autre difficulté à relever est celle liée à l’exploitation des documents d’archives mal conservés et non classés. Cependant, les difficultés mentionnées ci – dessus n’ont pas empêché l’élaboration d’un travail structuré en deux grandes parties : La première se penche sur les migrations anciennes et la constitution des Etats centralisés dans le bassin tchadien. La seconde retrace les migrations intellectuelles pendant les périodes coloniales et post coloniale.</p> BUKAR Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Gendered Bodies and New Technologies <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les corps sexués et les nouvelles technologies ont une prémisse fondatrice, à savoir que l'incarnation constitue une condition préalable non négociable à la vie humaine. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Bien que cela puisse sembler une affirmation évidente, c'est une affirmation qui doit être affirmée dans</span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">l'âge virtuel dans lequel nous vivons. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les nouvelles technologies, sous la plupart de leurs formes, tendent à discréditer les aspects incarnés de la vie humaine et se concentrent plutôt sur les aspects désincarnés de celle-ci. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Parmi les nouvelles technologies, on note plus particulièrement : la micro-électronique, les réseaux de télécommunication, les nanotechnologies, la réalité virtuelle, les communications assistées par ordinateur et d'autres formes de technologies informatiques. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">En bref, les « nouvelles technologies » désignent tout ce qui est numérique. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">J'explore la question de l'incarnation d'un point de vue genré, en voyant que le corps féminin est l'incarnation la plus susceptible d'être rejetée, non seulement dans les systèmes métaphysiques, mais aussi dans les développements au sein des nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'accent principal de mon analyse sexospécifique porte sur l'image visuelle et plus précisément sur sa manifestation dans le cinéma, la publicité, Internet, </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">œuvres d'art interactives et télévision. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La perspective critique qui sous-tend mon approche est celle du domaine assez nouveau du cyberféminisme. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La principale préoccupation du cyberféminisme étant un engagement critique de la place des femmes face aux nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">À cet égard, le cyberféminisme ne perpétue pas une position antitechnologique, mais embrasse plutôt la technologie en mettant l'accent sur la nature incarnée de notre existence. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">J'ai identifié quatre types de corps pour explorer les interactions entre les corps et les nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ce sont : le : corps techno-transcendant ; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le corps techno-amélioré; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le corps marqué et le corps cyborg. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les quatre types de corps diffèrent dans la manière dont l'incarnation genrée est négociée dans son interaction avec les nouvelles technologies et celles-ci sont mises en évidence et discutées dans les quatre chapitres traitant de ces quatre types de corps. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La perspective critique qui sous-tend mon approche est celle du domaine assez nouveau du cyberféminisme. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La principale préoccupation du cyberféminisme étant un engagement critique de la place des femmes face aux nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">À cet égard, le cyberféminisme ne perpétue pas une position antitechnologique, mais embrasse plutôt la technologie en mettant l'accent sur la nature incarnée de notre existence. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">J'ai identifié quatre types de corps pour explorer les interactions entre les corps et les nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ce sont : le : corps techno-transcendant ; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le corps techno-amélioré; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le corps marqué et le corps cyborg. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les quatre types de corps diffèrent dans la manière dont l'incarnation genrée est négociée dans son interaction avec les nouvelles technologies et celles-ci sont mises en évidence et discutées dans les quatre chapitres traitant de ces quatre types de corps. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La perspective critique qui sous-tend mon approche est celle du domaine assez nouveau du cyberféminisme. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">La principale préoccupation du cyberféminisme étant un engagement critique de la place des femmes face aux nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">À cet égard, le cyberféminisme ne perpétue pas une position antitechnologique, mais embrasse plutôt la technologie en mettant l'accent sur la nature incarnée de notre existence. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">J'ai identifié quatre types de corps pour explorer les interactions entre les corps et les nouvelles technologies. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ce sont : le : corps techno-transcendant ; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le corps techno-amélioré; </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">le corps marqué et le corps cyborg. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Les quatre types de corps diffèrent dans la manière dont l'incarnation genrée est négociée dans son interaction avec les nouvelles technologies et celles-ci sont mises en évidence et discutées dans les quatre chapitres traitant de ces quatre types de corps.</span></span></p> DU PREEZ, Amanda Anida Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Approche socio-économique de la photographie de portrait et de reportage en Côte d'Ivoire : le cas de Bouaké <p>La photographie est l'acte par lequel l'on obtient, à l'aide de procédés techniques<br>l'image des objets ou personnes visés sur un support matériel.<br>L'on désigne aussi par photographie le support matériel représentant l'ima!~e des<br>personnes ou objets photographiés.<br>La photographie est donc en définitive à la fois un objet matériel et un acte. Ainsi si<br>l'acte s'accomplit avec une relative communication entre le photographe et la cible visée, et<br>avec un apparent contrôie du premier sur la seconde, on parle de photographie de portrait ;<br>si l'acte se réalise sans communication (manifeste) entre le photographe et sa cible, et sans<br>le moindre contrôle du photographe sur sa cible, on parle de photographie de reportage. Ces<br>deux types de pratique photographique se sont, avec le fil du temps (de 1893 à 1994)<br>répandus en Côte d'Ivoire. La photographie de portrait et de reportage revêt, partant un<br>caractère social ; celui d'être général dans l'étendue de la société ivoirienne &lt;1l .<br>Les acteurs sociaux de cette activité sont les photographes. Le statut de ces acteurs<br>est déterminé par la nature de leur rapport à la photographie de portrait et de reporta!~e. Ce<br>rapport peut être conjoncturel ou structurel, privé ou public, lucratif ou non lucratif, statique ou<br>dynamique.<br>En ce qui nous concerne, nous nous intéressons à la catégorie sociale qui pratique la<br>"photographie spontanée " c'est-à-dire les acteurs qui ont suivi une formation informelle - en<br>dehors du ~entre d'apprentissage officiel - et qui cependant, en font un usage non lucratif et<br>temporaire ou un usage lucratif et permanent.<br>Ceci nous renvoie à une analyse du circuit de production. de distribution et de<br>consommation de la photographie. C'est ce que nous avons voulu signifier par approche<br>socio-économique de la photographie de portrait et de reportage.<br>Il reste à présent à exposer les procédés méthodologiques adoptés pour saisir l'objet<br>soumis à notre étude.</p> BOUABRE GNOKA, Modeste Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Etat et perspectives de l'éducation et de la formation environnementales non formelles des agents de santé communautaire féminins : <p>Cette étude se veut une contribution au développement à la base. L'éducation ·relative à <br>l'environnement a donc servi de prétexte pour approcher une partie des agents de développement <br>dont les femmes qui jouent un rôle important dans le développement en Afrique, même si ce rôle <br>n'est pas toujours apprécié à sa juste valeur. Il nous a alors semblé urgent de prendre en charge <br>les femmes pour leur assurer une formation leur permettant de mieux gérer leur environnement. Aussi <br>la santé nous paraît-elle un thème très implicateur des femmes des quartiers "Sous­ intégrés" <br>dans le développement.</p> <p>L'amélioration du cadre de vie étant la base de l'épanouissement de la personnalité, sous-tend le <br>développement, parce que la production d'un homme reste tributaire de son état de santé.</p> <p>Le rôle de la femme dans cette amélioration du cadre de vie n'est plus à démontrer. Par conséquent <br>nous nous attachons à mieux faire jouer ce rôle par les femmes par le "biais de l'éducation et de <br>la formation relatives à l'environnement.</p> CAMARA, Gakou Fanta Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Les normes internationales du travail dans le contexte de démocratie pluraliste au cameroun: <p>Abstract</p> CHINTOUE, Sanatou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Analyse économique de la pollution sonore des avions et des centrales thermiques: cas de la ville de Ouagadougou <p>Le problème de la pollution sonore a fait! 'objet de recherches déjà nombreuses en pays industrialisés, mais la connaissance de ses facteurs explicatifs et de son impact sur les populations riveraines d'un aéroport ou d'une centrale thermique dans le Tiers Monde reste modeste. L'objectif principal de cette thèse est de cerner l'impact du bruit des avions et des centrales thermiques de la SONABEL sur le bien-être de la collectivité et des individus . d'une part, par l'identification des facteurs socio-économiques qui peuvent influencer le niveau de gêne ressentie par les ménages riverains; et d'autre part, par l'évaluation du coût social de cette pollution. Pour ce faire, l'étude a utilisé la Socioéconométrie, une démarche systémique qui allie la transdisciplinarité et les dimensions temporelles et spatiales. Elle combine l'analyse statistique et l'analyse économétrique. Cette dernière analyse se fonde sur trois modèles : le modèle de prix hédonistes pour l 'estiniation de la valeur vénale des logements et partant du<br>Consentement A Payer (CAP) des enquêtés, le modèle de Poisson pour la détermination des facteurs explicatifs du problème auditif des riverains et le modèle probit multinomial ordonné pour la détermination des facteurs explicatifs de la gêne due au<br>bruit. L'étude a eu recours à d'autres sciences telles que l'acoustique et la médecine. La première a été utile pour la détermination des niveaux sonores et la deuxième à travers l'audiométrie pour déterminer l'ampleur du problème de la perte auditive. L'analyse a permis de noter un impact négatif du bruit sur la valeur des propriétés immobilières des riverains des zones polluées. L'indice de dépréciation de leurs valeurs par unité de décibel supplémentaire se situe dans le même ordre de grandeur (0,27% pour !'Aéroport et 0,56% pour la SONABEL) que ceux trouvés par des études similaires. Aussi, les riverains des sources polluantes sont-ils prêts à payer entre 17% et 42% du montant du seuil de pauvreté.</p> THIOMBIANO, Noël Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 The Implementation of the Federal Urban Mass Transit Programme in Nigeria: <p>Transportation involves the movement of people, goods and services from one place to another. This <br>makes for a more equitable distribution and availability of resources and products at dii'ferm1t <br>locations in the country.<br>Observations, experiences and available literature show that several policies have been made to <br>guide the various transportation modes .in the country - rail, road,<br>air and water. Unfortunately, these policies and programmes have on many occasions encountered <br>severe bottlenecks<br>during the implemen tation stages.<br>Thus, this research effort focus.os attention on the exten t the curren t f ederal urban mass <br>transit programme has been implemented in the country with the experience in Imo State as a frame <br>of reference. The ivork is divided into<br>six major chapters with :relevant sub-headings.<br>Chapter one deals with general intraduction, statement of problem, purpose, and significance of <br>study, literature review, the theoretical framework, hypotheses and methods used in carrying out <br>the stud.y.<br>In chapter two, an analysis of the historical develop­<br>ment of transport in the country was made. The types of modem transport systems mainly .involved ID <br>mass movement of commuters were discussed.<br>Chapter three contains a detailed discussion on the</p> CHUKWUKA, Henry Chidi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Texts in dialogue: Intertextuality in Advertising in Botswana <p>This study sought to investigate and explore the technique of intertextuality in a variety of print advertisements in Botswana. The exploration was undertaken to determine the types of intertextual transfer of meanings and those aspects of culture and texts that inform intertextual meaning transfer in advertising in Botswana. The study attempted to answer questions such as: what forms of intertextuality are found in advertisements in Botswana? What linguistic innovations are achieved in these advertisements? What social domains are the main sources of intertextual reference? How does intertextuality shape social meanings? The study used a Critical Discourse Analysis approach as the main theoretical and analytical framework and relied on qualitative methods of text analysis. As evidenced in a number of advertisements in this study, intertextual messages in<br>advertising can be regarded as generally-accepted shared knowledge between the marketer and the target market which is based on certain dominant world views. This study found that effective advertising is really intertextual; a process that involves how a given text alludes to and incorporates various other texts. Most importantly, the study established that intertextuality is not only a case where one text alludes to another; a text spreads across associations, different fields, references, metaphors and, as such, intertextuality is a very complex phenomenon whereby a text feeds off and articulates a total history and culture in which it is produced. The study established that in both commercial and social advertisements, intertextual reference occurs. In both types of advertisements, sources of intertextual reference are multiple, complex and often opaque. The study showed that, for the industries that market controversial products, such as cigarettes, advertising is done in such a way that it subverts legislations. The research found out that intertextuality is employed as a device for dominance in the advertising industry. This position of dominance is manifest at various levels, not only with commercial but also with social services advertising. The study<br>concludes by suggesting that intertextuality is a tool used to market goods and services in an increasingly competitive world, and as such, advertisers need to find new innovative ways of marketing their products. To do this they need to be able to use language in new surprising ways. This involves mixing of discourses to create new hybrid discourses that engage the<br>reader both intellectually and aestheticaUy. The study also concludes that by doing this, advertisin~ in Botswana contributes significantly to the growth of a consumerist and materialist society.</p> ENESITI, Chirume Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Institutions, Institutional Linkages and Sustainable Water Resources Management : a case of Zimbabwe's Mazowe Catchment <p>In the 1990s neo-liberal environment, a blend of eco-catastrophic shocks, international <br>thinking on integrated water resources management (IWRM) discourse and domestic equity imperatives <br>on the part of the central government; set the public water sector in Zimbabwe on a reform course <br>and ushered in new water management rationalities.</p> <p>Where sectoral planning had constituted the rationality of officialdom, these vicissitudinous <br>reforms sought to introduce – albeit in a more radical manner – integration. Where centralism <br>constituted the practice of water management, the water reforms translated into a blend of <br>decentralization and centralism. These reforms reinvented the Department of Water Development into <br>the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA), decentralized to seven catchments in line with the <br>hydrological approach to water resources management. In tandem with IWRM’s principle of <br>involving stakeholders in participatory water resources management, ZINWA works in a <br>secretariat relationship with stakeholder Catchment Councils made up of representatives from <br>Sub-Catchment Councils – who in turn represent water users in Water User Boards (WUB). With regards <br>to equity, the PDS was scraped off and replaced by more evanescent water permits and agreements <br>that can be revised when more water is demanded. Using the case of Zimbabwe’s Mazowe Catchment, the <br>study examines the modes of interactions among institutions in land and water management.</p> <p>Whereas from time to time, both colonial and postcolonial governments crafted numerous institutions <br>to regulate access to natural resources in ways that at once affected equity in resource access and <br>subscribed to larger governmentality objectives, this has translated into some form of <br>institutional pile-up. Thus, the ways in which the colonial and postcolonial government addressed <br>access and equity issues in natural resource use were, to a larger extent, consequential to <br>institutional configuration in land and water management. Although stakeholder institutions have <br>been crafted to foster integration, the study finds that institutions involved in the management of <br>land and water resources have poor associational relationships – obfuscated mandate based roles, <br>and lines and direction of accountabilities. There is among these institutions a dearth of <br>evaluation criteria including any review mechanisms. Consequently, there is on the one hand, an <br>apparent confusion of precinct, and a salience of lack of compulsion of duty among institutions <br>that should implement integrated water resources management, on the other.</p> <p>Formulation and implementation of a catchment master plan, it is suggested, could be a potent tool <br>to align institutions into desirable modes of interaction that eventually translate into<br>tainable integrated water resources management.</p> CHERENI, Admire Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Exit Strategies of the United Nations and the Economic Community of West African States Peacekeeping Operations in Sierra Leone and Liberia <p>Exit strategy in peacekeeping m1ss10ns, a process of either disengaging or terminating involvement in peacekeeping operations, is increasingly becoming a challenge to the intern tional community. Past experiences in Somalia, Bosnia, Lebanon, and in recent times, Iraq, have shown that such an exercise is usually associated with structural problems. Previous studies· on exit strategies in peacekeeping operations have been deeply ethnocentric and dominated by literature from the global north. To illustrate some African examples to the problem, this study examined the exit strategies adopted by the United Nations (UN) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone and Liberia by focusing on the institutional/policy frameworks, approaches, and their effects on the two post-war societies. The study adopted a combination of descriptive, qualitative and case study research design. The purposive sampling technique was used to select past and cmrent force commanders, government officials, and staff of the UN and ECOWAS based on mission experience and knowledge on exit strategies. A total of 30 unstructured in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions were conducted with military and civilian experts on exit · strategy. Secondary data consisted of official documents from the UN, ECOWAS, bilateral institutions and the government of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Data were analysed using descriptive and constant comparative methods. Prior to the commencement of peacekeeping operations in these two countries, both the UN and ECOWAS did not have any institutional or policy framework guiding peacekeeping exit, mainly because such operations were unde1taken on ad-hoe basis and also because the planning process placed much emphasis on the attainment of sustainable peace as against the withdrawal of peacek epers. Yet, mounting peacekeeping costs, vaguely-worded mandates, blurred rules of engagement and the reluctance of troop-contributing countries to commit to endless mission forced both organisations to establish working frameworks. While the ECOWAS approach was set out in the Concepts of Operation of the ECOWAS Standby force, that of the UN was pursued through the Integrated Mission Planning Process. Although the ECOWAS preferred to exit through re-hatting in both operations, the UN maintained a systematic level of transition from benchmarking, phased withdrawal and successor operations. The major drawbacks of these approaches include the fact that the organisations appeared not to include local authorities in the implementation of their various exit strategies. As such, the withdrawal of·peacekeepers created a vacuun1 in several fronts, ranging from security to livelihoods, economic to competing doctrinal influences, housing to reconstrnction work The exit strategies adopted by the United Nations and the Economic Community of West African States in Sien-a Leone and Liberia have made significant contributions to how future peacekeeping operations should be terminated especially in Africa. The manifestation of the challenges that confronted both organisations has demonstrated the need to address the adjoining and structural causes of exit strategies in peacekeeping operations. Both organisations must partner local authorities in the implementation of their policy fran1eworks to serve as a buffer to contain the effects associated with exit strategy.</p> EDU-AFFUL, Fiifi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 La réception des messages de prévention du VIH/Sida dans la région de l'Adamaoua : cas des affiches et des spots radiophoniques et télévisés ANNEE ACADEMIQUE 2007- <p>Posters and Spots radio and television are used in for the sake of preventive communication against AIDS in the Adamawa province. This work carries on the impact of theses posters and spots on the target population. The reception of messages as well as the communication difficulties that can disturb their interpretation are the matter of preoccupation. In order to describe the structure and the function of the ant pictures, and to evaluate their efficiency on the Adamawa population, the Semiotic of image and discourse analysis have been retain as method.</p> BRAHIM, Assana Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 AN EVALUATION OF WEBCT COURSE CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA <p>This study was conducted to evaluate WebCT course co~tent management system (CCMS) at the University of Botswana from the perspective of perceptions of students and academic staff. The survey methodology was use. d and questionnair. es were distributed to 503 students selected fro. m six faculties. An in-depth interview was also conducted involving (20) twenty lecturers who teach via WebCT platform. The data collected through a questionnaire was analysed using the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to generate percentages and frequency count, Pearson Multiple Correlation, Analysis of variance and Stepwise Multiple Regression; while qualitative data was analysed using (content analysis), and thematic categorisation.</p> <p>The findings on the perceptions of students and staff suggest generally that WebCT CCMS at the University of Botswana has been reasonably successful. The findings also suggest that the quality of course materials uploaded on the system, service quality, the quality of the teaching and learning via the system are generally acceptable. By learning through WebCT students are able to self regulate their learning and that given an opportunity they are ready to use and continue learning using the WebCT. platform. The results also suggest that generally students are satisfied with the performance of WebCT and there are many benefits associated with the system as far as teaching and learning at the university is concerned.</p> <p>Moreover, the results of the tested hypotheses suggest that all the identified factors or measures (system quality, content quality, service quality, teaching and learning quality, student self-regulated learning, intention to use/ use, user satisfaction and net benefits) are good determinants of WebCT CCMS success. The study proposes CCMS success evaluation model that could be used in the evaluation of any e-learning course content management system. The model is based on the modified Delone and Mclean (2003) IS model. The proposed model outlines eight factors or measures that should be used in the assessment and evaluation of an e-learning system.</p> <p>The problems associated with WebCT CCMS that are experienced by both the staff and students of the University include access, network /server failure, lack of a link between the administrative system integrated technology service (ITS) and Web based communication tool WebCT, lack of expertise to teach using WebCT on the part of the lecturers, failure to remove completed courses from the system, and others.</p> <p>The respondents suggest that there is need for the university to consider constructing more computer labs on the campus and provide more computers, train and induct both lecturers and students on how to use WebCT for tea~hing and learning purposes, make use of WebCT at us· compulsory. and improve bandwidth.</p> <p>The study concludes by making several recommendations concerning the improvement in the use of WebCT at the University of Botswana. Further areas of research were recommended that include:<br>• Investigating the causal relationship between e-learning/WebCT CCMS success factors,<br>• Examining the attitude of non-users of WebCT CCMS at the University of Botswana,<br>• Impact of WebCT on leaning achievement,<br>• Cost-benefit analysis of WebCT usage at UB .</p> ADEYINKA TELLA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Cancer du col de l'utérus : comportements à risque, connaissances et représentations des femmes <p>Abstract</p> Ndéye Fatou CISSE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Déficit budgétaire et performances macroéconomiques au Mali <p>Comme la plupart des pays africains, le Mali a connu, au cours des années 80, une série de crises économiques et financières. L'économie était caractérisée par de profonds déséquilibres au niveau des finances pub_liques et de la balance des paiements. Pour trouver des solutions et améliorer la situation macroéconomique, l'Etat malien recourut à l'assistance financière des institutions de Bretton Woods (FMI Banque mondiale) avec la mise en vigueur de plans et programmes d'ajustement (PAS) vers 1982. Il faut noter que depuis lors même si les pouvoirs publics ont mené des efforts dans ce sens les déséquilibres économiques persistent encore. Surtout les problèmes liés aux conséquences des déficits budgétaires sur les variables économiques. Cependant le déficit budgétaire n'est pas à priori condamnable tout dépend de son niveau, il peut être stimulateur de l'activité économique. Des études ont montré que le déficit budgétaire lorsqu'il est très important évince l'investissement privé, or ce dernier agit positivement sur la croissance économique. Ce présent travail ayant pour objectif d'étudier si le déficit budgétaire peut être la cause de la non réalisation de bonnes performances économiques, en d'autre terme on a voulu voir s'il est possible de réaliser de bonnes performances économiques en situation de déficit <br>budgétaire au Mali. Ici le taux d'inflation, le taux de croissance du PIB, le solde courant de la balance des paiements ont été pris comme indicateurs de performances. Dans ce travail on a pris un modèle à correction d'erreur dans lequel le taux de croissance du PIB/TETE pris comme indicateur global de performances, est la variable endogène. A l'issue des analyses et tests économétriques il s'est avéré que l'impact du déficit budgétaire sur le taux de croissance du PIB est positif et significatif à court terme et négatif à long terme. Mais en même temps l'accumulation du déficit a un impact négatif plus significatif. Le niveau optimal de déficit budgétaire pour le Mali s'est</p> Safiatou DIARRA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Analyse économique de l'intégration spatiale des marchés céréaliers et de l'impact du crédit P.R.M.C. sur le revenu des producteurs agricoles au Mali <p>Dans le contexte actuel de libéralisation de l'économie malienne, toute analyse de la nouvelle stratégie de politique alimentaire de ce pays doit prendre en compte l'évaluation de l'impact des nouvelles mesures (comme la libéralisation des marchés céréaliers et l'incitation des paysans à la production vivrière) sur le niveau de la production alimentaire. Ce travail qui s'inscrit dans ce cadre a eu pour objectifs d'une part d'analyser l'efficacité distributive des marchés de gros de mil-sorgho, et d'autre part d'évaluer l'impact comparatif des options de gestion du crédit P.R.M.C. sur le revenu du producteur de céréales. Ces deux objectifs déterminent en soi les deux grands axes de la nouvelle stratégie de politique alimentaire du Mali qui vise principalement l'amélioration de l'alimentation des populations. L'analyse qualitative de l'efficacité distributive des marchés céréaliers a porté sur l'analyse de la conduite du marché et sur celle du comportement des grossistes céréaliers. L'analyse de la conduite du marché nous a permis de présenter une typologie des différents agents, des circuits de commercialisation et de celle des différents marchés céréaliers de la zone d'étude. Cette catégorisation des agents et des marchés nous a permis<br>de comprendre que les marchés visités ont une structure presque concurrentielle vu le nombre relativement élevé d'agents présents sur chaque marché. L'étude du comportement des grossistes nous a révélé que: - ceux-ci font recours à plusieurs sources pour financer leurs activités, et qui vont de l'autofinancement aux différentes formes de crédit (crédit informel, formel et crédit fournisseur); - le crédit bancaire est rarement utilisé par les grossistes par rapport aux deux autres sources de financement à cause de l'inaccessibilité relative de ces fonds due aux conditions d'octroi exigées par les banques; - le grossiste expéditionnaire joue un grand rôle dans le transfert des céréales des zones de production aux zones de consommation, car ·c'est lui qui finance en amont les agents qui s'occupent de la collecte des céréales, et en aval ses homologues résidant dans les<br>grands centres urbains à travers le crédit fournisseur; - ce statut particulier au sein des autres agents fait que le grossiste expéditionnaire supporte une grande partie des risques dans la fonction de transfert des céréales; - la spécialisation n'est pas de règle chez les grossistes céréaliers à cause du niveau , relativement élevé des risques de l'activité dûs aux énormes fluctuations intra et interannuelles du niveau des prix des céréales. Pour l'analyse quantitative de l'efficacité distributive des matchés, nous avons retenu six marchés de gros de mil-sorgho sur lesquels des prix hebdomadaires ont été collectés de juillet 1991 à mars 1992. Cette étude de l'efficacité distributive des marchés a été envisagée uniquement sur le plan spatial dans le but d'analyser les conditions actuelles de transfert des céréales des zones de production aux zones de consommation. Cette efficacité distributive des marchés a été . appréciée d'une part par des analyses d'intégration des marchés avec la technique du<br>coefficient de corrélation et le modèle dynamique de Ravallion (1987), d'autre part par la détermination du degré de variabilité intra-annuelle des prix de gros avec le modèle de Hays et Mc Coy (1978).</p> DIARRA, Daouda Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 PHENOMENE D'INNOVATION ET PERFORMANCE DES ENTREPRISES INDUSTRIELLES CAMEROUNAISES <p>suite a la crise economique des annees 80, de nombreux gouvernements d'Afrique sub-saharienne ant adopte d'ambitieux programmes de stabilisation et d'ajustement structure! (PAS&gt;. lls sont adoptes au cameroun des 19881. Leur but est alors le desengagement de l'Etat des secteurs productifs, la mise en place du cadre legislatif et reglementaire favorable au developpement du secteur prive dans l'optique de retrouver la croissance de l'economie.<br>L'un des themes fondamentaux de ces differents programmes est la reforme du svsteme d'incitations economiques dans le sens de leur reorientation en faveur des biens echangeables plutot que des biens non echangeables. II s'agit, en somme, de passer de l'economie administree des annees 70 - 80 a une economie liberale performante. L'accroissement de la productivite, de la rentabilite et de la competitivite des entreprises tant sur le marche local que sur le marche international est l'objectif majeur des reformes ainsi engagees.<br>Le principal corollaire de l'optique de liberalisation adoptee est le developpement de la concurrence sur les marches interieur et exterieur. Sur le marche interieur, celle-ci devient de plus en plus apre entre d'une part, les produits camerounais entre eux et d'autre part, les produits camerounais et etrangers. Le secteur industriel qui a le plus beneficie de la protection du gouvernement dans le cadre de sa politique de substitution des importations par la production locale mise en place des l'aube de l'independance du pays est a ce titre, le premier concerne par cette nouvelle orientation de la politique economique...</p> TANKOUA Lydie Epouse BAMOU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Education relative à l'environnement à l'école primaire en Côte d'Ivoire : diagnostic et enjeux d'une pérennisation <p>Cette recherche doctorale s’intéresse aux facteurs déterminant l’intégration de l’éducation relative à l’environnement dans le curriculum des écoles primaires ivoiriennes. Plus précisément, elle vise à identifier, dans le système scolaire ivoirien, quels sont les facteurs qui peuvent influencer positivement l’émergence d’une éducation relative à l’environnement susceptible de favoriser, chez l’élève, l’adoption pérenne de conduites témoignant d’un rapport harmonieux avec l’environnement. Les objectifs de cette recherche ont de dresser un portrait de l’éducation environnementale à l’école primaire en Côte d’Ivoire tel que perçu par les acteurs de l’école primaire, d’identifier les déterminants qui peuvent contribuer à son essor et, surtout, de proposer un modèle éducationnel visant à favoriser, chez l’élève, des conduites respectueuses de l’environnement. Pour ce faire, nous analyserons les politiques nationales en matière d’éducation et d’environnement et nous nous pencherons sur les<br>pratiques des acteurs de l’école de même que sur leurs représentations de l’environnement. S’inspirant du paradigme interprétatif, la méthodologie de recherche utilise l’analyse documentaire, l’entrevue et l’observation directe. Les entretiens ont été menés auprès de 196 élèves, 3 administrateurs et 8 enseignants. Les résultats de la recherche ont permis d’enrichir les connaissances relatives aux représentations sociales de l’environnement en milieu scolaire ivoirien. Également, ces résultats ont aidé à la conception d’un modèle d’éducation relatif à l’environnement spécifique basé sur le comportement environne-mental de l’élève en contexte socioculturel ivoirien, baptisé Modèle Entonnoir Prédictif.</p> DJANE, Kabran Aristide Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 LES DYNAMIQUES D'ANCRAGE DU PLURALISME PARTISAN AU CAMEROUN (1990 - 2006) L'économie des rapports entre pouvoir et opposition <p>Multi-party System bas always been considered as a major impediment to national intégration or political intégration in a plural society as Cameroon. According to tbe ruling elite and many otbers one-party-system tbeorists, partisan of developmental and structuralfunctional approacbes relatively call in question today, compétition between many political parties will certainly lead to tribalism and will compromise tbe idéal of national unity. Based on constructivism and individual metbodology, tbe aim of our dissertation is to evaluate the dynamics of tbe consolidation of multi-party System in Cameroon witb empbasis on the relations between tbe govemment and tbe opposition. Tbe central question driving our work is tbe foliowing: Is a strong multi-party System automatically a tbreat to national intégration? In otber words, at wbicb extend compétition between many political parties, tbat controlling tbe govemment and tbose in tbe opposition can constitute a major obstacle to tbe realization of national unity? Tbe principal bypotbesis guiding tbe researcb is tbat of tire dialectic between confrontation and coopération, wbicb cbaracterizes tbe dynamics of tbe consolidation of multi-party politics in Cameroon. Tbe nature of tbe democratization process and tbe plural cbaracter of tbe society détermine tbis ambiguity, wbicb is not an obstacle to democracy and intégration. Our fmdings are botb tbeoretical and empirical. At tbe tbeoretical level, we observed tbat multi-party system is a socio-political construction as a resuit of buman activity.<br>Contrary to tbe widespread perception, etbnic pluralism constitutes a fertile ground to tbe consolidation of multi-party. politics due to botb communitarian/kinsbip and rational votes. Tbe dynamic reconfiguration of tbe socio-political order is tbe resuit of tbe combination of individual political party action and sbadow motivations as well as tbe vitality of coalition politics. At tbe empirical level, we observed tbat multi-party system could be suitable to a plural society. Tbi'ougb tbeir compétitions, wbicb take différent forms, confrontation and coopération, tbe govemment and tbe opposition reinforce tbe process of political intégration. Tbe use of etbnic différences or cleavages as political resources by politicians bas contributed to tbe intégration into tbe political system of groups tbat bad previously been left ont. Tbis gives tbe groups botb a pragmatic and psycbological stake in presenting tbeir demands or supporting tbe overall political system. Political intégration as well as democracy in a<br>pluralistic society as Cameroon is a crossbred constmction. Tbe advent of a dominant party is not synonymous to single dominance party. A dominant party at tbe level of national institutions can be a minority party at tbe local level as it is tbe case of CPDM in some localities. Our tbesis is tbat multi-party system can constitute a factor of national intégration in case of peaceful relations between govemment and opposition.</p> Herman TOUO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Impact of Interest Rate Policy and Financial Reforms on Economic Growth in the BEAC Zone: The Case of Cameroon <p>This study attempts to analyse the impact of interest rate policy on economic growth in Cameroon of the BEAC sub-region. lt covers the pe1iod before 1990 marked by negative real interest rates which symbolizes a repressed financial system and the 1990s characterised by positive real interest rates following the refom1s in the financial sector.<br>The study is based on the principle that the impact of interest rate and financial .&nbsp; reforms on growth works through the relationship that exists between savings and investment. As such savings and investment equations were also specified and estimated. An econometric switching model was used to estimate the growth and efficiency of investment equations. The model to be ve1ified holds that the eflkiency of investment will be negatively correlated with below-equilibrium interest rates and positively correlated with above-equilibrium rates. This implies economic growth should be positively correlated with below and above equilibrirnn interest rates respectively. This is because when the interest rate is held below equilibrium, 1ising investment compensates for falling efficiency of investment whereas at above equilibrium interest rates, falling investment due to high cost is offset by rising efficiency. The following results have been obtained.</p> <p>Financial liberalisation theory holds that refom1ing the financial sector will lead to positive real deposit rates. This in turn; will raise the savings rate; increase financial deepening or bank liquidity; raiie the quantity and q11ality or investment thereby promoting economic growth. The empirical evidence for Cameroon still provides mild support tor the theory. Real interest rates are average!~ positive but the response of savings and the efficiency of investment are positive and insignificant whereas the quantity of investment, financial&nbsp; savings or bank liquidity and economic growth are negatively though insignificantly affected. However, there are indications that the refonns have been implemented in a period of relative macroeconomic instability and<br>unce11ainty which might have hindered the success of the reform. Fu1ihermore, some of the reforms are yet to be implemented (e.g. the creation of a stock market and Deposit guarantee scheme etc.).<br>At the level of the interest rate policy probably before the reform, real interest rate effectively influenced the flow of ftmds into the banking sector as real money balances are interest-elastic. The reason fix this could be that in a greater pati of the pre-reform period, the macroecoi'1omic and banking environment were stable and the favourable terms of trade might have generated much liquidity fron1· exports. However, despite the availability of fi.mds in the banking system, economic acti~ities declined, as· these funds were not made available to potential investors. This is reflected in the no:i-responsiveness of capital investment to real interest rates, as such the banking system is considered inefficient in Cameroon. Aggregate savings are also interest-inelastic but this may stem from the fact that the income effect dominates the substitution effect. That is, savings depend very much on income growth. The effect of the discount rate (real lending rate) on investment is positive and significant (insignificant). This may reflect the view that _the availability of fonds rather than the cost is imp01iant for investment decisions. And the net impact of real. deposit rate on economic growth is negative. In swn, the interest rate policy is<br>, ineffective. The existing structure of interest rates is economically insignificant and does not form the basis for moneta1y policy in Cameroon. Other factors· interplay in the growth process. The insignificant nature of interest rate movements resulted to an insignificant equilibrium rate which made it impossible to draw a conclusion or whether too low an interest. rate is detTimental to economic health as setting them to high. The hypothesis ought to be verified using a switching model as<br>mentioned above with an unknown obtah1ed suggests that the rate of equilibriwn interest rate. The model economic growth is negatively but insig11ificantly cortelated with below and above equilibrium interest rates respectively. This indicates the non-existence of a definable equilibrium interest rate in the empirical context of Carneroon.</p> TABI ATEMNKENC JOHANNESI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Pattern of wife abuse within families in Yola Adamawa State <p>Abstract</p> BUKURTA, Milkah Elam Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 E-JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA: LEGAL CHALLENGES SURROUNDINGELECTRONIC EVIDENCE AND PROCEDURE <p>The advent of information and communication technologies at the end of the twenty-first century constitutes a turning point in the history of humankind. Indeed these technologies have revolutionised the way one communicates, interacts, transacts, and does business as they allow information to be stored, managed, and transmitted rapidly and cheaply, and so create the rapid<br>transformation of modes of social and economic organisation. Ways of governing and administrating the public domain are not immune to these changes, nor is the administration of justice, which is also a public service. Justice is strongly reliant on information; traditionally, such information was fixed on a physical medium such as a paper. With the electronic revolution, the nature of information has changed from a tangible to a digital form. This requires the justice system to adapt and transform itself into an electronic justice system or e-justice.</p> <p>This thesis examines the challenges that the introduction of technology in the justice system raises from the perspectives of both the law of evidence and also the law of civil procedure. From a law of evidence point of view, the advancement of technology has created an entirely new source of evidence, namely electronic evidence. A comparative analysis of the law<br>governing electronic evidence in England and South Africa reveals that the rules relating to real evidence, documentary evidence and hearsay in both jurisdictions are to a large extent able to deal with electronic evidence if they are complemented by rules specifically governing electronic evidence. In respect of civil procedure, the emphasis is on rules governing the filing and service of court documents or the discovery of documents. On these aspects South Africa is clearly lagging behind and needs to look at a more advanced jurisdiction from a technological point of view such as Singapore to reform its obsolete rules to accommodate the electronic filing and service of court documents and the electronic discovery of documents. England is also in advance of South Africa, and, so, South Africa can gain insight from that country as well.</p> ODINGA TAKOMBE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Etude de l'evolution sous polychimiothérapie de l'etat neurologique des malades hanseniens nouvellement dépistes : résultats à 3 ans <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> DIOP Madoky Magatte Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 L' implication des puissances occidentales dans le processus de démocratisation en Afrique : analyse des actions Américaine et Française au Cameroun <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> EBOLO, Martin Dieudonné Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Rural water supply in isiala-ngwa local government areas of Imo state, Nigeria <p>This work has analysed the water supply situation in Isiala-Ngwa Local Government Area of Imo State. Investiga­ tions were made on the assessment of water demand, sources of water supplyi analysis of deficiency of water supply, and strategies for meeting the water needs of the area. The result of the analysis shows that the total house­ hold water demand fer Isiala-Ngwa is 1108 litres per/ household per day (lhd), while the consumption (supply) is 355 lhd. This gives a deficiency of 7 3 lhd representing a percentage margin of 68%0 On the whole, the mean per capita water consumption per person per day for the area 1 /is 42 litres per capita per day (lpd). This figure re presents some 36.5% of the Federal Government of Nigeria recommended minimum of 115 lpds The average distance travèlled for water collection in the ar a is about 5 kilo­ metres, while people Be d; Ê8üt0f hours in water collection.About 18% of the day time is spent in water collection. This phenomenon therefore affects some productive activities adversely. Out of the 783 public standpipes (both functional and non-functional) in the area, 564 are non­ functional while 219 are functional. Small diameter pipelines (50mm to 100mm) dominate in the area.</p> CHIMA, George Nwabuko Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Survival in a Collapsing Economy: A Case Study of Informal Trading at a Zimbabwean Flea Market <p>The central concern of this study is the nature of informal economic activities among urban traders in Harare, Zimbabwe. The study focuses on a particular flea market and describes the precarious lives of a sample of informal traders. It is shown that, as through much of Africa, the market is a social as well as an economic nexus. It is not only the site of economic production and exchange constituting the survivalist activities that are increasingly important in the collapsing Zimbabwe economy, but also the site of diverse social relations. The thesis also shows that the formal and informal are part of the same deeply segmented economy and not two distinct, separate economies. The extended case study method is used to describe and analyse the nature of informal trading activities among traders dealing in four types of goods commonly found at the flea market: clothes and shoes, DVDs and video games, arts and crafts, and secondhand books. Primary and secondary sources, interviews with policy experts, researchers and activists, a total of 70 semi-structured interviews with traders and participant observation, over a period of one and a half years were used to obtain data on the nature of the informal economy in the current Zimbabwe crisis, and to profile these traders. The thesis describes the daily lives of the traders, their social characteristics and work histories, and the social relations of trust and reciprocity which enable them to source their goods. It is shown that the majority of the traders live an extremely precarious existence marked by low, unstable incomes.<br>However, they should not be viewed as passive victims of the economic crisis, as they demonstrate qualities of resourcefulness and innovation. Nor are they totally excluded from global circuits of production and exchange. Global connections are identified and shown to be relevant to the sourcing and sale of goods. These connections suggest an alternative way of conceptualising globalisation.</p> Hamadziripi Tamukamoyo Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Phonologie et morphosyntaxe comparées de trois dialectes Wolof <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> DRAME, Mamour Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 A comparative analysis of credit use and repayment performance of group and non-group women farmers under the community banking system in Enugu State <p>The study compared .the creclit use and rcpayrncnt performance of group and non-groups ,vomen farmers undcr the cornnrnnity hanking, system in Fnugu State. The spcci lie objectives inclucled to: clescribc the characleristics of the<br>women farmers and their use of credit, cletermine the fnctor that influence their I0ar1 repaymcnl performance, compare the creclit use and repaymenl · perfornwnce of group and non group women farrncrs, predict the credit risk position of the gî'oup and non-group wornen farrners and iclentify the problem faced by loan beneficiaries and bank officiais in· credit administration.<br>Multistagc random sampling technique was usecl in selecting respondents. The respondents used credit mainly for either crop or animal fanning. ln crop farming, they used creclit in a decreasing orcler, from buying of inputs, increasing the number of hectares unclcr cultivation, hiring of labour to storing of their products. On the other hancl, in animal farrning, the trend was in a decreasinf:.:.order from increasing stock, buying more drugs (medication) buying more têeds to hiring laboui·. Regression analysis for. group and non-group women former borrmvers con1l~incd showccl th,1t age, houschold size, net cash income group or non-group</p> CHUKWUONE, Nnaemeka A Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Women and socio-economic transformation in Kenya, 1850-1963: <p>This M.A. Thcsis is a study basecl 011 Gusii women a11Cl socio-econornic transformalio11 bctwcen&nbsp; 1850 and 1961. ft analyses the integration of pre-colonial Gusii women'.s socio- economic roles with the colonial soc.:io-economy. The establishment of a colonial economy ami political orcler generally hacl the effect of destahilizing the position of women both socially and economically. Major sources of change included the i11elivid1mlizatio11,, of land ownership in men's 1mmes, and the recnrilment of male labour to the settler cconomy, cash crop procl11ctio11 und formai cd11catio11. Whilc colo11ial land reform:,; cle11iecl women lheir tradilioiml access to and conlrol of land, instit11tionalizatio11 of wage migration for male adults lwd the gencral effect of co11siclerably i11crcasing women's workload. The i1r1positio11 of the hut tax and abolition. of cattle villages (ehisarnte) by the colo11ial administration compelled G11sii 111e11 to seek wage labour outsicte lheir homes so as lo<br>raise money for tax payment. By 1940s a large m,mber or G11sii men werc 0111 on 111igrn111 labour, leavihg their wives with incrcascd agricultmal and householcl tasks. (nspite of their labour. colonial policies temlccl to marginalise women 1101 011ly in cash crop production b11t also i11 formai eclm:atinr1. G11sii won1c11 wcre, however, presenled with new socio-economic opportunities and opc11i11gs in tcnns of increasccl marketing and kgal institutions for the aclvm1ccnient of thcir inlerests ami scxmlli1y rights. l'vlarriagc patterns were relatively loosenecl from the tighl grip of trnclitions and eiders<br><br></p> CHOTI, Charles Jomo Otsigo Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Gestion des déchets solides ménagers à Douala au Cameroun : opportunité ou menace pour l’environnement et la population ? <p>Since the Seventies, the vast spreading out of Douala, amplified by a running demography, involved an imbalance of its urban organization. Consequently, disparities increased between the districts, complicating the social and spatial structure and the functioning of the whole area. The construction of the city was and continues to be settled by logics and actions who bring about the amplification of an urban disorder. In this context, the problems which this research approaches are that of the environmental and medical threats related to the bad management of domestic solid waste in Douala, whereas the latter abounds in socio-economic and energy opportunities which could be developed, reducing at the same time ecological hazards. Armed with this knowledge, we introduced the following assumption : « The bad management of domestic solid waste in Douala shows that for the time being it constitutes primarily a threat. The emergence of the popular practices in this management, and the ever-present environmental-medical risks that are related to these practices, testify truly to the existence of the threat. However, since domestic solid waste, beyond the activities of salvage, can also be transformed into “clean manure” or into biomass usable within the framework of renewable energies, we will be able to declare that domestic solid waste is an opportunity in the sustainable development, even if such opportunities are less developed or not in the town of Douala. »<br>From the observations on the field, the investigations with urban dwellers and some social and institutional actors, the readings in the libraries, the space locations (cartography, ground level and aerial photography), and our empirical knowledge, we can make certain that since the Seventies, the city of Douala undergoes a spectacular space growth. Thus the unconstructible areas (steeply sloping zones, marshes and mangrove) were widely colonized by dwellings, without any plan of preliminary installation. Consequently, the majority of these areas, moreover isolated, which we called territories of middle salubrity and unsanitary territories, hardly provide the effective strategies of modern management. As for the actions implemented by HYSACAM, which is in charge of the modern waste management, they are inadequate. These failures caused the emergence in this management of some popular practices that proved to be unsuitable in the urban milieu, and carrying environmental risks. In addition, economic and energetic opportunities in the field of domestic waste are almost unknown for the majority as well as for the local government.<br>Therefore we proposed some ways out and ideas about domestic waste which could minimize the threats, while developing related opportunities. Namely : rigorous help observance of the current regulation, installation of a municipal police force of environment, popularization campaigns about the environment and the sustainable development, formal gathering of the NGO that already take part in pre-collection and optimization of refuse, promotion of individual composting, closing of the sole (and harmful) rubbish dump that currently works in Douala, setting-up of a project of biomethanation of waste, and creation of a local ecotax in Cameroon.</p> Louis Bernard TCHUIKOUA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 LA FLEXIBILITE OFFENSIVE DE L'ENTREPRISE <p>La crise économiQue QUi perdure appelle, devant les échecs des thérapeutiques adoptées ici et là, un investissement en<br>profondeur sur des axes de réflexion et d'action pouvant conduire à sa finitude.<br>Si pour renouer avec la croissance, des pays comme le Brésil ou la Corée du sud se sont appuyés sur la grande flexibilité de leurs outils de production, il n'est plus aujourd'hui évident que cette politiQue soit la meilleure pour au moins deux raisons d'abord c'est une politique d'adaptation et/ou de défensive; ensuite, les marchés, de plus en plus mondialisés, se caractérisent désormais par la concurrence monopolistique.<br>En conciliant l'anticipation, création et 1 a citoyenneté, 1 a 1 a réaction, l 'action, · 1 a politique de flexibilité offensive, à rechercher dans l'entreprise, apparait comme une des voies de salut possibl~s pour le pays à condition que le cadre institutionnel réglémentant la vie entrepreneuriale le permette.</p> TSAFACK NANFOSSO Roger Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Evolution climatique récente dans les régions nord-ouest de la Côte d'Ivoire et ses impacts environnementaux et socio-économiques <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Béh Ibrahim DIOMANDE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Human Resources Development in Nigeria: a Case Study of Ebonyi State Civil Service 1996-2004 <p>This study examines the state of human resources development in Ebonyi State Civil Service from 1996 to 2004. Specifically, the study sets out to: (1) find out whether the Civil Servants in Ebonyi State are availed of the opportunity for staff development; (2) Investigate the attitude and disposition of the higher civil servants towards staff development in the state (3) Determine the extent to which money constraints have affected staff development; (4) ascertain the level of encouragement given by the political leadership towards staff development: (5) find out the extent of political interference and control of the state civil service and consider the effects on the service. To achieve these set out objectives, systems approach to training by G.A. Eckstrand (1964) was employed. This involved defining training objectives, developing criterion measures for evaluating<br>training; deriving training contents; designing methods and training materials; integrating training programmes and trainees, etc. The study shows amongst other findings that there are reasonable number of staff development programmes in Ebonyi State for Civil Servants; though money constraints and ignorance on the part of some higher Civil Servants hinder effective implementation of training and development programmes in the state. In spite of these hindrances, the study also reveals<br>that political leadership in Ebonyi State encourages staff development, and Civil Servants are availed of the opportunity for staff development. However, despite the fact that higher Civil Servants in Ebonyi State show positive disposition towards staff development and carefully monitor and appraise the Civil Servants</p> CHIKWELU, Chukwubuisi Henry Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Variabilité climatique, crise économique et dynamique des milieux agraires sur les hautes terres de l'Ouest du Cameroun Tome1 : Textes, figures et annexes <p>Situated between latitude 4°50 to 7°N and longitude 9°25 E to 11 ° 40 E, the Western Highlands of Cameroon occupies a surface area of 7500 sq. km. They constitute an original geomorphological entity at the hinge of west and central Africa which are dominated by flat surfaces. Apart from this peculiarity there are other important characteristics: a great diversity of soils derived from volcanic rocks or crystalline basement complex, a vegetation cover that varies from upland or summit prairies to relatively dense forests through various transition savannahs and multiple agro-forestry landscape created by man. Climate reinforces the originality of the region. Through the study of its variability, considered as. one of the driving forces of the changing landscape in the region, it is shown that climate has played an important role in the elaboration of past and current landscapes. Based on the perception of the local population the climate variability is described. It is also analysed using conventional and satellite data. It appears then that the region is at the limit of the influence of the northern (harmattan) and the southern trade winds. Although it falls under a transitional situation, the variability of the climate in the region is moderate compared to the rest of the country. This is due to the quasi permanence of rain generating cold cloud. This major peculiarity combined with the altitude reduces the climate aggressiveness and explains the presence of water on high as well as in the low-lying areas. The cold clouds originate from the Atlantic monsoon and the equatorial air on one hand and from moisture coming from the east (TEJ) on the other hand. The importance of the later on precipitations on the Cameroonian territory in general and on the western highlands in particular has been clearly established on the basis of satellite images. It reduces the role that was thought to be played by the Atlantic monsoon. The use of satellite images has also permitted the delimitation of areas of different air masses influence on the Cameroonian territory, in particular, the harmattan and the Southeast trades masses, factors which are dominant on rainfall variability in the country. Furthermore it helps to detect some particular land surface characteristics. The complex relationship between climatic variability, land use and the economic context of climatic crisis brings into question the sustainability of the land use in the region. If in this context, time tested agrarian landscapes<br>were developed ( like enclosures supported by ridges cultivation system following the contour lines or along the direction of the slopes), recent droughts have revealed the precariousness of this agrarian system, the dependency and the peasantry poverty in face of a cash economy, largely attached to the state and the International market. In response to the current economic crisis cash crops, market gardening crops destined to supply urban markets or for local consumption are developed in rural area to the detriment of coffee cultivation. It is in this context that is developed a new conquest for upland and low-land areas which were formerly reserved to livestock and raffia respectively. This change in land use which does go without consequences on local and regional climate, was accompanied by land conquest to the advantage of urban elite at the expense of traditional aristocracy. At the same time, women began to show interest for the possession of land. One therefore notice that in rural areas, there is a veritable social transformation which is reflected in the landscapes. Taking into consideration the economic and social needs, little attention is thus paid to the protection of natural resources for long term development. This work therefore describes, analysis, questions the future of the processes described above and proposes some solutions for the<br>sustainable development of the region.</p> TSALEFAC Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 The study of socio-cultural and environmental factors of hypertension in Ibadan : an epidemiological approach OCTOBER, <p>Emphasis over the years have been on the perceived pathological causes as been the sole cause of diseases. However,<br>there has been a growing concern to investigate the raie of man's social, cultural and physical environment in disease causation. This study then investigated the raie of socio-cultural and environmental factors in the etiology of hypertension. lt<br>was limited to Ibadan, the most populous city in black West Africa. Data was collected through the survey method. A standard<br>questionnaire was designed, and also supplemented by oral interview. 1 nformation was gathered at the University College<br>Hospital, Ibadan. ln addition, we visited some traditional homes to get our required number of respondents. Major findings of the study include the following: females are more hypertensive than males; advancement in blood pressure is as a result of advancement in age; married people are more prone to hypertension;. hypertension permeates ail occupational<br>groups but more in high class jobs; there is a positive correlation between high social status and hypertension. Furthermore, spatial distribution of the illness reveals that they are most common in</p> ADERINTO, Adeyinka Abideen Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Changement culturel et développement social : la nouvelle place des femmes en Guinée <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Oumar DOUMBOUY A Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 INFRASTRUCTURES DE TRANSPORT TERRESTRES ET MOBILITÉ AU TOGO (1920-1980) <p>Le dimanche 27 juillet 2008, alors que nous smv10ns le journal du soir à la radioLomé1, une information alarmiste -quelque peu évasive au prime abord- émanant du gouvernement togolais fut livrée. Elle faisait état de l'impraticabilité de la route nationale n°1 2, portant à la connaissance du public que jusqu'à nouvel ordre, l'accès à la partie septentrionale du pays ou, dans le sens inverse, à la côte ne sera possible que par la route nationale n° 3 (Lomé-Kpalimé-Atakpamé-nord Togo). La fin du journal fut sanctionnée par la lecture d'un communiqué revenant quelque peu sur les causes de cet état de choses. Il stipulait en substance: « Depuis samedi, il est impossible de relier la région Maritime par la route internationale N° 1. Ce principal axe, souvent emprunté par les biens et des personnes en direction de l'intérieur du pays et des pays de l'hinterland à hauteur d 'Amakpapé n'est plus praticable car le pont entre Gamé et Amakpapé n'existe plus [. . .] Selon les témoins, depuis trois jours, les pluies diluviennes s'abattent sur la région et samedi matin, le pont d'Amakpapé s'est penché d'un côté avant de s'écrouler sous la force du courant d'eau [de la rivière Haho]. [. .. } Pour le moment, l'accès à la capitale ou à la partie septentrionale du pays passe par la nationale N° 3, Lomé-Kpalimé-Atakpamé ... »</p> Koffi Nutefé TSIGBE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 La fiscalité indirecte et les inégalités de revenu au Sénégal <p>Les politiques économiques cherchent en dernière instance l’amélioration du bien-être des populations et la meilleure répartition des niveaux de vie entre les agents et les réformes fiscales, qui entrent dans le cadre de ces politiques, trouvent leur importance dans le fait qu’elles affectent directement ces niveaux de bien-être. D’où l’intérêt d’une analyse de l’arbitrage entre les types de taux de taxation indirecte applicables dans une économie et les modalités de mise en oeuvre du processus de transition fiscalo-douanière. Le problème éthique d’un système de taxation à taux différenciés est qu’il ne peut être optimal que si les effets sur la redistribution verticale qu’il entraîne sont supérieurs aux iniquités horizontales qu’il génère. Cette redistribution verticale signifie une réduction des écarts de niveaux de vie entre les individus. Le système introduit une iniquité<br>horizontale dés lors qu’il génère des différences entre les individus qui étaient égaux avant la taxation. Notre analyse consiste à mesurer les effets éthiques du nouvel aménagement de la fiscalité indirecte des pays de l’Union économique et monétaire ouest africaine - choix d’un taux unique de TVA de 18% et d’un tarif extérieur commun. - ne s’est pas fait au détriment de l’équité et de l’influence de la taxe sur les comportements économiques des agents. L’étude de l’impact redistributif de ce nouveau système fiscal est d’autant plus intéressante que les taxes indirectes représentent des parts importantes dans les recettes des Etats de l’union. Aussi, notre objet est de mesurer pour le Sénégal pays membre de l’union, l’efficacité de<br>cet aménagement fiscal et ses effets sur les inégalités de revenus et sur le bien-être des populations. La réforme a non seulement accru les inégalités entre riches et pauvres, mais elle a aussi aggravé la situation de ces derniers. En effet, l’étude de ses effets grâce aux courbes des gaps cumulés pauvreté a montré que la pauvreté s’est accentuée suite à l’introduction<br>de la taxe unique. Concernant l’efficience de la réforme, nous avons utilisé des courbes de dominance stochastique pour constater que, pour les ménages dont les dépenses annuelles sont inférieures à la moyenne, l’accroissement de la taxation des biens alimentaires est préjudiciable. Les résultats de l’analyse de l’efficience de la taxation sont confirmés par l’approche<br>éthique où deux approches sont développées : la première en termes de changements des indices d’inégalité, et la seconde en termes de variations des coûts de l’inégalité. Ces deux approches ont permis d’évaluer le coût de l’iniquité et du reclassement par des pertes d’effets redistributifs ou des pertes de recettes fiscales pour l’Etat. Nous avons décomposé la variation redistributive de l’inégalité comme la somme d’une équité verticale, d’une iniquité horizontale classique et de composantes de reclassement. Les deux dernières sont des signes nécessaires et suffisants de violation du principe. L’effet vertical a dominé la variation redistrbutive avec des pertes dans la redistribution attribuables à l’iniquité horizontale et au reclassement. L’indice d’iniquité horizontale se fonde sur l’aversion à l’incertitude des revenus nets et l’indice de reclassement repose sur une aversion à l’inégalité des rangs et à la privation relative. En normalisant par la variation redistributive, on a obtenu le potentiel redistributif du système de taxe, c'est-à-dire la proportion de la redistribution observée en l’absence d’iniquité horizontale et de reclassement. Cette proportion n’a pas significativement varié avant et après la reforme. Donc, si le système de taxation avec les taux de 10 et 20% avait contribué à réduire les gaps de revenus entre les populations, la nouvelle réforme n’a rien<br>apporté de plus, dans ce même objectif. L’ampleur des reclassements, c'est-à-dire des bouleversements des rangs initiaux quant à elle croît après la réforme. Pour un niveau donné d’iniquité, l’effet des reclassements dépend de la proximité des groupes d’égaux. Ainsi, puisque l’iniquité augmente entre les deux périodes, il faut une réduction substantielle de l’inégalité du revenu brut pour atténuer l’effet de reclassement. Ensuite, une formulation duale nous a permis, avec la spécification de différentes valeurs des paramètres d’éthique, la mesure de l’iniquité et du reclassement par l’évaluation de leurs coûts monétaires. Les coûts monétaires totaux de l’iniquité horizontale sont calculés et on a montré que le coût de l’inégalité après une taxe proportionnelle équivalente en termes de bien-être est devenu plus élevé après la réforme. A l’inverse, le coût de l’inégalité effective est plus faible après la réforme. Ainsi, la performance monétaire du système est significativement meilleure en deuxième qu’en première période. On a aussi mesuré le coût de l’iniquité horizontale par le montant qu’un décideur averse<br>à l’inégalité payerait pour l’éliminer, en unités monétaires. Nous avons aussi calculé la taxe que les ménages voudraient payer pour éliminer l’iniquité horizontale sans perte de bien-être, c’est à dire la taxe de rétablissement de l’équité horizontale. C’est une taxe additionnelle qui proviendrait du remplacement du système de taxe actuel par un système de taxe neutre en bien-être. Le coût de l’inégalité des revenus nets issu de cette taxe a été déterminé et on a trouvé que si l’actuelle taxation était équitable horizontalement alors, l’Etat serait capable de collecter beaucoup plus de taxes, sans effet néfaste sur le bien-être social. L’iniquité horizontale a donc généré une perte de performance pour le système. Les implications de politiques économiques vont surtout dans le sens de l’adoption de mesures ciblées permettant d’atténuer les pertes de bien-être dues à la nouvelle taxation. En prenant en compte l’inégalité dans la population totale, la baisse des prix ou des taxes sur le transport, les boissons alcoolisées et non alcoolisées ainsi que le tabac augmentera l’inégalité car ces biens et services sont davantage consommés par les quintiles de ménages les plus riches. Au total, la réforme a eu des effets négatifs sur le bien-être des populations du fait que le taux uniforme s’applique à tous les produits concernés alors que les effets des variations de leurs prix ne sont pas identiques. Les principaux produits qui sont sources de réduction des inégalités ont vu leurs prix augmenter, alors qu’ils devaient diminuer pour réduire l’inégale répartition des niveaux de vie. L’adoption de taux diversifiés selon les<br>types de produits serait mieux recommandée, mais comme l’Etat est tenu de se conformer aux politiques d’intégration communes, il doit cibler et soutenir les secteurs clés comme l’éducation, la santé et les infrastructures, afin de mettre en place les conditions pour un essor économique, source d’accroissement du bien-être.</p> DIENE, Mbaye Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 L'attiéké dans la région d'Abidjan: analyse économique de la filière traditionnelle à travers quelques types d'organisation (Adjoukrou, Ebrie, Attié...) <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> DIOP, Abibatou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Environnement et Système de Production dans les Terroirs du Joobaas (Thiès) : de la Période Précoloniale à l'Indépendance : Equilibres et Déséquilibres <p>Le monde rural au Sénégal a bénéficié de nombreuses aides à l'aménagement. Mais, aggravé par la sécheresse de ces dernières années, persiste de nos jours un état de crise aiguë entre les villages et leur environnement. Cette confrontation avec des problèmes de conservation et de mise en valeur des ressources naturelles qui n'ont jamais été aussi graves, c'est celle que connaît tout le pays sereer en particulier le Joobaas : appauvrissement et dégradation des milieux naturels et, finalement, abandon d'une terre qui a nourri des générations de paysans.<br>Pourtant, jusqu'à la pénétration coloniale, l'attachement de ces peuples à leur environnement naturel et l'efficacité de leur système de production n'ont échappé à personne. Les premiers européens à avoir visité leur pays n'ont pas pu s'empêcher de louer le grand respect qu'ils vouaient à la nature. Il suffit de lire le remarquable ouvrage du géographe français P. Pélissier consacré au paysannat sénégalais pour voir que, de tous les systèmes de production de la sous région, celui des Sereer était le plus attentif à l'équilibre des écosystèmes. Dès lors, la question qui se pose est : comment des peuples, jadis, aussi soucieux de l'équilibre de leur milieu au point de lui conférer un caractère sacré, en soient arrivés à le détruire ? C'est cette problématique<br>que prend en charge ce travail de recherche. Nous n'avons pas perdu de vue que cette question, devenue un thème à la mode, occupe une place centrale dans les discours. A ce sujet, il est d'ailleurs difficile de distinguer comme l'a noté P. Agrasot: « le discours scientifique du discours idéologique, même émanant de scientifiques éminents. »...</p> Daouda THIAO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 La stagnation des eaux dans la ville de Kousséri (Cameroun): processus, risques sanitaires et incidences socio-environnementales <p>Combining many sources of information (books, surveys and socio- environmental observations , recounts of hospital records , GPS surveys , images), this work shows that the stagnation of water in the city of Kousséri result of natural prédisposions worsened by antropics actions. With a total spatial extent of 244.44 ha at maximum stability, these waters create a favourable ecology and biological proliferation of disease vectors from their proximity to the population, including malaria with a prevalence of 70% of consultation cases. While causing the vulnerability of populations with differentiated spatial distributions of risk, these waters affect the daily practices of individuals with consequences on urban design and environmental changes. From these results and strategies already in place, mitigation measures are proposed to improve the situation.</p> CHOUTO, Steven Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Impact de la fiscalité immobilière sur le coût de production du logement au Maroc <p>Il est devenu un lieu comrm.:..n. de parler de crise de logement au Maroc. En <br>effet, sociologue, urbaniste, économiste, ... s'accordent pour qualifier la situation de grave<br>et alarmante.<br>A cela, vient se greffer une crise immobilière et foncière dont les manifestations les <br>p].us saillantes .sont la spéculation, la prolifération du sous-habitat., du lotissement <br>clandestin et incontrôlé.<br>Par ailleurs, le marché de l' irmnobilier est caractérisé<br>par unefaiblesse de l'offre delogement: &lt;dit "économique", et la chereté du logement de standing <br>supérieu:!l.r. Ce dernier bien que disponible sur le marché demeure inaccessible pour la <br>majorité de candidats au logement · à solvalbilité affaiblie par<br>l'augmentation du coût de la vie.</p> "BOUHALI, Lalla Malika Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Instabilité des marchés de matières premières et économies en développement: cas du Cameroun <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Simon TACHI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 THE EVOLUTION OF THE RE-UNIFIED CAMEROON 1961 - 1982 <p>The reunited Cameroon came into being on October 1, 1961, the day former British Southern Cameroons reunited in a federation with French Cameroun, after 45 years of Anglo-French partition of German Kamerun. The study traces the historical background of the idea of reunification in British and French Cameroons; the role the partitioned ethnie groups played and their reaction to colonial rule that promoted their wishes for independence and reunification.<br>As bath sectors evolved, differences emerged among the nationalists of each camp in the 1950s. In Southern British Cameroons Dr. E. M. L. Endeley who ini tiated the idea of reunif ication backed out of the idea supporting thereafter integration into Nigeria as a separate region. Most of his followers, particularly Dr. J. N. Foncha and Bobe A. N. Jua disagreed with him and thus broke away from his Kamerun National Congress (KNC) and formed the Kamerun National Democratic Party (KNDP) in 1955, that piloted Southern cameroons into union with French Cameroon on October 1, 1961. On the other hand in French&nbsp; Cameroun early-'nationalists were neither enthusiastic about inde'pendence nor reunif ication. The poli tical · parties and politiccil groups that emerged before 1948 were organised by France to promote her colonial interest. The uniori des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) formed in 1948 became the first indigenous political party in French Cameroun that stood for independence and immediate reunification of the partitioned Trust Territory. Unfortunately the French did not like the UPC radical approach to attain these goals and it was banned in 1955. Its leaders Dr. Felix Moumie ( President) and Reuben Um Nyombe (Secretary General) were murdered by the French. French Cameroun finally became independent in 1960 with Ahmadou Ahidjo as<br>President. Ahmadou Ahidjo unlike his predecessor Andre-Marie Mbida favoured reunification. Preliminary talks were held between him and Dr. J. N. Foncha before the February 11, 1961 plebiscite.<br>When Southern Cameroon voted "yes" for the reunification option, talks continued between the two men that culminated in the Foumban Constitutional Conference in July, 1961. At Foumban, the Federal system of government was adopted very much to Ahidjo's dislike. Ahmadou Ahidjo became president of the reunited Cameroon and Dr. J. N. Foncha the vice president. Ahidjo after succeeding in causing division in the KNDP camp, was able to institute the one party system in 1966. This gave him direct control over West Cameroon. Perceiving that Foncha would not accept the idea of a unitary system he brought in S. T. Muna and dropped Foncha in 1970. Wi th Muna the uni tary system was realised in 1972, that marked the end of Western Cameroon's autonomy.<br>The uni tary system in the name of "we are one" brought the minori ty anglophone linguistic group untold misery. They lost<br>their constitutional rights, political position in the union, all development concentrated in the French sector and they became treated as a conquered people. In misery, anglophones point to the February 11, 1961 plebiscite and accuse their leaders of<br>being weak and self centred. The economic development and power sharing propagated by the reunificationists during the plebiscite campaign became a dream. Co-existence in the union, therefore, is on the. moral basis that the constituent uni ts were once indivisible. The francophone being in a majority are bent on assimilating and absorption of anglophones rather than building a harmonised unique bicultural nation.<br>This therefore has put reunification in strain and to a serious question whether the Cameroon Union of two different colonial<br>legacies can serve as an example of state integration to forma united Africa.</p> TATA SIMON NGENGE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Les vestiges de l'occupation humaine ancienne dans la province du Gourma, des origines à la pénétration coloniale : cas de Kouare et de Namoungou TOME I <p>Nous avons entrepris dans le cadre du programme de formation doctorale, une étude archéologique centrée sur l'Est du Burkina Faso, principalement sur deux villages à savoir Kouaré et Namoungou. Il s'agit d'une recherche consacrée à l'étude des restes des activités humaines dans le passé et à la connaissance de l'histoire du peuplement du Gulmu ou pays Gourma où se trouvent ces deux villages. Cette étude passe nécessairement par la présentation du thème de recherche.</p> <p>La présente étude qui a pour thème : « Les vestiges d'occupation ancienne humaine dans le Gulmu, des origines à la pénétration coloniale : cas de Kouaré et de Namoungou», constitue une contribution écrite à la connaissance de l'histoire des Gulmanceba du Burkina Faso. Elle s'appuie sur les données archéologiques pour tenter de remonter le temps et de reconstituer le peuplement des deux villages considérés que sont Kouaré et Namoungou. Pour cela, voyons d'abord quels objectifs nous visons à travers une telle démarche ? Quels sont les principaux centres d'intérêt et les limites de l'étude...</p> THIOMBIANO Foniyama Elise épouse ILBOUDO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: implications for agricultural technology transfer and poverty reduction in south east Nigeria <p>This study examined the determinants of the rural people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on agricultural technology transfer and poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay for telephone<br>services. This led to their reluctance to extend telephone services to rural areas where agriculture is practised based on the notion that the people are unable to pay. The sample was made up of 240 agro-based entrepreneurs and 60 extension staff. Primary data were collected using structured interview schedules and well-structured questionnaires containing stochastic payment card design. The data obtained were analyzed using both descriptive (means, percentages, cross-tabulations) as well as inferential statistical tool (logit analysis). Results showed that 60.2% of the respondents were males and had higher WTP for telephone services than females. Majority of the respondents were within the age bracket of 31 – 40 years. Farming was the predominant occupation where 38.9% of them made an annual farm income of about N30000. Only about 17.7% of them had access to telephone services while 59.2% had preference for mobile telephones. The maximum, minimum and mean amounts the respondents were willing to pay per minute of telephone service were N38, N7 and N17 respectively. Respondents accepted that rural telephone where available helped them to get information on latest packages on agricultural technology. The perceived problems of agricultural technology transfer using telephone was lack of practical demonstration of technology.<br>Rural poverty was indicated as reduced through provision of employment opportunities for the jobless. The null hypothesis was tested using t-statistic which revealed that years of schooling and access to telephone services significantly influenced WTP at 1% level. Finally, it was recommended that both the Federal and State government should equip the agricultural officers<br>with modern communication technology to enhance their extension activity and that government agencies/or private telecom providers should extend telephone services to rural areas because of the rural people’s high WTP</p> OGBONNIA, Chukwu Patrick Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 A study of State-based social assistance provision and its Influence on the developmental character of the South Afrcan State : <p>This thesis aims at exammmg the extent to which state-based social assistance provision, in the <br>form of Child Support Grant (CSG), influences the character of a developmental state. Social <br>assistance provision is understood to be part of a developmental state response to the needs of its <br>citizens.</p> <p>I have argued in this thesis that CSG influences the characteristics of a developmental state in as <br>far as it is available to all needy children who pass the means-test regardless of race. I hold the <br>view that the developmental approach to social policy should be of great assistance in a country <br>such as South Africa where there is mass poverty by meeting people's needs in a short to medium <br>term but also enabling them to depend on themselves in a long term.</p> <p>The history of the policy context in South Africa and three approaches to social policy have been <br>examined. These are residual, institutional and normative approaches. My emphasis has been on the <br>approach that best suits the developmental state. I argue that the developmental state that applies <br>a normative approach will address issues related to the eradication of poverty, poor economic <br>opportunities as well as social deprivation and promotes self-reliance. South Africa's <br>conceptualisation of social policy and social welfare is in keeping with a developmental state. The <br>problem however, is the implementation of social policy and social welfare provision.</p> <p>In this thesis I have focused on four research questions and these are:<br>• Can the CSG illustrate an appropriate social policy intervention of a developmental state in the <br>context of mass poverty?<br>• Is South Africa's conceptualisation of social policy and social welfare in keeping with a <br>developmental state?<br>• What impact does social assistance provision, in the form of a CSG, have on poor households?<br>• Can such impact together with other policy interventions contribute to lifting people out of <br>poverty and building their developmental capacity?</p> <p>I have used both qualitative and quantitative to examine these questions. My findings show that <br>social assistance in the form of CSG is consistent with the developmental approach to social <br>welfare.</p> CHAGUNDA, Chance Arisitaliko Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Aires d’occurrence et éco-éthologie du colobe de Geoffroy (Colobus vellerosus) et du colobe olive (Procolobus verus) au Bénin <p>Au Bénin, du fait des perturbations des habitats dues à la forte pression anthropique, certaines espèces de primates sont devenues vulnérables, voire menacées comme c’est le cas des colobes. Ainsi, le problème de conservation de la faune sauvage, notamment celui des primates devient préoccupant. L’objectif général de l’étude est de déterminer les caractéristiques biogéographiques et éco-éthologiques de Colobus vellerosus et de Procolobus verus au Bénin. L’étude a abordé l’analyse diachronique des aires d’occurrence, l’abondance, les formes de menaces, le budget activités et le mode d’utilisation des habitats de ces primates. La méthode ayant permis la collecte des données biogéographiques s’est fondée sur des enquêtes suivies de prospections forestières et de visites de marchés où sont vendus des organes d’animaux. Les méthodes de transects linéaires et de comptage direct en milieu naturel associées aux résultats d’enquêtes ont permis d’apprécier l’abondance des colobes sur divers sites d’occurrence. Enfin, des observations de groupes de singes par les méthodes de scan sampling et d’ad libitum accompagnées de relevés floristiques, ont permis d’appréhender d’une part le budget activités et d’autre part les modes d’utilisation des habitats des colobes. Les résultats ont montré que jadis répartis dans les trois zones chorologiques, les aires d’occurrence actuelles de Colobus vellerosus et de Procolobus verus sont limitées aux zones guinéocongolaise et guinéo-soudanienne et couvrent respectivement 20.506 km² et 25.403 km². Les principales menaces pesant sur ces singes étaient notamment les perturbations des habitats, la déforestation et le braconnage. Les effectifs des populations de Colobus vellerosus et de Procolobus verus au Bénin, estimés respectivement à 543 et à 574 individus étaient faibles et répartis sur plusieurs sites d’occurrence. Dans la Forêt Classée de la Lama, le taux de rencontre moyen de Colobus vellerosus était de 0,60 contact/km, celui de Procolobus verus était de 0,11contact/km et atteint 0,49 contact/km dans la Forêt Communautaire de Domè. Le budget activités du Colobus vellerosus a montré que le repos, les déplacements, l’alimentation, les relations sociales et autres activités occupaient respectivement 56,64%, 26,31%, 13,04%, 3,31% et 0,70% du temps. Concernant les plantes consommées, les colobes manifestaient une flexibilité dans leur régime alimentaire car une trentaine d’espèces étaient consommées. Par ailleurs, les sites dortoirs présentaient des caractéristiques propices à l’évitement des prédateurs et se trouvaient à proximité de ressources alimentaires.Enfin, il convient de développer des stratégies et actions afin de renverser la tendance au déclin des populations de primates en particulier celles des colobes.</p> Sylvie G. Djossou Djègo Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Disparities in the supply and consumption of Primary health care: <p>Abstract</p> CHIZEMA, Givie Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 An analysis of local support in financing secondary school education in the north-West province of Cameroon <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> JOSEPH AZIA TAMUKONG Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 MOBILITE DES SALARIES ET GESTION DES COMPETENCES DANS LES ENTREPRISES INDUSTRIELLES BENINOISES <p>Situé en Afrique Occidentale, le Bénin a une superficie de 112622 Km2 et une population estimée en 2006 à 7513946 habitants. Il a un taux de croissance annuel de 3,4 %. L’agriculture est la première activité économique du Bénin. Elle contribue pour 35 % au produit national brut (PNB) et emploie 56 % de la population active. L’activité industrielle est très peu développée. Les principales industries se situent dans le secteur agroalimentaire (huiles de palme, de grain de coton, de grain d’anacarde, bière, sucre) et textile (coton). Ces industries peu nombreuses ont aussi d’énormes difficultés de gestion.<br>Notre travail s’inscrit dans la problématique de recherche de solutions aux problèmes managériaux posés dans ces industries.<br>En effet, l’industrialisation constitue la principale voie de développement économique et social durable pour un pays. Elle permet de moderniser l’appareil de production, d’accroître la productivité, d’améliorer les conditions de vie des populations. En tant que tel, le secteur industriel doit constituer un soutien aux activités des autres secteurs et permettre de mettre à la<br>disposition du consommateur, des biens et services élaborés, susceptibles de satisfaire des besoins en quantité et en qualité. Le tissu industriel béninois est composé de quelques entreprises considérées comme grandes industries, qui ont été crées pour la plupart au cours de la période 1974-1985 grâce à d’importants investissements publics. Depuis 1990, à la faveur du libéralisme économique, plusieurs de ces entreprises ont été privatisées et sont gérées par des opérateurs privés. Il s’agit des cimenteries, des industries textiles et de quelques industries agroalimentaires. Ces industries cohabitent avec de petites unités de transformation (alimentation, boissons, articles en papier, boulangerie etc.) dont la compétitivité, pour la plupart, n’est pas évidente. Ces unités de production sont à plus de 90% installées dans le département du Littoral à Cotonou, créant ainsi un déséquilibre dans la répartition des capacités de développement du pays...</p> Henri Ahodédji TCHOKPONHOUE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Milieux naturels et humanisation des bas-fonds en savane subsoudanaise : L'exemple de la région de Katiola, centre nord ivoirien <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> TOURE, Augustin Tiyegbo Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Etude du phénomène de la violence dans deux romans d'Ayi Kwei Armah : <p>Après avoir fait l. esqui.sse de l univers de la violence,je me suis interrogé sur sa nature et son expression dar:s les deux rorr.ansc. Dans II Why .Are We, So Blest 'i'"l,1auteur présente des communautés aussi différentes et diver• ;es que celles è.u Maghreb, de 1 .Arr:.érique et de 1Afrique Occidentale à t112.vers troi·s personnages pr:i.ncipaux:11.k;.b&gt;icaine Aj_mée R itch. , les Africàin.s Hodin Dc,fu t Solo'c· La violence y &amp; paratt :ous différentes formes'a: fille est liée auxqonc.epts cle Justice,de liberté de roorale, de politique, de race, de tr dition, deisociété en énéra. Quanti\ secondr-oman,il tl'c.ite ct:une .société traditionnellec Les/scènes de violence y sont plus nc.mbreuses et plu.s effroyables que.,. dans le prenuer roman.Appj_a, prince héritier dtEsuano a été assassiné fl:U lendemain d une d! ne victoire retenti.ssan.te' Cette mort subite n'est qu •un prélude à une chafn de formes violentes aussi variées que le sacrific5 humain, la torture, la castration, le ravissement et la guerreo<br>L attitude d Armab'., consistant à parler sans complaisance de ce phénomèn fait de cet écrivain in iconoclaste de renonnnée qui se veut objectif et</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br>qui tient à démasquer urie trajition anachronique et les abus d1une colo-<br>'1 •</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>-nisation dite II civilisatrice "'•'•<br> choix d . thème de la vioienc m:1a permis de conformer 1 'aspect polymor,<br>-phe kt séculail"'e du ph omè e et n lien inextricable à ia vie .<br>Comme je l ai déjà dit dans 11introduction soumise à. votre a.pprêciation,<br>¹ 1 i • 11 , I ·•<br>LRampleur du thème ne 'êtve cernée dans une seule étude d1un sujet<br>j '• ' i</p> <p>de D B•A• o<br>' • ' 1.<br>Par conséquent, je ferai de ce sujet de D':'B!;A-1 1un chapitre .de mon sujet<br>de Thèse qui portera sur le ppénomène de la vio1en'ce dans le roman Anglo-.,<br>, • 1 l j<br> 11Afrique'de 1n0uest, :<br>L 1 ,·.</p> CISSE, Cheikh Mbacké Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Gender and social network factors in health behaviour <p>There has been a world wide campaign to promote health for all through Primat)' Health</p> <p>Care. Consequently, individuals singly and collectively have roles and responsibilities in<br>'<br>promoting feasible preventive action in health. Information on the influence of gender, social <br>class and reference group pressure on preventive health behaviour may be helpful in developing <br>policies and programs that will address the issue. Survey method was adopted to collect data from <br>3899 respondent in the capital cities of four Eastern States of Nigeria. Questionnaire was used <br>for data generation. The data generated were analyzed using chi-square and tested for significance <br>at 0.05 significance level. Results showed that gender, social class and reference group pressure <br>do not influence engagement in health behaviour. It was also found that the attitudes of males and <br>females in the three social classes towards preventive wealth behaviour was alike and that both <br>gender sect do not seek advice from referents before engaging in health behaviour. Increased health <br>educational activities to promote positive health behaviours, combined with improved access to <br>preventive health services, could change attitudes and conducts that are harmful, resulting in <br>reduced health risks and high level<br>wellness.</p> ENEH, Gloria Nonyelum Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 L'assistance médicale au niveau des equipements de base : cas des villes de Pikine et Thiès (République du Sénégal) <p>De nos jours, le combat pour le développement constitue un phénomène mondial si bien que la ville en tant qu'entité renfermant le plus souvent la majeure partie des structures politiques économiques et culturelles d'un pays, devient du coup, le lieu privilégié pour ce combat.<br>C'est ainsi qu'on voit la ville devenir un lieu d'affluence et d~ convergence pour de nombreux individus attirés par le niveau de vie et de santé qu'ils y trouvent. Le quotientde mortalité infantile qui est un des indicateurs de la santé confüme ceci car il est cle 71 % en ville et de 136,8% en zone rurale pour le cas du Sénégal (Direction de la statistique 1977)...</p> Mamadou TANDIA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Le processus de la monétarisation dans les petits pays : le cas des pays de l'Afrique centrale <p>Après une décennie d'ajustement structuroel en Afrique, les coûts sociaux sa.nt de nature à hypothéquer la croissance. Le progrannne de la Dimension sociale de l 'Ajùstement (DSA) lancé depuis 1987 vise la prise en compte de la condition des groupes sociaux vulnérables dans les politiques macroéconomiques et leur implication dans le processus de croissance.<br>Quelle est alors la situation économique des ménages urbains en période de crise et d'ajustement ? Comment réagissent.-ils pour s'adapter ?<br>Connnent appréhender leurs stratégies d'adaptation à travers leur budget de consommation?</p> TOKO, Jérémie Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Variabilité climatique, crise économique et dynamique des milieux agraires sur les hautes terres de l'Ouest du Cameroun Tome2 : atlas <p>Situated between latitude 4°50 to 7°N and longitude 9°25 E to 11 ° 40 E, the Western Highlands of Cameroon occupies a surface area of 7500 sq. km. They constitute an original geomorphological entity at the hinge of west and central Africa which are dominated by flat surfaces. Apart from this peculiarity there are other important characteristics: a great diversity of soils derived from volcanic rocks or crystalline basement complex, a vegetation cover that varies from upland or summit prairies to relatively dense forests through various transition savannahs and multiple agro-forestry landscape created by man. Climate reinforces the originality of the region. Through the study of its variability, considered as. one of the driving forces of the changing landscape in the region, it is shown that climate has played an important role in the elaboration of past and current landscapes. Based on the perception of the local population the climate variability is described. It is also analysed using conventional and satellite data. It appears then that the region is at the limit of the influence of the northern (harmattan) and the southern trade winds. Although it falls under a transitional situation, the variability of the climate in the region is moderate compared to the rest of the country. This is due to the quasi permanence of rain generating cold cloud. This major peculiarity combined with the altitude reduces the climate aggressiveness and explains the presence of water on high as well as in the low-lying areas. The cold clouds originate from the Atlantic monsoon and the equatorial air on one hand and from moisture coming from the east (TEJ) on the other hand. The importance of the later on precipitations on the Cameroonian territory in general and on the western highlands in particular has been clearly established on the basis of satellite images. It reduces the role that was thought to be played by the Atlantic monsoon. The use of satellite images has also permitted the delimitation of areas of different air masses influence on the Cameroonian territory, in particular, the harmattan and the Southeast trades masses, factors which are dominant on rainfall variability in the country. Furthermore it helps to detect some particular land surface characteristics. The complex relationship between climatic variability, land use and the economic context of climatic crisis brings into question the sustainability of the land use in the region. If in this context, time tested agrarian landscapes<br>were developed ( like enclosures supported by ridges cultivation system following the contour lines or along the direction of the slopes), recent droughts have revealed the precariousness of this agrarian system, the dependency and the peasantry poverty in face of a cash economy, largely attached to the state and the International market. In response to the current economic crisis cash crops, market gardening crops destined to supply urban markets or for local consumption are developed in rural area to the detriment of coffee cultivation. It is in this context that is developed a new conquest for upland and low-land areas which were formerly reserved to livestock and raffia respectively. This change in land use which does go without consequences on local and regional climate, was accompanied by land conquest to the advantage of urban elite at the expense of traditional aristocracy. At the same time, women began to show interest for the possession of land. One therefore notice that in rural areas, there is a veritable social transformation which is reflected in the landscapes. Taking into consideration the economic and social needs, little attention is thus paid to the protection of natural resources for long term development. This work therefore describes, analysis, questions the future of the processes described above and proposes some solutions for the<br>sustainable development of the region.</p> TSALEFAC Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Politiques éducatives au Mali : entre crise scolaire et crise sociale, la gestion des conflits dans l'espace scolaire de 1990 à 2008 <p>Comment prévenir et gérer les conflits au sein d’un établissement scolaire dans un contexte de profondes mutations? Pour y répondre nous nous sommes fixé comme objectifs de poser un regard à la fois analytique et critique sur la genèse et l’évolution de la crise scolaire et sociale au Mali. Nous avons cherché des réponses dans la documentation, à travers les différents débats sur l’école tout en travaillant à la construction de notre problématique de recherche. Pour la définition de la population- cible nous avons choisi la méthode probabiliste stratifiée et l’enquête nous a permis de toucher en moyenne : 2432 personnes réparties sur l’ensemble du territoire malien. Pour l’enquête deux instruments : le guide d’entretien et le questionnaire ont été utilisés en février et mars 2005 pour collecter des données qualitatives dans le District de Bamako et les huit régions, au cours des années 2006 et 2007, nous avons réalisé la seconde phase de notre étude de terrain à l’aide du questionnaire dans le district de Bamako, à Ségou et à Kayes, qui nous a permis d’obtenir d’importantes données quantitatives et qualitatives. En plus de nos propres ressources matérielles et financières, nous avons bénéficié de deux subventions : celle de CODESRIA puis celle de l’Université de Bamako en 2005. De la recherche nous avons tiré différents enseignements qui nous ont permis la vérification de nos hypothèses: - La crise scolaire qui sévit depuis plusieurs décennies au Mali, trouve sa source et<br>l’explication de sa permanence dans la pauvreté du pays où l’Etat a été contraint de se désengager de trois secteurs sociaux très sensibles : l’éducation, la santé et l’hydraulique qu’il a ouverts aux règles du marché. - Les parents d’élèves ont été inefficaces, ont fait preuve d’inorganisation, d’indifférence sinon d’absence et se sont confondus à des acteurs clés de la crise comme les politiciens qui ont joué un rôle important dans la manipulation des scolaires, des étudiants, des enseignants et de leurs syndicats respectifs. - La responsabilité de l’Etat laxiste et incapable reste entière à travers le Ministère de l’Education nationale. Il s’est servi des conflits à l’école pour assurer sa propre existence en restant omniprésent dans la politisation de l’école comme arbitre et partie prenante, ce qui a rendu impossible la gestion de la crise. - Dans un contexte de corruption généralisée, le corporatisme des élèves et des enseignants est devenue non un moyen de revendication et de contestation légitimes, mais un ensemble de réseaux de promotion personnelle, d’enrichissement et de moyens de chantage où l’école est tantôt prise en otage par l’Etat, tantôt par les syndicats d’enseignants, d’élèves ou d’étudiants. L’école présente ainsi l’image d’une véritable « mafia administrative et politique ». - Le contexte est brouillé par les interventions des partenaires financiers comme la Banque mondiale et le FMI, qui sont en fait les vrais décideurs du sort du pays. L’Etat est dépossédé de toute autorité et le Mali vu de l’extérieur ne présente plus que le visage d’un pays pauvre très endetté (PPTE) où l’Etat fait de la figuration. - La gestion véritable des conflits à l’école a été beaucoup plus du fait de l’Etat lui-même à travers le département del’Education que du ressort des chefs d’établissements et cette gestion a été beaucoup plus politique qu’administrative ou pédagogique.<br>- La crise scolaire est l’expression d’une crise profonde consacrant l’échec de tout un système éducatif depuis 1968. Elle est complexe, affecte fortement le système éducatif malien dans son fonctionnement, son mode de gestion, ses résultats et hypothèque l’avenir même du pays tout entier. L’étude fait ressortir trois éléments dont l’intégration devient un impératif pour l’école malienne: l’incontournable restructuration du système éducatif; la gestion prioritaire des problèmes de l’école à l’école ; l’impérieuse nécessité d’appliquer la loi à l’école. La solution définitive de la crise nécessitera l’élaboration d’une nouvelle politique éducative adaptée aux réalités nouvelles et répondant aux exigences du futur.</p> DIAWARA, Georges Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Poverty and Wellbeing among the Elderly in Iwo of Southwestern Nigeria <p>The wellbeing of the elderly is of major concern due to their increasing proportion in African countries. The majority of elderly Africans aged 60 years and older live in poor economic conditions with little or no access to electricity, employment, housing,<br>healthcare, safe water, refuse disposal and toilet facilities. In Nigeria the elderly constitutes more than 5% of the population. Their poor economic condition is heightened by the devastating effects of HIV/Aills, emigration of young family members and economic crisis. There is little information on the wellbeing of the elderly living in economically constrained societies. The study, therefore, examined the -link between . poverty and wellbeing of the elderly in Iwo, Osun State.<br>Anthony Giddens' Structuration and Self-Management Ability of Aging Theories were adopted for the study. A total of 525 copies of the questionnaire were administered on Yoruba-speaking respondents at the household level in Iwo. Twenty In-Depth Interviews (IDis) and 20 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted among male and female elderly persons. Poverty was measured using Household Wealth Inequality Index (HWII) which determines the economic position of a particular household based on its assets, while wellbeing was assessed by WHO composite health domains namely health problems, sensory impairments, functional limitations and disability. Ethnographic summaries and content analysis were used to analyse qualitative data. Logistic regression was used to determine the dominant factors of association between poverty and health outcomes among the elderly persons.<br>Seventy-four percent of the respondents had limited access to less than NlOOO monthly. They lived in poor ho1,1sing conditions witho1,1t toilet facility, electricity, safe water and garbage disposal. Twenty-six percent of them reported having hearing impairment and 22.4% had poor sight. Respondents reported having arthritis (52.9%), headaches (38.8%), fever (52.0%) and chest pain (18.4%) among other health challenges confronting them. Logistic regression results controlled for age and gender showed that the wellbeing of the elderly persons is negatively significantly related to each of the health outcomes namely health symptoms, sensory impairments, functional limitations and disability. Age groups were positively related to reporting more health problems (~2 =43.21, p&lt;0.05). Qualitative data revealed that lack of children care, landlessness, o\lt-migration of young family members, economic crisis were perceived determinants increasing poverty and generating health challenges among them. The FGD data further revealed that taking of herbs (agbo &amp; agunmu), special meals (aseje &amp; agunje), special chewing-stick (orin-agba), body-incision (gbeere) and sacrifices ( ebo) were some of the cultural practices perceived as enhancing the wellbeing of the elderly persons.<br>,Socioeconomic wellbeing of the elderly in Iwo is poor and this has affected their instromen~I activitills of daily living. Access to formal and informal social and economic security and health promotion strategies are needed to enable elderly persons to overcome the challenges of old age poverty and ill-health.</p> Olusegun Moses TEMILOLA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Onchocerciasis and its Socioeconomic Effects in some Parts of IMO State, Nigeria <p>Human infection with Onchocerca volvulus and its socioeconomic conséquences were investigated in parts of the Imo River Basin of Nigeria between March 1996 and December 2000 using standard parasitological and socioeconomic methods. The Knowledge, attitude and perception of the inhabitants to the disease and its treatment with ivermectin as weil as the microbial agents associated with onchocercal skin lésions were also determined. Of the 7,348 persons randomly examined by the skin snip method, 1,655(22.5%) were infected with microfilariae of 0. volvulus. The prevalence of infection differed (P&lt;0.05) between communities in the upper Imo River Basin (26.8%) and the middle Imo River Basin (19.0%). A mean microfilarial density, 20.1mf/ss was obtained. There was no significant différence (P&gt;0.05) in sexrelated infection. 22.9% in maies and 22.1% in females. Classical symptoms of the disease were observed in varying rates. Less than half of the viliagers (48.2%) used to assess community Knowledge knew about the disease and only about 5% attributed transmission of infection to the vector fly, Simulium damnosum. Persons afflicted with visible manifestations like dermatitis, lymphoedema (limb) and blindness were notconsidered good for marriages or hired as farm hands. The percentage drop in school attendance of pupils was higher in househoids where family heads had severe onchocercal skin disease (OSD) (4.9%) than in househoids with family heads of non-OSD status (2.1%). The total revenue loss due to direct costs of treatment and man-days lost to incapacitation was remotely estimated at HQ2 million annualiy. 79.8% persons accepted ivermectin, while 68.8% complied with yearly treatment. This was attributed to severai factors Including effective grassroots mobilization, community participation in the planning and implementation of the programme and perceived efficacy of the drug. Microorganisms isolated from excoriated onchocercal skin lésions included Staphylococcus aureus (89.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes (50.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.8%),<br>Escherichia coli (60.7%), Bacteroides spp (11.5%) and Clostridium spp (3.3%). Majority of these organisms exhibited moderate to marked susceptibilities to broad spectrum antibiotics iike Tarivid, Ciproxin and its derivative, Norfloxacin. The results of the study have shown that despite the mesoendemic nature of onchocerciasis in the study area, it is still a serious problemconsidering the associated skin lésions, gross lymphatic pathologies and their négative impact on marriage, productivity and attendance to school. These findings underscore the need to sustain treatment with ivermectin and possibly on a semi-annual basis.</p> DOZIE, Ikechukwa Nosike Simplicius Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 A HISTORY OF THE DIRECT TAXATION OF THE AFRICAN PEOPLE OF KENYA, 1895-1973 <p>This study examines the origin, the manifestation and impact of the direct taxation of Africans in Kenya. While the state had several reasons for imposing taxation on Africans, the basic factor weighed on the need for a definitive source of revenue. For most of the colonial period, this aggregated to about 37Y:! percent of the total revenues. The thesis shows how taxes were collected from Africans, how this led to participation in the cash economy and how they continually resisted and evaded such taxati'on. Tax collection was synonymous with colonialism and this was manifested through ttie central role of chiefs, who used taxes and force to coerce Africans into migrant wage labour.<br>Through taxation policies, legislation and African resourcefulness, migrant wage labour served the needs of a colonial capitalist settler economy. In this way, the colonial state revealed its capacity for dominance, power and exploitation. Evidence has been adduced to show that African taxation was an important factor in Kenya's administrative, political and economic development. The policy of African taxation, land loss and poor working conditions are remembered as having interfered with African mechanisms for accumulating wealth. One of the main objections of the payment of taxes was the manner of its collection. Those unable to pay were imprisoned or detained while many took to instant flight at the sight of the tax collector. The thesis shows that in spite of all these harsh tax collection methods, peasants remained largely resilient and industrious.<br>The Mau Mau movement was the culmination of various peasant grievances in which the colonial state used steep taxation as a counter-insurgency measure. Kenya's independence in 1963, however, never altered the predatory nature of the state. Subtle,<br>opportunistic and overt ways continued to be used to extract taxes from the peasants and the working class. It was not until 1973 that the much-hated colonial poll tax that had been / renamed as graduated poll. tax was abolished and replaced by indirect taxation. Finally, taxation like other colonial legacies has endured and has become one of the most important sources of revenue for the government to manage its fiscal policies.</p> ISAAC KIPSANG TARUS Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 From Description to Standard Orthography and Pedagogic Grammar in the Revitalisation Process of Endangered Languages : the case of "Bembele" <p>This work entitled “From Description to Standard Othography and Pedagogic Grammar in the Revitalisation Process of Endangered Languages: the case of Bә̀mbәlә̀” Bantu (A40) aims at showing how a language could be efficiently revitalised by describing, establishing orthographic principles, organising literacy activities and proposing teaching materials like the pedagogical grammar, through the immersion of the researcher in the natural milieu of the language. The work focuses on Bә̀mbәlә̀. The analysis of the study passes through the different stages of language description, language standardisation and development, and the total immersion of the researcher in the community of the language he is studying. Furthermore, to be systematic, the contents have been divided in two main parts. The first part of the work deals with language description. Through the structural approach, the phonological, morphological and syntactic systems of the language are established. Bә̀mbәlә̀ has 15 phonemic vowels, 48 phonemic consonants and 4 tonemes made up of 2 level tones (High, Low) and 2 contour tones (HL, LH), with V, CV and CVC syllable structures, the most prominent in the language. Based on the agreement pattern generated by the head noun in a syntactic chain, mainly on its modifiers, we arrived at the conclusion that the language has 8 noun classes, although Guthrie argues that Bantu (A) languages cannot have less than 10 classes. Bә̀mbәlә̀ organises and expresses the different actions on the axis of the present, the past and the future. Each period is characterised by at least one tense. Tense, aspect and mood are so linked in the language that their separation could lead to some incongruities. As an SVO language, a Bә̀mbәlә̀ complete simple sentence can be made up of an NP, a VP and (PP). The last constituent, notably the (PP), is most often optional, a superfluous constituent whose suppression could not affect sentence grammaticality, although it could affect its semantic core to an extent. The second part of the work focuses on standardisation, immersion approach and pedagogical grammar. Here, the examination of the writing system of the language reveals that it is composed of 35 graphemes made up of vowels, consonants and tones. The whole writing and reading principles of the language are elaborated through the choice of a standard reference dialect: manyɔ̀k spoken in Bibey. The total immersion approach adopted for the promotion of the standard model developed has allowed the training of local people in reading and writing their language and to set a provisional frame of reference which will enable them to protect the norms, and to promote the language. This approach and the training of community members, have led to the elaboration of the guidelines for writing a pedagogic grammar in African languages. The guidelines are then followed by the production of a sample of the pedagogic grammar of the language under revitalisation. The work shows that the researcher, together with the native linguistic community within / with which he is working, must work hand in hand to consolidate and reinforce the revitalisation of the language. The outcome of such a piece of research is three dimensionally beneficial: first and foremost to the linguistic community, then to the researcher and finally to the scientific community. In sum, this work is a sound contribution to the search for a model for elaborating pedagogic grammars from descriptive grammars.</p> DJOMENI, Gabriel Delmon Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Impact de l'augmentation du prix de l'eau agricole au Maroc : <p>Abstract</p> CAMARA, Ansoumane Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 An econometric study of the relative impact of fiscal and monetary policies on economic stabilization in Nigeria: 1960-1989 <p>Efforts to bring under control, cyclical fluctuations in economic activity have been largely <br>elusive in the Nigerian economy. Stagflation has been a persistent<br>problem in Nigeria since 1960. Fiscal and monètary policies are stabilization policies which are <br>considered relevant<br>in the battle against disequilibria in the economy, alternately or as a mix. The focal problem of <br>this research is to investigate the relative impact of alternative stabilization policies - fiscal <br>and monetary - on economic nctivity with the view to bringing about economic stabili­<br>zation. Previous empirical studies have investig9ted this subject based on the evaluation of one or <br>two hypotheses within a time span of about 10 years. These hypotheses<br>are investigations on the relative magnitude of impact and the predic:tability of the response of <br>economic activity - gross domestic product - to fiscal and monetary policies.<br>The present study investigates the subject on the basis<br>(of three hypotheses which includes a further investigation on the time pattern of the relationship <br>between economic activity and fiscal and monetary policies - the·speed·and time of_impact. Also <br>this study is made within a longer historicalntime span 1960-1989.<br>Amidst three alternative methods of study the s.ingle<br>equation model is chosen as the operative rnodel used in</p> "CHIMBA, Reginald Ikechukwu Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 Les interactions des décisions d'investissement et de financement : fondements théoriques et validations empiriques dans le contexte des entreprises Tunisiennes : une approche empirique fondée sur la théorie de l'agence <p>La problematique des interactions des decisions d'investissement et de financement ·occupe actuellement une place centrale dans les preoccupations des chercheurs et des praticiens en finance de l'entreprise. En premier lieu, l'elaboration d'une theorie dynamique de la firme qui integre les demandes des facteurs de production (decisions reelles) et les demandes de financement<br>(decisions financieres) constitue un champ de recherche relativement vierge qui merite davantage d'approfondissements. Ce souci d'integration des differentes decisions de la firme traduit, en fait, la relation enire la micro-economie et la theorie financiers. En second lieu, la recherche sur les interactions des decisions d'investissement et de financement a permis de decloisonner des champs de recherche qui etaient homogenes et tres etroitement delimites ii y a quelques annees. La complexification du cadre d'analyse par la prise en compte de l'ensemble des partenaires de la firme et l'integration de certains facteurs comme la structure de propriete, les conflits d'objectifs entre les agents, le comportement des dirigeants et les asymetries d'informations a permis d'integrer la theorie financiers a la theorie des organisations, a la gestion des ressources humaines, a l'economie industrielle, a la strategie, etc .... En troisieme lieu, si les interactions entre les differentes decisions se confirment, la politique financiers devrait etre congue simultanement avec les autres choix strategiques .notamment en matiere de choix des investissements et de la. structure organisationnelle de la firme car la decentralisation risque d'entraTner des decisions non optimales...</p> Ridha SHABOU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Contraintes foncières liées à la production durable du manioc au Sud - Bénin : étude de cas du village d'Onigbolo, (sous-préfecture de Pobe, Département de l'Ouème) <p>Cassava plant is a tropical crop which is of much great socio-economic importance. Emphasis must be put on its producHon in developing countries where food shortage creates difficulties.<br>Apart from the activities which its traditional transformation offers many women in rural areas, cassava represents a plant energy grown at a lower price on poor soils. ln south of Benin, food "crops production in general and cassava production in particular faces land's problems due to soil poverty whose availability is being reduced because of population growth.<br>ln our country, traditional croping systems which are space consuming are disquieting. The improvement of cassava plant production should not depend on a vast expanse of land. Given that the improvement of cassava production is a partial solution to food shortage crises, 1'11 confine my study to a branch of the IIT A program through the ESCaPP project. The soèio-economic abject of the program has to do with the identification of constraint and potentialities of cassava plant production in certains areas in South of Benin in order to seek means of adequate and sustainable solutions to the problems of productive resources allocation.<br>My study has tried to answer an important question about ONIGBOLO village. The question takes the following form :<br>How do cassava producers react to land's shortage and poorness and what intensification possibilities do their develop according to endogenous knowledge? The methodology is centralized on a study about local dynamics developed<br>among the cassava base croping systems and techniques in link with land tenure and land constraints. The choice is methodologic and (is to my opinion) practical because there is no sustainable development without real and pragmatic solutions.</p> <p>BOSERUP'S and BIAOU's, and FLOQUET's theses which I have confronted with African literature on the following dualist questions : sustainable agriculture and rural poverty on the one hand and sustainable agriculture and ,landed resources<br>shortage on ,the other hand, have been the methodological guide to my study whose main and specific abjects are to :<br>- study fallow system periods and frequencies in link with the landed constraints and status "" examine the sustainable dimensions of cassava croping system and technique in relationship with want of landed resources.<br>- know whether the land's stability and availability influences the adoption of a long cassava cycle croping or system as a means of its storage or planted fallow system. As far as the specific, statistic, and econometric analyses are concerned, 1 have noticed that :<br>- the above mentioned village is situated in a milieu where the land's pressure is less strong but because of land availability the farmers are either obliged to shorten the fallow system period to 2 years or not to practise it at all. The agrarian system is characterized by many plots which have been under permament croping system for 15 years.<br>- The effect of land's security and availability is not all.that significative on cassava based-croping system. What is significative is the farmer's sexual nature. But the cassava preceding crop fertilization characterizes large scale farmers practices.<br>- The process of intensification among these croping systems is both endogenous (crop association, rotation etc) and exogenous (adoption of impoved varieties, manuring of cassava preceding crop with minerai fertilizers NPK ... ).<br>- For the same kind of variety adopted by the farmers, the long cycle of its production as a means of storage of the root depends on the land's availability.<br>- Farmers have not adopted the biologie techniques of keeping and restauration of the soils fertility (agro-forestry technique, mucuna, etc ... ). But lt was noticed that women and small scale farmers use to introduce leguminous in the crop rotation.</p> SOHINTO David Mahatma Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 DYNAMIQUES DES SYSTEMES DE PRODUCTION, DROITS FONCIERS ET GESTION-INTRA-FAMILIALE DE LA TERRE CHEZ DES MIGRANTS SENOUFO DANS LE SANWI (COTE D'IVOIRE) <p>The intra-family management of land rights in studies driven in Côte d'Ivoire, is in general approached in the autochthonous communities, and few in migrants perspective whom, in the Ivoirian context play a key role in land dynamics. The general question which guides cogitation is that how land is managed within migrants' families, particularly those of the senoufo group installed in the forested region of Côte d'Ivoire? The main objective of this study is to understand and decribe the process of allocation, transfer and management of land rights within families. Study, principally qualitative, leans on a comprehensive and processual approach, implemented across an ethnographie approach.</p> <p>On the basis of comparative analysis between, Kongodjan, Ayenouan and Kohourou, villages with important senoufo population in the Southeast of Côte d'Ivoire, it emerges that in these contexts individual rights appeared in a context of land abundance. Further to inheritance, this rights evolve toward "Patrimonialisation" of land rights, with constitution of a joint family good. The noticed evolution of rights concemed only use rights and not appropriation rights. This evolution however did not drive systematically to a marchandisation of land rights, due to the family status of lands. The relationship autochtonous-migrants do not have impact on the intra-family management of lands used by migrants. The migrants manage their lands freely by referring to their own systems of value. They nevertheless acknowledge detaining rights on lands which do not belong to them. The origin families of the migrants also do not have impact on the intra-family management of rights detained by the migrants. Nowadays, the content of intra-family management is determined by family council restrained to the descendants of the pioneers installed in the immigration area.</p> <p>The evolution of the local agrarian opportunities of production-drove to an evolution of the intra-family game of rights. However in spite of these evolutions, intra-family management is few conflictual.<br>In conclusion, land rights and their intra-family management are social constructing, result of a process of opposition, negotiation and general agreement. Their pertinence and coherence depend of specific environments in which land relations are built.</p> SORO Débégnoun Marcelline Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Variabilité climatique et gestion socio-économique des parcs à néré Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G.Don. de la commune de Djidja au Bénin <p>Néré parklands which are one of the most important agroforestry systems in Benin are damaged<br>because of anthropogenic characteristics and climate variability. The objective of this study is to<br>analyze the effects of humans' activities and climate variability on socio economic living of<br>population and néré parklands vulnerability in Djidja township in Benin. Primary data on socioeconomic<br>characteristics of farmers, perception of climate variability, adaptation strategies<br>developed and inputs and outputs of production were collected through investigation of 81 néré<br>parkland'farmers and focus-group. Descriptive statistic and principal components analysis with<br>SAS 9.2, SPSS and Excel softwares were also used.<br>The mains results of the perceptions of populations about climate variability mainly about rain<br>variability fit with climate data trend obtained from meteorological stations. 93% of famers<br>notice this climate variability and 90,31 % adaptation strategies which are cultural practice<br>(41,33%), adaptation of the cropping system (37,33%), diversification of agricultural activities<br>(10,67%) and reforestation which is little practiced (8%). These adjustments mostly technical,<br>implemented by producers have repercussions on their economic performances. Economie<br>performances analysis showed no significant difference between adaptation technics but based<br>on income average, the adaptation of the cropping system seems to be the most profitable<br>(339132±84135) whereas the Jess profitable is the reforestation (143667±39389).</p> BOKO, Frechno Ermite Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Crédit bancaire et activité économique dans la zone franc : <p>Les pays africains au sud du Sahara connaissent une forte variabilité de . l'activité économique . <br>Cette volatilité, en entrafnant l'incertitude macroéconomique, limite fortement le potentiel de <br>croissance économique.</p> <p>4,-insi, pour tnaximiser la croissance économique de ces pays,' les autorités politiques doivent <br>chercher à réguler l 'activü.é économique . Cela peut se faire au moyen _de la politique monétaire. <br>Mais pour y parvenir, ifrnécessaire d'identifier au préalable les canaux par lesquels la politique <br>monétaire exerce ses effets sur l'activité économique.</p> <p>Traditionnellement, les impulsions monétaires se transmettent à l'économie réelle par le taux <br>d'intérêt. Mais pour ce qui est des pays de la Zone Franc, ce canal semble être inopérant au regard <br>del 'environnement économique et.financier de ces pays caractérisé notamment par la rareté des <br>crédits bancaires et par la limitation des taux d'intérêt. C'est plutôt le canal de crédit bancaire <br>qui semble y fonctionner.</p> <p>L'objectif de ce travail est ainsi de vérifier l'existence du canal de crédit bancaire dans deux <br>pays de la Zone Franc -le Cameroun et la Côte d'ivoire-, deux pays qui ont un volume important des <br>crédits bancaires comparativement aux autres pays de la Zone Franc. L'existence du canal de crédit <br>bancaire est testée à travers l'une de ses implications fondamentales à savoir : « le crédit <br>bancaire cause l'activité économique » puisque certaines entreprises dépendent principalement du <br>crédit bancaire pour leur financement.</p> <p>Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous avons utilisé la méthodologie d'ordre de causalité de Hoover. <br>Suivant cette méthode, nous étudions la causalité entre le crédit bancaire et l'activité économique <br>en estimant un vecteur autorégressif (modèle VAR) et en utilisant les notions de causalité de <br>Granger et de Simon. Le test de causalité de Granger nous a aidé à dire si les modifications de l <br>'ojfre de crédit permettent de prévoir les variations de l'activité économique. Le test de <br>causalité de Simon va au-delà de cet aspect prévisionnel en nous permettant de voir si des actions <br>sur l'offre de crédit peuvent permettre de contrôler les variations de l'activité économique.</p> <p>Les résultats du test de causalité ont ainsi montré que le canal de crédit bancaire fonctionne en <br>Côte d'Ivoire. Les autorités monétaires peuvent donc utiliser le crédit bancaire comme cible <br>intermédiaire de la politique monétaire dans ce pays. Pour le Cameroun par contre, le canal de <br>crédit bancaire est inopérant; d'autres canaux de transmission doivent être explorés pour ce pays.</p> <p>Il semble que c'est l'importance des crédits bancaires qui détermine l'existence ou non du canal de <br>crédit bancaire. En effet, le ratio crédits bancaires sur PIB est relativement élevé en Côte <br>d'Ivoire, pays pour lequel le canal de crédit bancaire fonctionne; et est faible au Cameroun où ce <br>canal est inopérant. La faiblesse des crédits bancaires dans ce dernier pays serait à relier à la <br>faiblesse du taux de croissance et au faible développement du secteur privé.<br>..</p> BITEMO NDIWULU, Xavier Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Accroissement du revenu et sécurité alimentaire cas des petites exploitations agricoles dans la préfecture de Vo (République du Togo) <p>Les efforts realises par le secteur rural de l'economie togolaise dans le cadre des objectifs definis par les plans quinquennaux de developpement (1965-1985), n'ont pas suffi pour accroitre la production vivriere au meme rythme que la population. Bien que la production et la consommation alimentaires nationales aient augmente respectivement de 1, 4% et 1,9% de 1984 a 1992, la production et la consommation par habitant ont regresse respecti vement de 1, 7 et de 1, 2% pendant la meme periode (BM, 1992; BAD, 1994).<br>Les paysans qui fournissent la presque totalite de la production national~ vivriere chaque annee, veulent d'abord assurer l' autosuff isance alimentaire de leur menage. Par ailleurs le credit informel auquel ils ont acces pour l' acquisition des intrants ( engrais, semences ameliorees) pouvant leur permet tre d' accroitre leur producti vi te, est rare et done cher.<br>De plus, les nouvelles orientations de politiques agricoles recommandent le desengagemerit de l'Etat. La question se pose de savoir comment les paysans peuventils assurer pl~s que leur securite alimentaire s'ils n'augmentent pas la productivite .de leur exploitation? Et comment peuvent-ils accroitre cette productivite s'ils n'augmentent pas leurs revenus qui leur permettraient<br>d'acquerir les intrants?<br>Ainsi la question a la quelle nous avons tente de repondre est celle-ci: comment le paysan peut-il accroitre le niveau de revenu issu de son exploitation vivriere tout en assurant son autoconsommation alimentaire?<br>L 'objectif principal poursuivi est d' identifier le meilleur plan de production permettant au paysan d' accroitre son niveau de revenu tout en lui assurant son autoconsommation alimentaire.<br>La prefecture de Vo a ete retenue pour l'etude pour les deux raisons suivantes: 1) la production vivriere y est l'activite economique predominante, 2)1e paysan ne peut accroitre sa production qu'en ameliorant la productivite, la terre etant . rare. La programmation lineaire integrant le risque, le Target MOTAD, a permis d'atteindre les objectifs de recherche.<br>Les resultats obtenus indiquent que la terre est le principal facteur limitarit. ~es plans proposes permettent aux paysans representatifs de mieux couvrir leur besoins alimentaires en termes quantitatifs et d'ameliorer leur niveau de revenu de 55 a 118% par rapport aux plans de production actuels.<br>Les suggestions decoulant des resultats de l'etude s'articulent autour du meilleur systeme cultural a proposer aux paysans et de la creation de systeme de credit rural.<br>Le systeme cultural defini comme une combinaison des cultures dans le temps et 1 'espace sur une exploitation donnee' doi t e.tre modifie. Le plan optimal propose qu'en rnoyenne 80% de toutes les terres disponibles sur chaque exploitation soient consacrees a l' association ma1.s-manioc-niebe et 20% a 1' association ma1.s-manioc en premiere saison. · En deuxieme saison 80% des memes terres devraient etre consacrees a l'association ma1.smanioc et 20% au manioc. Puisque l'intensification de la production s'impose a cause du f acteur limi tant terre, · la recherche agronomique doi t determiner ou completer les informations sur les doses d' engrais convenant a la f ois a toutes les cultures en association comme le pratique le paysan. La determination des dose~ d'engrais a recommander aux paysans doit tenir compte des contraintes economiques pour etre optimale. La creation d'un systeme de credit rural fonctionnant de fa9oh autonome sur la base de l'epargne de ses membres est a encourager par l'Etat. L'Etat jouera au depart le r6le de f acili tateur pour l 'organisation et la mise en place du systeme de credit.</p> Kossi M. SEDZRO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL FACTORS ON THE ADOPTION OF THE ROLL BACK MALARIA PROGRAMME AND MATERNAL HEALTH IN IBADAN, NIGERIA <p>Malaria contributes substantially to maternal mortality in Nigeria, especially in Ibadan, which is a holo-endemic area. Despite the introduction of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme, evidence shows that the incidences of maternal mortality due to malaria persist.<br>Most studies on malaria have focused on preventive behaviour related to environmental and hygiene practices; however little attention has paid to how social factors influence adequate treatment procedure, case management and use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs), which are components of the RBM initiative, particularly during pregnancy. This study, therefore, examined the influence of social factors such as education, marital status and income on the adoption of the RBM programme.<br>Social Action theory and Health Belief Model were employed as frameworks. The study adopted a cross sectional survey design using multistage sampling technique. Six health centres (one in each local government areas where the RBM programme is prominent) were purposively selected. A semi-structured questionnaire on background characteristics, knowledge, acceptability and adherence to RBM programme were administered to 407 pregnant women based on attendance records in the health centres. Knowledge of malaria, Acceptability of RBM and Adherence to RBM scales were used for data collection. In-depth interviews were also conducted with 13 RBM staff and 24 pregnant women based on records of malaria incidence. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Logistic regression tests at p ≤ 0.05, while qualitative data were content analysed.</p> <p>The age of respondents was 27.9±5.1 years, 79.0% had post-primary education, mean monthly income was N8,519:34K, 74.0% were self-employed and 59.2% were primigravidae. Although the respondents did not identify RBM as a distinct programme, their knowledge of malaria (χ2 = 21.58) significantly influenced their adoption of RBM programme; decision making (χ2 = 23.03); and use of ITNs (χ2 = 10.95). There was a significant relationship between knowledge of RBM programme and maternal health (β = 0.22). A unit increase in the knowledge of RBM caused 0.8 unit improvement in maternal health. There was a strong relationship between the acceptability of RBM program and maternal health (β = 0.15); a unit increase in the acceptability of the RBM strategy led to 0.86 unit improvement in maternal health. Respondents’ marital status (χ2 = 16.82), monthly income (χ2 = 7.04) and parity (χ2 = 16.39) significantly influenced their adherence to RBM programme, while religion, education, and occupation were not significant. Late registration for Antenatal Clinic made strict adherence to RBM programme difficult; inadequate supply of ITNs, drugs and manpower were major limitations to the effective implementation of the programme.<br>Social factors largely influenced the adoption of the Roll Back Malaria programme among pregnant women in Ibadan. Increased awareness of the programme and empowerment of women of childbearing age, as well as availability of sufficient tools and services in order to significantly reduce the incidence of malaria are of utmost importance.</p> Kehinde Funmilayo SEUN-ADDIE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 DIFFUSION DES IDEOLOGIES POLITIQUES DANS LES ESPACES DE DISCUSSIONS DE RUES IVOIRIENS APRÈS LE 19 SEPTEMBRE 2002. Jeux d’idéologies en période de conflit armé <p>The Tanzanian manufacturing sector has been performing poorly ( low and decl ining labour producti vi ties and widespread<br>capaci ty underutilization) especially in the period since the late 1970s ta the mid 1980s. · The main hypothesis of our study is that absence of purposeful and adequate technological change, efforts and capabilities contributed partially ta that poor performance.<br>This study has quantitatively established that very little or no technological change ( Hick neutral technical change) took place and did not contribute significantly ta output variation in the Tanzanian manufacturing sector, And qualitatively it has been found that in the metals and engineering firms and in the educational and technological institut ions, in Tanzania ,. there were little or no serious technological efforts and thus very low technological capabilities persisted despite the massive technology imports which took place in the 1970s. Since technological_ change, efforts and capabili ties are very important factors of economic growth, their absence affected growth negatively. Therefore, this study make some few recommendations for improving the technological development and the efficient indus trial performance in Tanzania viz: localisation policies be effectively monitored, the scarce resources be concentrated in few R &amp; D institutions or else the door be opened ta foreign investors, the suppl y of funds and skilled manpower ta technological activi ties be increased and policies conducive ta technological development be provided.</p> SHITUNDU, Joseph Louis Mark Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 La suffixation verbale en pulaar (Peul) : morphologie et phonologie des suffixes verbaux dans le pulaar du Fouta-Djallon (Guinée) <p>La présente recherche a. pour objet l'étude d.e la suffixation verbale en Pulaar de Guinée (peul), L'analyse proposée consiste en une approche morphologique et phonologiqUe des suffixes verbaux. L'objectif visé- est de montrer, à travers la catégbrie syntaxiqùe verbale' .que les suffixes potentiellement concernés dans la c.onibinatoire aff ixaie sont de types différents et que leur ordonnancement _est régi par des contraintes de. structure morphéniique; Il résulte .· de l'analyse que ( i) . la suffixation verbale implique à la fois les dé.rivationnels et Tes flexionnels et que suivant que les _flexionnels concernés sont . lexicaux ( suffixes de. voix et de classe) ou _non l.exicaux · (sub-aspects, temps, .etc. ) , .les mots . ( ici, les verbes) : formés rèlèvent du dicti:onnaire ou· du niveau. de la langue L'intérêt dè cette étude se situe principalement à deux niveaux D'un point d.e. vue théorique, cette étude teste l 'adéquatiôn des théories linguistiques. génératives actuelles ( syntaxe du mot, la thébrie auto·segmentalè) · aux · .donriées Verbales d.u pulaar, Il est montré, ·. sur .la base de. Priricipeet -de· Paramètres, .. que la composante pho.nologique joue. assez. souvent 'un rôle d'ajustement de structure.s morphologiquement mal formées., (ii) Sur le.plan pedagogique cette recherche pourrait servir de support partiel à la confection de .dictionnaires et à l'élaboration d'une grammaire de langue pulaar: Le présent mémoirè comporte cinq chapitres. </p> DIALLO, Mamadou Saliou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 The Sources of Macroeconomic Fluctuations in Sudan <p>Modern theoretical and applied macroeconomics focuses on developed capitalist economies, and its empirical techniques draw heavily from the experiences of these economies. However, progress along these lines drawing from the experiences of the developing countries is currently gaining momentum.<br>This thesis attempts to study the sources of the Sudanese macroeconomic fluctuations. It starts ?Y motivating the argument. It presents the literature review on the macroeconomic fluctuations, or one would say, the macroeconomics of fluctuations. The main purpose of this literature review is to facilitate the design of the empirical study and to guide its interpretation...</p> Kabbashi Medani Suliman Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Contribution à la connaissance de l'histoire des fulbé du monde baatonu dans la période précoloniale <p>AVANT-PROPOS<br>Quand en 1985,· après notre mission d'enseignement nous intégrons 1 'Université Nationale <br>du Bénin (UNB), nous n'avons nullement pensé que nous serons, un jour amené à consacrer <br>notre mémoire de maîtrise à la connaissance des Fulbé du monde baatonu parce que ce pays baatonu <br>natal est vaste et beaucoup des aspects de son histoire non encore étudiés. L'étude sur <br>l'architecture baatonu que je me proposais de réaliser nécessite des moyens considérables <br>qu l'état de mes finances ne me permettait guère de conduire à terme. C'est finalement sur <br>les conseils d'un de mes professeurs que je me décidai de me consacrer entièrement à l'étude des <br>Fulbé du monde baatonu.</p> <p>Le développement d'un pareil sujet me parut tout de suite un véritable talon d'Achilles car <br>comment un baatonu comme moi, ayant jusque-là vécu de préjugés à l'égard de tout ce qui était <br>autre que ma propre ethnie pouvait-il aborder un travail qui demande rigueur et objectivité. Ce <br>serait une faiblesse que de ne pas 1 'à.vouei : tout ce qui fait notre (défaut, c 'est. notre <br>propre déterminisme ·et notre chance est d'avoir à nos côtés le professeur Abiola Félix <br>IROKO qui nous a initié à la recherche et dont la rigueur et 1 'intransigeance <br>intellectuelles ont donné jour à ce travail.<br>Au cours de ces recherches, des difficultés liées d'abord à la nature du thème, à la <br>superficie de la zone d'étude, à la<br>· méfiance de nos informateurs surtout Fulbé, ensuite à<br>l'éternel problème de manque de moyens (matériels et financiers) ont été <br>rencontrées mais notre détermination et le concours financier du CODESRIA ont contribué à <br>rendre c s difficultés surmontables.</p> <p>Nous sommes convaincus que ce travail comme toute entreprise humaine comporte ces <br>insuffisances, ce qui ne nous enlève pas notre légitime satisfaction d'avoir apporté notre <br>contribution si modeste soit-elle à la connaissance de<br>1 'histoire de cette fn ction des Fulbé de toute 1 'Afrique.<br>'</p> BIONIGAN, Seïdou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Etude sociologique du phénomène de violences conjugales sur les femmes à Yaoundé <p>Abstract</p> BOPDA, Florence Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 L'efficacité technique des firmes agro-alimentaires en Côte d'Ivoire <p>Au lendemain des indépendances, les pays africains avaient adopté différentes stratégies de développement économique. Malgré les opinions controversées sur le choix d'une stratégie appropriée, il n'existe pas de voie royale de développement.</p> <p>L'importante question était de définir le rôle que devrait Jouer l'agriculture et l'industrie dans le processus de développement. Aujourd'hui, les résultats obtenus sont peu encourageants même s1 certains pays tels que la Côte d'Ivoire ont connu des périodes de prospérité économique incontestable.</p> <p>Dans le cas particulier de la Côte d'Ivoire qm avait opté pour une stratégie de développement axée sur l'exportation de produits pnmaires, on a pu constater que le pays avait connu un "boom" économique qui a fait même parler de "miracle ivoirien".</p> <p>Ainsi, profitant des· recettes dégagées de la vente des produits de bases, la Côte d'Ivoire a tenté d'asseoir un tissu industriel qui devrait être le moteur du développement pendant que l'agriculture était la base de l'essor économique.<br>Malheureusement, la croissance économique sera surtout freinée d'une part, par la baisse sensible du cours des matières premières et d'autre part, par l'incapacité de l'industrie de transformation à compenser le manque à gagner en devise en élaborant des produits finis compétitifs.</p> <p>En dépit .des difficultés économiques actuelles de la Côte d'Ivoire, des solutions sont envisageables, mais à condition que le pays s'appuie sur l'industrie comme instrument de relance, puisque les limites de la stratégie adoptée semblent atteintes.</p> <p>La préoccupation essentielle de cette étude est la recherche de l'amélioraJion· par les firmes agro-alimentaires en Côte d'Ivoire de l'efficacité avec laquelle elles utilisent et c6mbinent les facteurs . de production.</p> <p>Dans ce sens, les objectifs qu'elle s'est fixés, s'articulent autour de la mesure du degré d'efficacité technique des firmes et de la détermination des sources de ·l'inefficacité technique sur la base de l'approche de la frontière de production et la méthode de la régression multiple .</p> <p>La pertinence de l'étude résulte de l'urgence de la relance économique ivoirienne par la transformation des matières premières agricoles dont "l'effondrement" des prix à l'exportation a gravement fait baisser les recettes de l'Etat , Aussi, très peu de recherches semblent avoir été menées sur ce sujet .</p> <p>Après le trait6ment des données et l'analyse des résultats, nous sommes parvenus à la conclusion selon laquelle les firmes agro-alimentaires doivent fournir davantage d'effort pour accroître la productivité totale des ·fact urs de production. Le faible <br>taux d'utilisation des capacités de production est l'une des . causes de cette inefficacité technique.</p> <p>Parmi les variables testées , quatre ont prouvé leur influence sur l'indice d'efficacité technique : la taille , l'intensité capitalistique , le coefficient de protection ·effective, le volume des investissements La nature de cette influence est significativment positive· pou les ·deux premières variables et négative pour les deux derniers déterminants.</p> <p>Il est certain que les interprétations d'ensemble voilent des spécificités individuelles. Une étude plus fine est souhaitable afin de prendre en considération cette réalité Cependant, sur la base des résultats de la régression , il nous est permis de faire des <br>suggestions relatives à l'augmentation de la taille et de l'intensité capitalistique des firmes par une utilisation maximale du taux de capacité de production et par un remplacement des machines déclassées, tandis qu'en ce qui concerne le coefficient de protection effective , cette variable devra être révisée à la baisse.</p> <p>Voilà de façon concise notre modeste contribution aux différentes possibilités · de relance de l'économie ivoirienne en s'appuyant sur l'industrie agro-alimentaire .</p> SEDEGAN Emmanuel Fioliorouncho Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Le surnaturel et la représentation du "merveilleux" dans les ethno-textes wolof : corpus de mythes et contes : essai sur l'imaginaire et les visions endogènes de l'environnement <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Moustapha SENE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY DIFFERENTIALS AND INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOUR AMONG RICE FARMERS IN NORTH-EAST, NIGERIA <p>This study empirically investigated production efficiency differentials and adoption behaviour among rice producers in North-East, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to analyze the socioeconomic and production factors of the rice farmers in the region; measure technical (TE), allocative (AE) and economic (EE) efficiencies of the farmers under traditional and modern<br>production technologies; identify the determinants of TE, AE and EE of the sampled rice farmers; identify factors that influence the adoption of modern production technologies by the rice farmers; and identify constraints associated with rice production in the study area. Data for the study was collected from a sample of 270 rice farmers whose responses were sought on their production activities. Descriptive statistics, Stochastic Frontier Production and Cost Functions, tobit regression and Logistic regression were used in analyzing the data. Results revealed that adopters of modern rice production technologies obtained higher average yield than the nonadopters. The difference between the yields is substantial as attested by the significance of tvalue at 1% level. However, there were no significant differences between adopters and nonadopters in terms of age, household size and farming experience. The FRONTIER result showed that the mean TE, AE and EE were 69.1%, 66.1%, 37.6% and 67.6%, 30.3%, 22.4%, respectively for adopters and non-adopters. The tobit result identified family size, education, extension contact, access to credit and system of land ownership as determinants of efficiency. The logistic regression result indicated that farm income, access to information, access to credit, education level of household head, family size and membership of cooperative society played significant role in the influencing farmers’ adoption behaviour. Inaccessibility to cheap farm inputs, inadequate rainfall, and conflict with grazing nomads among others were identified as the major problems faced by the sampled farmers. The study concluded that there is substantial difference in the levels of production inefficiencies among the sampled rice farmers; and access to information, literacy level and membership of cooperative society significantly influenced the adoption behaviour of the farmers. The study therefore, recommended that the agricultural extension programme should be revitalized. Additionally, farmers should organize themselves into viable cooperative groups to take advantage of economies of scale in bulk purchase of inputs at subsidized rates.</p> SHEHU, JACOB FINTAN Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 MONETARY POLICY SIMULATION WITHIN A MACROECONOMETRIC MODEL OF THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> SOWDO, CHARLES CHUKWUMA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Contribution à l'étude sociologique du comportement électoral des jeunes au Sénégal <p>AVANT- PROPOS<br>Nous avons choisi, dans le cadre de ce mémoire de maîtrise, d'étudier le comportement électoral des jeunes.Cette détermination académique n'explique certainement pas les raisons du choix du thème ; choix qui du reste demeure délibéré mais justifié. En fait, le nombre d'études effectuées dans ce domaine pour le cas du Sénégal demeure très modeste <br>malgré la richesse et la fertilité que le champ politique recèle pour l'investigation sociologique. Toutefois, il convient de préciser les limites du présent travail; s'il donne des éléments d'appréciation, de compréhension et d'élucidation des comportements électoraux des jeunes, il ne peut être détaché du contexte de sa réalisation. Le présent travail ne prétend donc en aucune manière avoir épuisé la réalité des fondements du comportement électoral des jeunes. Comme tout travail de recherche scientifique, cette étude ne demande qu'à être prolongée sur certains aspects et approfondie sur d'autres. C'est seulement dans cette mesure qu'elle aura contribué à atteindre un objectif scientifique.</p> BARRY, Souleymane Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 LOGIQUE ET ARGUMENTATION : Question sur les cultures africaines <p>Qu'est-ce que argumenter? De manière générale, argumenter pourrait consister à produire un raisonnement servant à prouver ou à réfuter une proposition. L'objet de notre travail tourne autour de la notion d'argumentation mais plus précisément de celle dite logique.<br>Dans une civilisation dite· scientifique, l'idée de logique appelle sans hésitation celle d'argumentation, ce qui signifie en d'autres termes que nous ne pouvons concevoir la logique en dehors de l'argumentation; Pas de logique sans argumentation. L'argument est, tel que le conçoit Pierce, le coeur de la logique. Mais qu'en est-il de l'argumentation elle-même? On se<br>verrait obligé de poser une question fondamentale qui revient à chaque fois qu'il s'agit de réfléchir sur cette dernière à savoir: l'argumentation peutelle ne pas être logique ? « Si tel était le cas, explique C.Z. Bowao; ce serait redondant de parler d'une argumentation logique, dans la stricte mesure où le prédicat "être logique" énonce une information implicitement comprise<br>dans le sujet "argumentation" et si tel n'était pas le cas, poursuit-il, alors devrait-on reconnaître, à côté de l'argumentation logique, la possibilité d'autres formes d'argumentation, dont on dirait qu'elles seraient nonlogiques » . Or le logique renvoie à la démonstration...</p> Marianne SOUMARE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Exchange rate policy and external imbalance : <p>Effort has been made in this work to draw a comparative analysis of the alternative exchange rate policy adopted in Nigeria and to ascertain the relative influence of the real exchange rate on Nigerian external trade. The study employed two methods of analysis, namely: historical and econometric methods. Using conventional economic indicators, the study concludes</p> <p>that the flexible exchange rate, tagged second-tier foreign exchange market (SFEM) has generated a relatively more buoyant external payment account. The Econometric method, on the other band, has confirmed the widespread belief that exchange rate appreciation boosts import consumption and weakens the non-oil experts. Furthermore,the sub-sectoral analysis of imports demand suggests that the exchange rate policy has a differential impact on import components that must be noted in policy decision. To strengthen the role of flexible exchange rate in balance burden of payrnents management, of external adjustment the study recommends that the should be borne, at least partially, by restrictive financial policies, viz: monetary targets should be adhered to as rnuch as possible, so that they will not. be reduced to a mere window dressings and a stumbling black to the potency of SFEM.</p> BOGUNJOKO, Julius Oladipo Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 ETHIQUE ET POLITIQUE CHEZ HANS JONAS POUR UNE PHILOSOPHIE POLITIQUE DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT <p>L'éthique de la responsabilité qui constitue une réponse au défi technologique et écologique, en tant qu' éthique collective, possède sans conteste une dimension politique. Le tout n'est donc pas de s'assurer la fondation théorique de cette éthique ; il faut en plus définir le cadre P.?litique de son application. Le philosophe Hans Jonas suggère qu'il impossible d'artic11ler éthique de la responsabilité et démocratie et ouvre ainsi la voie à une solution autoritaire. Mais. mi:e telle perspective contraste avec la revendication contemporaine de la démocratie comme système qui répondrait au mieux aux aspirations des citoyens à plus de liberté et de paix. Ne convient-il pas alors de réévaluer la perspective ouverte par Hans Jonas, donc d'évaluer les chances réelles d'une solution démocratique à là menace technologique? Le salut passe t-il nécessairement par un saçrifice de la liberté? Dans son livre intitulé Pour une éthique du futur, Hans Jonas avoué que la « tyrannie serait toujours préférable au désastre », et qu'il approuve moralement une telle option «pour le cas où ce genre d'alternative se présenterait »1. Mais choisir la tyrannie face à la catastrophe n'est-ce pas opter pour une catastrophe contre une autre?</p> <p>Contre la tentation du pouvoir autoritaire, il n'est pas absurde de soutenir l'idée selon laquelle H,.n'y a pas d'incompatibilité radicale entre le souci écologique et la gestion démocratique du pouvoir. Mais articuler éthique de la responsabilité et démocratie· exige un examen critique-de ' cette dernière. L'hypothèse formulée consiste alors à dire que l'idée de la démocratie délibérative développée par Jürgen Habermas fournit le cadre théorique de la réforme politique adéquate.<br>Du point de vué de la méthodologie, la réflexion a consisté d'abord à examiner le conc pt de vide éthique à tr vers lequel apparaît l'asymétrie entre le besoin d'éthique, imposé par la crise environnementale, et l'inèapacité des doctrines philosophiques déjà constituées de satjsfaire une telle requête. C'est à partir d'un tel constat d'absence de repères antérieurs que Hans Jonas justifie d'ailleurs l'originalité, c'est-à-dire la nouveauté, de sa théorie de la responsabilité. Ensuite il est abordé dans la seconde partie l'analyse des concepts essentiels · sur lesquels sont pensés les principes de la « nouvelle éthique.» Enfin, la réflexion se confronte à la question de la traduction dans le champ de l'action politique des principes de l'éthique de la responsabilité en tant que réponse au défi écologique. Dans ce cadre est abordée la théorie de l'éthique de la discussion élaborée par Karl Otto Apel et par Jürgen Habermas. Nous considérons, à titre d'hypothèse, cette théorie comme une réponse aux écueils théoriques et surtout politiques de la doctrine de Hans Jonas.</p> CYRILLE SEMDÉ Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 LA PENETRATION DE L'ISLAM EN AFRIQUE SUBSAHARIENNE A TRAVERS LES SOURCES ARABES (VII-XVIe siècle) <p>Apparu pour la première fois en Arabie au VIIe siècle, l'Islam, religion monothéiste, se propagea&nbsp; rapidement dans le monde en général et en Afrique en particulier à moins d'un siècle. En Afrique subsaharienne, l'islam opéra une révolution sans précédent dans le mode de vie et de pensée d'une bonne partie des peuples noirs de l'Afrique Occidentale notamment dans les domaines spirituel, économique, socioculturel et même politique. En effet, le Moyen Age fut un tournant pour le monde musulman de l'Afrique noire subsaharienne avec la naissance et le rayonnement des royaumes et empires comme le Tékrour, le Ghana, le Mali et le Songay dont la toile de fond fut l'islam sunnite malikite. Ce fut l'âge d'or de la civilisation musulmane africaine du sud du Sahara et l'islam est devenu aujourd'hui la première religion africaine la plus importante.<br>Ainsi, la question de l'islam en Afrique a suscité la curiosité de nombre de chercheurs, d'historiens et de géographes d'horizons divers notamment des Orientalistes, des Africanistes et des Africains. En fait, tout en reconnaissant leur mérite à sa juste valeur, nous avons.jugé utile de les éclaircir, de les renforcer et de les approfondir davantage mais aussi de les rendre familières au public pour une meilleure intelligence. En effet, nous nous proposons une étude soutenue par des interrogations, des hypothèses et des rapprochements caractérisés par une synthèse basée sur les sources fondamentales&nbsp; crédibles essentiellement des voyageurs et géographes arabes qui furent les premiers informateurs sur la géographie et l'histoire écrite de l'Afrique noire subsaharienne afin de faire l'écho des voix qui font autorité. Néanmoins, nous avons fait appel aussi aux recherches et travaux modernes menés par des universitaires et chercheurs africains et européens reconnus par leur science précise et leur autorité en ce qui concerne l'histoire de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Bref, une réflexion personnelle approfondie basée sur une méthodologie chronologique fut adoptée pour analyser le sujet suivant : <strong>La pénétration de l'islam en Afrique subsaharienne à travers les sources arabes (V//-XV/e siècle) </strong></p> <p>Ce qui a permis de découvrir que l'islam se propagea en Afrique du Nord d'abord, pénétra ensuite en Afrique Subsaharienne en 666/46 avant d'atteindre, enfin, en 734,,/ 116, l'Afrique Occidentale au sud du Sahara. Porté successivement par des soldats musulmans, 'Ides commerçants et négociants aussi bien arabo-berbères que noirs autochtones, des souverains et des cU!ama', il provoqua de profondes mutations, au Moyen Age, avec la naissance et le rayonnement des royaumes et empires musulmans à l'image de Tékrour, de Mali et de Songay notamment sous les règnes respectifs de War Jabi, de Kankan Musa et de Askia Muhammad grâce à sa capacité d'~daptation, de dépassement et à son universalité. Ainsi, le Bilad as-Südan, éclairé par l'islam, marqua un tournant sans précédent en prenant son destin en main pour écrire l'une des plus belles pages de l'histoire universelle avec le concours des sommités intellectuelles comme Ahmad Baba, Baghayogho et al-Magïlï contrairement à certaines allégations considérant que l'Afrique noire fut une terre sans histoire.</p> SADIBOU SEYDI Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 AN ANALYSIS OF THE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING PROGRAM IN SELECTED KENYAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aggrey M. Sindabi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Les Réfugiés en Afrique <p>Abstract</p> MARACE,Martial Béti Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Etude de l'évolution socio-économique d'une ville secondaire en zone de plantation au Togo : <p>Les nombreux et divers problèmes socio-économiques que vivent les grandes métropoles africaines, <br>les capitales notamment, ont longtemps occupé une place de choix dans l'abondante littérature et <br>études consacrées aux villes du Tiers-Monde, occultant ainsi la situation non moins grave,. dans <br>laquelle se trouvent les petites et moyennes villes d'Afrique.</p> <p>Celles-ci, vivant pratiquement les mêmes problèmes - mais dans une moindre mesure·- sont <br>considérées ces dernières années, comme le pôle et le moteur d'un dynamisme et d'un développement <br>harmonieux. C'est ce qui semble expliquer l'attention qui leur est de plus en plus portée.</p> <p>Mais en dehors de ces préoccupations socio-économiques, certaines villes secondaires - les plus <br>anciennes surtout - sont confrontées depuis quelques décennies, à une grave crise de développement <br>qu'est la décadence absolue ou relative. Cette · dernière aux causes et manifestations diverses <br>apparaît aujourd'hui comme un réel et majeur problème de développement dans plusieurs régions <br>d'Afrique.</p> <p>Au Togo, plus précisement dans la région des Plateaux à l'ouest du pays, le phénomène <br>touche certaines villes dont Kpalimé. A travers une enquête de terrain, qui a porté sur un <br>échantillon de 162 individus, des entretiens, l'analyse des données, l'observation et l'étude de <br>l'évolution de l'habitat et du paysage urbain, il ressort que la ville de Kpalimé est une ville <br>relativement décadante ; une situation qui tranche avec celle qui prévalait quelques décennies <br>avant.</p> <p>Grâce à un important faisceau de facteurs endogènes et exogènes voire structurels, cette ville a <br>connu une expansion socio-économique depuis le début de la colonisation jusqu'à la veille des <br>indépendances. Mais à partir de cette période, cet essor a fait place à une certaine atonie sociale <br>et économique. Celle-ci, sans être totale et irréversible trouve son origine dans la crise de <br>l'économie de plantation, les aléas et les yoyos des cours mondiaux dont sont victimes la plupart <br>des produits agricoles et miniers d'exportation, notamment le cacao et le café, principales sources <br>de revenu de la région.</p> <p>Cette étude qui se veut d'abord une contribution à une meilleure connaissance du phénomène de <br>décadence et une recherche d'approches de solutions, s'articule autour de trois grandes parties :</p> <p>La première expose le cadre conceptuel et théorique amsr que l'ensemble de la méthodologie de <br>recherche.</p> <p>La deuxième partie dégage et explique le processus de naissance et d'évolution de la ville tout en <br>relevant les différents facteurs ayant permis cette évolution, de même que ceux ayant présidé ou <br>favorisé la situation de déclin auquel on assiste.</p> <p>La troisième partie recense les diverses potentialités endogènes de la ville, mars surtout de son <br>arrière-pays dont dépendent son évolution ultérieure et son dynamisme.</p> <p>Au total , cette étude, sans prétendre à une totale exhaustivité, aura tout de même pen11is de <br>suivre à travers le long temps de l'histoire, la genèse et l'expansion sociale, économique et <br>culturelle de la ville, mais aussi les fondements du phénomène de décadence des villes.</p> <p>Enfin, elle a permis d'envisager des perspectives et de définir les conditions d'évolution de<br>Kpalimé, et partait de la région toute entière.</p> BIAKOUYE, Kodjo Awussu Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 contribution à la définition d'une politique criminelle béninoise en matière de sorcellerie <p>Au Bénin et dans presque toute l'Afrique Noire, la sorcellerie constitue une hantise pour la population. Sur le terrain, elle se manifeste par des troubles pathologiques compliqués, des accusations, un climat d'insécurité débouchant souvent sur traumatiques. des meurtres La répression pénale de ce fait social réel dont le caractère repréhensible., n'est plus à démontrer, se trouve actuellement très mal assurée compte tenu de la presque inexistence de technique susceptible d'établir sa constitution matérielle. L'échec relatif des institutions de l'Etat à réprimer ce fléau conformément au voeu populaire s'origine dans des rigidités liées au phénomène colonial et au droit pénal qui en est le corollaire. Pour limiter les explosions agressives, sporadtqu s et désastreuses, aussi· bien du côté de présumées victimes que de détenteurs potentiels de ce pouvoir, il s'avère nécessaire de proposer à la justice des dispositifs probatoires ayant régulé la criminalité durant la période précoloniale en Afrique Noire. Cette étude prospective, soubassement nécessaire po r un droit nouveau de la sorcellerie a porté d'abord sur l'inventaire et la localisation de quelques méthodes traditionnelles en usage encore chez 'les populations. Ainsi, ont pu être identifiés entre autres : le "AHOUANGBLA11 dont le"? effets sont manifestes jusqu'à la périphérie de la capitale Porto-Novo, le "FA" importé du Nigéria par les anciens rois du Bénin, la technique du tambour magique en vogue dans le Nord du Bénin et la technique de l'eau miroir et de l'huile bouillante ,qui est l'apanage des peuples on et Mahi.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Après ce travail de consacrer ces techniques spéciales dans lesquelles modernes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>recensement, il s'affirme la nécessité de par des lois et de créer des juridictions siégeront des <br>devins aux côtés des juges</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br>Dans une Afrique Noire où la divinption constitue. une procédure normale, régulière souvent même <br>obligatoire, un Institut Régional des Ordalies aura pour avantage de fournir aux Nations une <br>pépiniere de savants en sciences occultes qui prêteront main forte à la justice en qualité <br>d'experts.</p> <p>Après la réunion de ces conditions, il nous semble que les décisions de ces nouvelles juridictions <br>n'apparaîtront plus comme imposées de l'extérieur au groupe social et limiteront à coup sûr les <br>explosions sociales.</p> BOGNON, Laurent Iwimbi Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Role of Attitude and Beliefs about STIs/Aids in Sexual Behaviour of Men in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria <p>This study examines the role of attitude and beliefs about STis/ AIDS in the sexual behaviour of <br>men in Osogbo, Osun State. The study arose from t}:le recognition that there is erosion of various <br>customs which acted to restrict undesirable sexual relationship, especially this era of a <br>deadly disease called HIV/ AIDS. And its transmission is predominantly through heterosexual <br>relations made possible by continuous and consistent practices of sexual network espècially among <br>men. :<br>The study which is mainly based on a primary source of data as well as in-depth interview had among <br>others the following objectives, namely, to examine the extent to which the attitudes and beliefs <br>about STls/ AIDS can influence the men sexual behaviour; to.investigate the socioeconomic and <br>demographic characteristics tl1at faveur the risk of contacting STls/ AIDS; and to examine the <br>extent of use of condom in the prevention of<br>STls/AIDS.<br>A total of 500. randomly selected men were interviewed, while about 10 men were engaged in in-depth <br>interview. Their responses were ·subsequently analysed using statistical techniques such as <br>frequency, cross-tabulation and logistic regression after making the dependent variables suitable <br>for such analysis by dichotomising the dependent variables.<br>It was revealed from the finding that the age at which sexual relationship starts become too low <br>with mean age of 15.26 years. Also, it was found that sexual network is still rampant among the <br>respondents, even though vast majority had knowledge or<br>STis/ AIDS and worrisome of its existence.</p> BISIRIYU, Luqman Adeleke Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Corruption, gestion des finances publiques et perspectives économiques en République démocratique du Congo ANNEE ACADEMIQUE Décembre <p>Abstract</p> BATAMBA BALEMBU, Antoine Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Contractualisation de la fonction enseignante au Bénin : cas de l'enseignement primaire <p>L’objectif de la présente thèse est d’analyser la politique de contractualisation de la fonction enseignante au Bénin tant en rapport avec les objectifs de l’employeur qu’est l’Etat qu’avec le comportement du travailleur, l’enseignant. De façon spécifique, cette étude cherche à apprécier d’une part l’impact du statut de l’enseignant du primaire sur l’offre de travail de ce dernier et d’autre part l’impact du statut de contractuel des enseignants sur la réalisation des objectifs de l’employeur notamment l’acquisition de compétences chez les élèves et l’efficience de la production éducationnelle. La démarche méthodologique utilisée s’appuie sur une approche quantitative empirique utilisant la base de données du PASEC CONFEMEN Bénin. Elle a consisté en l’utilisation des méthodes économétriques telles que le modèles Tobit avec solution en coin, le modèle linéaire avec transformation de Box Cox, et le modèle de frontière stochastique, pour estimer l’impact du statut de l’enseignant<br>respectivement sur l’absentéisme de l’enseignant, la performance des élèves et l’efficience de la production éducationnelle.<br>Les résultats obtenus, après correction des différents biais, montrent que, par rapport aux enseignants contractuels, les enseignants permanents sont non seulement plus absentéistes, mais affectent aussi négativement les acquis des élèves aussi bien dans les classes de CP, que dans les classes de CM1. Quant à l’effet sur l’efficience de la production éducationnelle, il est apparu que dans les classes de CP, le constat est encore en défaveur des enseignants permanents, l’effet n’étant pas établi dans les classes de CM1. Ces résultats ont d’importantes implications en matière de politique éducative.</p> Barthélemy Mahugnon SENOU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 An Empirical Investigation of Technical Change in Tanzania Manufacturing Industry Dar es Salaam <p>This study focuses on the strategies streets discussion spaces use for disseminating political ideologies into the Ivorian social mainstream, within the context of the armed conflict which broke out in the West African country on September 2002. The study supports the following idea: street discussion spaces have been instrumental in propagating political ideologies during the conflict (September 2002) in Ivory Coast. It is based on ethnographic methods. Participant observation and interviews have also been used in the framework of the research methodology in order to gather materials and verify the three leading hypothesis of the work.<br>The first part presents Street Discussion Spaces (SDS) from a diachronic perspective. SDS are spaces where people meet to discuss the latest news. These spaces fall into two categories: the “Agoras” and the “Parlement” which are pro-FPI (Ivorian Popular Front – the former ruling party) and the “Grins”, very supportive of the RDR (Rally of Republicans) and its allies. The second part brings to the fore the links between the SDS and political parties. SDS are no longer open democratic spaces that they used to be; since the military transition in 1999, SDS witnessed a slow slide into politics. The political belonging of SDS’ speakers has turned SDS into political arenas. SDS leaders’ struggle for the conquest of spaces, their space preservation strategies and their open support to politicians reveal their political identity. Eventually, SDS leaders use three strategies to help diffuse political ideologies. They comment political discourse in a way to spark off reactions and emotions within the audience.<br>The opening of the SDS to politicians contributed to the diffusion of political discourse. In addition, SDS leaders’ mobility from one space to another and their rewriting and exploration of the nation’s history (reference to monuments, the praise of national heroes, chants, etc), added to the use of Information Technology devices also contribute to disseminate and promote political ideologies. The SDS usually draw political debates from the political field and use it for their own purposes. The "Agora" and "Parlement" back the former ruling party, the Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), while the "Grins" are supportive of the opposition parties, namely the Rally of Republicans (RDR). SDS’ incursion into politics vividly testifies to youth’s ambition to be<br>part of the Ivorian political game.</p> SILUÉ N’Tchabétien Oumar Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Les orpailleurs du Burkina Faso : exclusion sociale et rapport à l'environnement <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Desire Boniface SOME Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Etude des précipitations exceptionnelles d'un à vingt jours consécutifs sur le Bassin de la Casamance <p>AVANT-PROPOS<br>En passant en revue les relevés de pluies journalières et annuelles sur les stations du bassin de <br>la Casamance, l'on se rend compte qu'en moyenne l'année .1958. est la plus arrosée._ Ceci se <br>traduit par le maximum des maxima de pluies en vini/ ;nsécutifs, qui est intervenu du 4 au 23 Août <br>1958 à Kartiack avec 1074.9 mm. Considérant les maxima journaliers, Diouloulou, Diembéring, Cap <br>Sldring, Marsassoum, Kolda, Vélingara, Ziguinchor et d'autres stations ont dépassé 200 mm. <br>Oussouye arrive en tête avec 266.3 mm enregistrés le 11 Août 1948. C'est une quantité que certaines <br>stations du Sénégal ne dépassent que rarement dans l'année.<br>Ces chiffres montrent, s'il en était encore besoin, l'importance de la pluviométrie en Casamance, <br>malgré sa baisse depuis trois décennies et compte tenu de la moyenne exigée en eau des cultures <br>pratiquées. La Casamance reste ainsi un des derniers domaines où l'agriculture sous pluie et <br>l'agriculture irriguée peuvent connaître encore un avenir meilleur, du fait de la pluviométrie mais <br>aussi des nombreuses voies d'eau.</p> <p>Cependant, de graves problèmes existent et restent liés à la mer et à la baisse de la. <br>pluviomét,ie: l'avancée de plus en plus profonde de la marée, la salinisation des terres, la <br>destn1ction de la mangrove, la réduction des surfaces cultivées et des rendements... Autant de <br>difficultés qui nécessitent aujourd'hui une réaction urgente et adéquate.</p> <p>Mis à part quelques grands ouvrages hytlro-agricoles comme les barrages d'Afiniam, de <br>Guidel, de l'Anambé, l'option semble plutôt tournée vers les petits aménagements comme les barrages <br>en terre, en accord avec les types d'aménagement traditionnel pratiqués par les paysans Diola <br>swtout.<br>Ces barrages et digues en terre s'insc,ivent dans un seul créneau qui est la maîtrise des eaux et <br>la lutte contre la salinité. C'est dans cet objectif que s'inscrit notre T.E.R.<br>Cette étude nous a paru importante pour le bassin de la Casamance à travers les bases qu'elle offre <br>aux projeteurs en matière de dimensionnement des ouvrages hydro­ agricoles. Ces bases sont <br>essentiellement les caries d'isohyètes des moyennes de pluies maximales et les tableaux de <br>fréquence de retour de pluie élevée.</p> <p>La maîtrise des eaux douces et leur utilisation par leur rétention avec des ouvrages assez solides <br>et de coût très peu élevé afin qu'ils soient vite rentables sans destmcturer la<br>nature avec des problèmes connexes.</p> BASSEL, Mohamadane Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 THE NIGERIAN PRESS AND THE ECOWAS TREATY OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> EDWARD AKUMBUNI SOYIR-YARIGA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 le phénomène du pouvoir dans les sociétés pygmées de l'est-Cameroun : <p>Abstract</p> BIGOMBE LOGO, Patrice Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Harnessing synergies: the role of traditional institutions in natural resource management in the Tallensi-Nabdam District, Upper East Region <p>Government and Non-governmental Organizations have contributed in diverse ways in facilitating <br>communities to use traditional structures, systems and institutions in the· management of community <br>natural resources yet very little have been achieved because existing indigenous structures, <br>knowledge systems and institutions in natural resource management over the years are least <br>recognized and integrated in programming NRM issues. This has resulted in unsustainable management <br>of natural' resources in the Tallensi- Nabdam District. In the light of this, I set out to find <br>answers to the issue of unsustainability in the current management of natural resources by <br>investigating into various systems, structure_s and forms of natural resource management in the <br>district.</p> <p>To achieve the research goal and objectives, the study used various methods (qualitative and <br>quantitative) in data collection and analyses. These included Case Studies, Focus Group <br>Discussions, Observations, In-depth interviews and Questionnaires among others.</p> <p>The main findings were that; ownership and control of forest and wildlife resources are perceived <br>as vested in government, hence, communities in the reserve have limited use and access over the <br>resources. Second, the findings also showed that, the spiritual world is the driving force that <br>regulates the performance of other institutions in the management of natural resources in the <br>district. Third, males dominate in natural resources management issues and decisions in the <br>district. The gendered nature of cultural rights limits the extend to which women use, control and <br>manage natural resources. Fourth, the perception that traditional institutions lack knowledge of <br>existing government policies on NRM issues was found to be untrue in the study district because <br>75%of the respondents were found to be knowledgeable on the existence of NRM policies in the <br>district. The issue here is access and control. Sixth, the traditional role of festivals purported <br>to preserve and maintain culture, honour the ancestors is been modified. Festivals are used as fora <br>to plan, make exchange visits, leam best practices and disseminate government<br>policies and programmes on natural resource management.</p> BONYE, Samuel Z. Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Contribution à l'étude géomorphologique de la côte mauritanienne : exemple de Nouakchott et ses environs ANNEE <p>Après un travail d’études et de recherches sur la dynamique des sables aux alentours<br>de Nouakchott pour l’obtention du diplôme de maîtrise, il nous a été donné de choisir en DEA<br>le thème intitulé : « Contribution à l’étude géomorphologique de la côte mauritanienne :<br>exemple de Nouakchott et ses environs », qui certes a fait l'objet de nombreuses études, mais<br>également ceux qui l'ont parcouru se sont intéressés aux aspects géologiques ou encore aux<br>aspects urbains.<br>Peu connue sur le plan géomorphologique, cette portion de la côte se prête pourtant<br>bien à de telles études. En effet, c'est seulement au cours de ces dernières décennies que les<br>aspects géomorphologiques ont fait l'objet de travaux scientifiques notamment ceux de A. K.<br>Thiam (1977) et plus récemment ceux de Marico (1996).<br>Notre étude, tout en prenant en compte les aspects géologiques procède plutôt d'une<br>approche géomorphologique, même si nous n'avons pu faire certaines analyses<br>sédimentologiques.</p> BARRY, Saïdounourou Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 Bilan de la politique africaine de la République démocratique Allemande <p>En 1945, l’Allemagne est vaincue par les forces alliées. Deux Etats allemands vont être fondés en 1949 sur le territoire allemand : la République fédérale d’Allemagne(RFA) et la République démocratique Allemande(RDA). Maiscela se déroule dans un monde qui a beaucoup changé au plan géopolitique, depuis la Révolution d’octobre 1917 qui a modifié radicalement les modes de pensée politiques, les comportements et les rapports entre les pays. L’émergence d’alternatives politiques représentéesen Afrique par des doctrines comme la négritude, le panafricanisme, le non-alignement, le tiers-mondisme, mais aussi le marxisme-léninisme, marque la période postguerre et fait subir au système colonial un recul considérable, qu’il veut cependant stopper à tout prix.<br>Sur la base de ces doctrines, les leaders politiques africains exigent des métropoles coloniales le respect des cultures et civilisations africaines, la fin de l’injustice, de l’exploitation, mais également l’indépendance de leurs pays. La tenue du Congrès de Manchester en octobre 1945, de la Conférence de Bandoeng en 1955, du Congrès du Parti du Rassemblement Africain (PRA)en Juillet 1958 à Cotonou, l’apport significatif de la diaspora noire et la naissance de mouvements indépendantistes dans le continent africain pourraient être cités comme exemples, pour illustrer le combat despeuples africains contre le système colonial.<br>L’année 1960, pendant laquelle beaucoup de pays africains ont accédé à l’indépendance et la création de l’Organisation de l’Unité Africaine (OUA) en 1963 à Addis-Abeba, vont constituer un tournant décisif dans les relations entre l’Afrique et le reste du monde, en particulier avec les anciennes métropoles coloniales.<br>C’est dans ce contexte géopolitique mondial et africain que des pays comme la République démocratique Allemande, par une « alliance anti-impérialiste », vont chercher des convergences d’intérêt avec l’Afrique, précisément une certaine Afrique quiopte pour le socialisme...</p> DIENE SENE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 The relationship between school environment and indiscipline among pupils in selected government high schools in Kitwe district <p>There have been many acts of serious indiscipline among pupils in high schools during bath the pre <br>and post independence eras in Zambia. A number of factors may contribute to indiscipline among <br>pupils in schools. The purpose of this study was to find out whether there was a relationship <br>between school environment · and indiscipline among pupils in selected Government High Schools in <br>Kitwe District. Specifically the study sought to:<br>a) find out whether there was a relationship between the behaviour of teachers and pupil <br>indiscipline.<br>b) determine whether pupil indiscipline was caused by administrative practices and operational <br>procedures.<br>c) investigate the nature of indiscipline among pupils.</p> <p>The sample comprised four schools from which were drawn 128 Grade Eleven and Twelve pupils, four <br>headteachers and their deputies and twelve members of the disciplinary committees. Data was <br>collected through questionnaires, focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews and document <br>analysis, and was analysed qualitatively to establish categories, themes and sub themes in the <br>data. Descriptive statistics were used to corne up with percentages and frequency tables.<br>The findings of this study show that there was a significant relationship between pupils' <br>indiscipline and environment. Specifically, the study<br>showed that teachers' behaviour such as absenteeism from work, reporting late for</p> BANJA, Madalistso Khulupirika Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Histoire et fiction, contextes, enjeux et perspectives : récits épiques du Foûta-Djalon, Guinée. Annexe : Corpus complémentaire : l'Enfant prodige , récit épique du Fouta-Djalo, Situation géographique, le hoddu. Tome 2 <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Ce travail interroge les relations complexes entre fiction et histoire, les effets de fond contextuel, le poids des enjeux historiques, idéologiques et axiologiques dans l'épopée orale. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Dans Épopée du Foûta-Djalon, la fiction narrative lie faits réels et fictionnels dans un élan dynamique pour construire une histoire mémorable, celle où la vérité épique valorise la figure héroïque – Abdul Rahmane – au détriment de la figure historique – Almâmy Oumar -, et une dans laquelle certains faits ont été réarrangés et mis à jour, et font ainsi émerger les mythes fondateurs qui sont dotés de toutes nouvelles significations dans le processus. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Le conflit qui opposa Peuls et Mandingues en 1867 est</span></span><br /><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">représentés dans le récit sous la forme de valeurs adverses que la vision bivalente et épique renforce dans un jeu de dualités contrastées : Peuls contre Mandingues, Musulmans contre Animistes. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Parce qu'elle vise à exalter des valeurs fondatrices, l'épopée se distingue de l'Histoire, tout en s'en inspirant, dont l'essence est décalée au gré d'un drame destiné à flatter et éveiller la conscience collective sans cesse sollicitée pour relever les défis d'aujourd'hui. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Outre son ton idyllique et élogieux, l'épopée prend aussi des airs satiriques à travers une critique approfondie des vicissitudes et des drames de l'Afrique contemporaine (L'enfant prodige). </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">L'analyse de la composition, de la structure et de la performance narrative révèle une esthétique </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">basée sur ce qu'on appelle « le style formule », la structure narrative épisodique et </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">une forte rhétorique d'« épicisation ». </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Cette esthétique culmine dans les effets de l' </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">accompagnement musical qui embellit l'écoute de cette épopée orale et </span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">traduit les thèmes principaux en sons.</span></span></p> DIALLO, Amadou Oury Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Saint-Louis du Sénégal et sa population au XIXe siècle : les mutations politiques, économiques et sociales d'une ville coloniale <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> DIAGNE, Babacar Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development and economic growth in West Africa <p>Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) affects the most productive age group (PAG) in society. The disease hits hardest in sub-Saharan Africa. As at 2012, the prevalence among PAG in the region averaged 4.9%. West Africa bears the third highest burden of the pandemic globally. Prevalence among PAG in the sub-region stood at 0.7%, 2.0%, 1.7% and 1.5% in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2012 respectively. This however, varied from 3.2% in Côte d’Ivoire to 3.1% in Nigeria and 3.9% in Guinea-Bissau. Studies that examined the macroeconomic implications of the disease have however been limited to its associated costs, demographic and output impacts. This study examined the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on human capital development and economic growth in West Africa over the period 1990 to 2011. The augmented Solow model, rooted in the neoclassical growth theory, was employed. This was operationalised using dynamic panel data modeling approach, with Difference and System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimation techniques. Incidence, prevalence, number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and AIDS related deaths were used to measure HIV/AIDS. Life expectancy and primary school enrolment were employed as human capital measures, while growth rate of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita was used to capture economic growth. Interactive variable methodology was employed to capture the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth through its effects on human capital. To ensure robustness of the parameter estimates, the Hansen, Arellano-Bond autoregressive and Wald tests were carried out. Data were collected from the African Statistical Yearbook, Joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS, World Development Indicators, and the World Health Organization. All the estimations were evaluated at the 5% level of significance. The prevalence of HIV among PAG was 2.2%. It varied between 0.1% and 7.3%. Country-specific trend gave 1990 prevalence in Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, and Nigeria as 5.8%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. The 1995 values in these countries stood correspondingly at 7.3%, 0.6% and 2.3%. By 2011, it had declined to 3.4% in Cote d'Ivoire, leaving Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria with increased prevalence of 3.9% and 3.7% in that order. The HIV/AIDS depressed human capital and economic growth in West Africa. A percentage increase in incidence, prevalence, and AIDS related deaths reduced life expectancy significantly by 1.9%, 0.5% and 1.3%, respectively. School enrolment was not significantly affected by the disease. The regressive impact of HIV/AIDS was more pronounced on life expectancy than on school enrolment. A percentage increase in incidence, prevalence, PLWHA, and AIDS related deaths correspondingly reduced growth significantly through their effects on life expectancy by 0.15%, 0.02%, 0.004%, and 0.03%. The impacts of PLWHA and AIDS-related deaths on enrolment lowered economic growth by 0.004% and 0.06% respectively. However, incidence and prevalence did not decrease growth significantly. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome affected human capital and economic growth through reduction in life expectancy. There is the need to effectively control the disease in West African countries.</p> DAUDA, Rasaki Stephen Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Migration et développement dans les communes de Dialafara et Fatao, Mali <p> Les travaux scientifiques sur la migration dans la région de Kayes sont nombreux. Mais ils ont surtout documenté la migration des Soninké et son impact sur le développement des communes. Pourtant, outre les Soninké, des Malinké, Peulh, Kakolo, Kassonké, Bambara, Maures, Diallonké, Diawanbé, Diakanké peuplent aussi la première région du Mali et tous ont une tradition migratoire. Jusqu’ici, à notre connaissance, aucun chercheur n’aurait étudié la migration des autres communautés. Cette étude, qui analyse et compare les dynamiques migratoires en zones soninké de Fatao et malinké de Dialafara, vise à combler ce déficit afin de contribuer à mieux faire comprendre les rapports entre migration et développement local. La méthode d’analyse a combiné l’analyse qualitative et l’analyse quantitative. Ainsi, nous avons pu établir que les migrants soninké sont plus nombreux et mieux organisés que les migrants malinké. La migration soninké est plus ancienne en France. De nombreux Soninké ont même été des logeurs des Malinké en France. Ceci tend à prouver que les communautés ethniques ne sont pas cloisonnées entre elles. Les causes de la migration dans les deux communes restent essentiellement économiques. L’Europe, singulièrement la France, demeure la destination privilégiée aujourd’hui. Le départ vers les pays d’accueil s’effectue selon les modes d’organisation familial et individuel. Dans les deux communes, les fonds transférés par les migrants du canal familial sont supérieurs aux montants envoyés par les migrants autofinancés. Ceci dénote la<br />reconnaissance d’une dette soicale. Ainsi, dans la Commune Soninké de Fatao, les migrants financés par la famille ont envoyé 345 987 700 FCFA contre 139 067 000 FCFA pour ceux de la Commune Malinké de Dialafara depuis la mise en place de la décentralisation jusqu’aux années 2009 et 2012.</p> DIALLO, Dialla Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Factors motivating extramarital sexuality and their implications for STDs/HIV transmission in Ile-Ife <p>Correlates of extramarital sexuality which place individuals and their spouses and other sex partners at ,high risk of becoming infected with STDs/HIV were investigated-among ?08 men and women in Ile-Ife. Results show that reported levels of extramarital sex is high and surprisingly higher among females than males. The mean ag at first intercourse for ma.les is-17.3-years and for females is 15.1 years. The mean number of sexual partner in the last year for males is 3.1 and for females is <br>1.2. The bulk of wornen who had_ extramarital relations had it because of economic considerations. Added ta the issue of rnultiplicity of sexual partners is the low adoption of condoms even among parties involved in extramarital sexual behaviour. The age-long cultural belief that semen can pollute breast:i;nilk does not help matter. Me'n generally do not approve of the use of condom when wife is breastfeeding. The bulk of these men expressed the fear that condoms can burst during <br>intercourse and semen can then escape and contaminate the breastmilk. Favourable attitude to money and or material compensation for sex cor elates significantly with high level of extramarital sex. Women economic status is also found to predict significantly level of extramarital relations. Increasin_g economic hardships in the country have forc d many people <br>young or· old to resort to promiscuous sexual behaviour to make a living. Unfortunately most ·of <br>these illicit sexual relationships go unprotected. The fear of AIDS let alone other STDs, is of less concern than the immediate lack of basic necessity such as food, clothes and shelter. Incidence of sexually transmitted diseases correlates significantly with Iev(?l of extramarital sex.</p> BAMIWUYE, Samson Olusina Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Histoire et fiction, contextes, enjeux et perspectives : récits épiques du Foûta-Djalon, Guinée: Tome 1 <p>This work questions the complex relationships between fiction and history, the effects of contextual background, the weight of historical, ideological, and axiological issues in oral epic. In Épopée du Foûta-Djalon, the narrative fiction links real and fictional facts in a dynamic momentum to construct a memorable story, one in which epic truth enhances the heroic figure – Abdul Rahmane – at the expense of the historical figure – Almâmy Oumar -, and one in which some facts have been rearranged and updated, and thus bring forth the founding myths which are endowed with whole new meanings in the process. The conflict which opposed Fulah and the Mandinka people in 1867 is represented in the story in the form of adversary values which the bivalent, epic vision reinforces in a set of contrasting dualities: Fulah versus the Mandinka people, Muslims versus Animists. Because it aims to exalt founding values, the epic story differs from, though is inspired by, History, the essence of which is shifted to fit a drama meant to flatter and awaken the collective conscience endlessly urged to meet today’s challenges. Apart from its idyllic and eulogistical tone, the epic also takes on satirical airs through a thorough criticism of the vicissitudes and dramas of contemporary Africa (L’enfant prodige). The analysis of the narrative composition, structure and performance reveals an aesthetics based on what is called “the formulaic style”, the episodic narrative structure and a strong rhetorics of “epicisation”. This aesthetics culminates in the effects of the musical accompaniment which embellishes the listening of this oral epic and translates the main themes into sounds.</p> DIALLO, Amadou Oury Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 The colonial economy and the underdevelopment of the southern Sudan, 1899-1989 <p>This study analyses socio-economic underdevelopment of Southern Sudan during the colonial and post independenceperiod, 1899-1989. The phenomenon of underdevelopment is critically examined, and an explanation of the existing under-development conditions in the southern Sudan is made. Accordingly, the research attempted to investigate four main issues: causes of underdevelopment of the Southern Sudan from the colonial period to the independence, factors contributing to, and responsible for, the economic imbalance between Northern~nd Southern Sudan; adverse colonial policies inherited by thesuccessive governments of independent Sudan, which have led to persistent underdevelopment in the Southern Region; and the national governments' economic policies toward development of the Southern region during post independence. The findings show that the colonial rule militated against the develop1nent of the Southern Sudan by denying the region · the opportunity to exploit its rich natural resources. The colonial philosophy was based on the assertion that the Southern region is poor and unworthy of any economic investment. This implied that the British administration discouraged development in the region . The descriptions it gave about the Southern region is that it- is a jungle, swampy and. unfit for human living but for animals and mosquitos. Such claims are unacceptable. This research indicates that southern Sudan is rich in natural resources. The thesis contends that this unjust campaign has affected the post independence economic · policies. Consequently, the successive governments had to invest more resources to improve long staple cotton in Gezira in .Northern Sudan which was the colonial legacy; traditional agriculture in the south was neglected on the account of this campaign. Also economic and social services· were concentrated in the North, creating an increased economic and social imbalance between the Northern and Southern Sudan. Hence the· persistence of the underdevelopment of the Southern Sudan during the post independence era; collapse of national projects (Tonj kenaf; Wau fruit factory, Melut sugar factory, and Nzara factory; insufficient social and economic services; lack of banks and credit institutions to support traditional farmers; and the poor industrial sector witnessed in the Southern region. This confirms the claims that Southern Region has been deprived of development by uneven distribution of the state's resources for development rather than · lack of them.&nbsp;</p> DHAL, Abraham Matoc Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 Monnaies et politiques monétaires en Afrique de l'ouest : un essai d'evaluation <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> DIAGNE, Abdoulaye Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-02 2023-07-02 EVALUATION DES CRITERES D'ACHAT PAR LA MENAGERE SENEGALAISE <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Problematic and originality of the Research</span><br>Our work joins in the dynamics of research on the domestic purchase in Africa. The basic models of our reasoning are those which recognize the specific role that can play the family members in purchase decisions. Dankoco's works (1996) showed that in Senegal, there is a specialization of the roles. This specialization depends on the type of product that family buy and for foodstuffs it is the woman who is responsible of the purchase. In our works, the housewife is not considered as an independent person who wants to satisfy a personal need, but as a person who decides freely, without forgetting to integrate into her choices needs and desires of the other members of the family. lt is appointed by the family. With regard to the previous works, the originality of our study is at three levels:<br>- At first, the search on purchasing behavior of the housewife appointed by the family joins in a collective approach simplified and retumed to the individual scale (the housewife ).<br>- Second, the purchasing behaviour of the housewife for methodological conveniences applies to basic consumables. It is said in the theory that when the product is commonplace, the decision-taking at the buyer is simple. While for a product very implying, the decision-taking is complex and extensive. What does not mean necessarily that in of commonplace product, the buyer has no cognitive activity in the forming of preferences? The present work allows showing that in the case of transformed local cereals the housewife uses her cognitive capacities to estimate the possibilities of choice. Thus, she is engaged in a cognitive activity before making a decision of purchase.<br>- Finally, our step tries to understand the criteria which direct the purchasing behaviour of the housewife to the one or the other type of transformation oflocal cereals. The relations between these three levels of specification of our study lead to the elaboration of our research question:<br>In the context of consumption of cereal transformed in Senegal, what are the variables which influence the attitude or the behaviour of purchase of the housewi.fe to the various variants of the product?</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Methodological choices</span><br>The thesis investigates the housewife's attitudes through the role which it plays in the process of decision of domestic purchase. A qualitative study allowed to identify and to select the determining attributes. A quantitative study allowed to build and to validate scales of measure of attitudes. The research model is tested on a sample of 300 housewives chosen in a reasoned way and according to quota.<br><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Results and Contributions of the Research</span><br>The results revealed that the attributes perceived by the housewife are effectively on the base of the attitude. The factors which influence the housewife's attitude are: the attributes, certain characteristics of the housewife and the household. The results also showed, a relation between attitude and behaviour, and the intensity of the relation depends on the type of product. In the typology, both reserved classes do not oppose strongly some are housewife's characteristics. We note a homogeneity of the preferences which explains by the nature of the product. On the other hand, we hold in the study that the housewives attribute scores raised to the criteria which participate in the decision of purchase. What proves that they have requirements to these criteria of purchase? The contributions of the search are noted at three levels. On the theoretical plan, it is a confirmation of the approach of the behaviour of the consumer given responsibilities by th.e family. On the methodological plan, it was an occasion for us to conceive and to validate statistically scales of perception of transformed local cereal.<br>On the manager plan, it helps the managers to have information about the criteria of the most relevant choices and to know the way gift the product is estimated.</p> Fatou Diop SALL Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 L’évolution de la norme juridique à travers les interactions du droit constitutionnel avec les systèmes juridiques supranationaux <p>Il existe plusieurs évènements majeurs qui attestent que le droit s’enracine profondément dans les sociétés. Il en est ainsi de la Révolution française de 1789 qui constitue une période charnière dans la mise en place des régimes démocratiques modernes. La Révolution française a en effet laissé à la culture politique mondiale, un héritage fondamental : la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen. Cette déclaration jette les bases d’une société dans laquelle, la souveraineté est détenue par la somme des individus réunis dans la personne indivisible de la Nation.<br>La période qui a suivi la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale a également permis de poser les bases juridiques d’une communauté internationale tendant vers le même objectif. En effet considérant la seconde guerre mondiale comme un échec de la Société des Nations, la communauté internationale s’est réorganisée autour des idéaux de paix et de sécurité durables.<br>Ce projet devait passer notamment par la construction d’un monde davantage soucieux des principes de la démocratie.<br>C’est dans cette optique que la Charte de l’Atlantique consacra les libertés de pensée, de croyance et de parole, ainsi que le droit d’être libéré de la misère et de la peur. A ces principes, s’ajoutent le droit des peuples à disposer d’eux-mêmes et le principe de la liberté des mers et de commerce. Dans la foulée de la Charte de l’Atlantique, le traité de San Francisco de 1945 constitutif de l’Organisation des Nations Unies (O.N.U.) proclame la volonté de protéger les droits de l’homme d’où la Déclaration Universelle des Droits de l’Homme de 1948.</p> Ahmedou Al Bachir SECK Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL AND MODERN SYSTEMS OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE IN THE DONGA RIVER BASIN, GONGOLA STATE <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> SANGARI, Dalhatu Umari Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 Dynamique paysagère et biodiversité des aires protégées du littoral ivoirien <p>In Côte d'Ivoire, deforestation is an old problem that threatens forests, especially protected areas. In the coastal zone,<br>rapid urbanization, rapid population growths, the economic and industrial development, particularly in Abidjan, have caused<br>rapid deforestation. Destruction of na,tural environments is at the forefront of the National Parks and Reserves (PNR) policy<br>against deforestation carried out by the government on the national territory, particularly in the littoral zone.<br>This study focuses on national parks and Banco Ehotilé Islands, located in the Ivorian coastal zone. On the one hand, the<br>Banco National Park is located on the outskirts of Abidjan, and it is surrounded by the various districts of the suburbs.<br>Urbanization and pollution caused by human activities are the main threats that cause degradation. On the other side, the<br>National Park ofEhotilé Islands is locatedin a rural area of the Department of Adiaké at the mouth oftheAby lagoon in the<br>Atlantic Ocean. This region is characterized by a landscape dominated by agro-industrial plantations, especially oil palm,<br>coconut groves and rubber. This reduces the land within the reach of small farmers and intensifies competition for land.<br>The data used to study the dynamics of the vegetation cover both parks derived from Spot and Landsat satellite images,<br>aerial photographs and our own field observations conducted in 2008 and 2009. These observations are written with the<br>purpose of describing previous samples of vegetation and the other to draw a selective inventory of the flora in national<br>parks. Surveys and interviews are conducted with a sample of 300 residents in the surrounding villages to gather their<br>perceptions on the one hand, and understanding on the other hand their daily practices vis-à-vis forest resources of GNP and<br>thePNlE. .<br>Study results show that landscape dynamics differ in the National Parks and Banco Ehotilé Islands. Indeed, between 1986<br>and 2007, in the National Park of Ehotilé Islands, the evolution of the vegetation was characterized by a decrease in the<br>dense forest of land for about 49%, while the area covered by the mosaics culture and forest have increased by 156%. In<br>addition, floristic surveys carried out in 123 plots of PNIE helped identify 197 plant species distributed among 64 families<br>and 156 genera. In the park of Banco, unlike Ehotilé islands, forest areas have experienced significant growth between 1992<br>and 2002 where dense closed canopy forests have increased by 115%. The floristic surveys have identified 233 plant species<br>distributed among 73 families and 191 genera. In PNB as PNIE, flora and vegetation are being threatened by human<br>activities including logging for domestic and agriculture.</p> SAKO Nakouma Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 L’artisanat textile féminin au Burkina Faso. Des ouvroirs à l’utilisation du faso dan fanipar la haute couture (1917-2010) <p>Les sociétés humaines ont développé très tôt une diversité de savoir-faire destinés à améliorer leur existence. Le développement de ces compétences a permis d’apprécier à un certain moment leur niveau technologique à travers de nombreuse activités artisanales dont la métallurgie, la poterie, la vannerie, l’artisanat du cuir, le tissage… En Afrique bien que certaines parmi ces activités, à l’image de la vannerie et de la poterie ont été très tôt considérées comme des spécialités des femmes, la plupart est pratiquée par des hommes. Au Burkina Faso, le tissage des cotonnades a cessé d’être une exclusivité masculine depuis plus d’un demi-siècle. Les femmes, depuis la période coloniale, ont investi l’activité, bouleversant ainsi les représentations qui faisaient du métier de tisserand un métier d’homme. Ce qui singularise l’histoire de l’artisanat textile burkinabè dans l’espace ouest-africain, région connue pour le dynamisme de son tissage. Il est par conséquent impossible d’évoquer cette histoire sans la prise en compte des tisserandes qui constituent aujourd’hui une catégorie socio-professionnelle à part entière. Dans de nombreux centres urbains et à Ouagadougou en particulier, les scènes de femmes<br>tissant devant leurs domiciles sont fréquentes et font partie du paysage urbain. Notre étude intitulée L’artisanat textile féminin au Burkina Faso. Des ouvroirs à l’utilisation du faso dan fani par la haute couture (1917-2010) s’intéresse particulièrement à cette dimension féminine de l’histoire de l’artisanat textile. Mais avant d’analyser les différents contours de ce sujet, il<br>s’avère indispensable de définir quelques expressions utilisées régulièrement...</p> Boubacar SAMBARE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 Les bas-fonds du bassin versant du Tarare <p>Le Bassin Arachidier Centre-ouest reste une aire traditionnellement prisée. Les conditions du milieu permettent le développement des activités humaines à dominante agropastorale. Son principal bassin versant, le Tararé avec ses bas-fonds, est un élément principal pour l’équilibre des activités agropastorales. La revalorisation des bas-fonds constitue le fer de lance d’une économie rurale en précarité.<br>La dynamique de leur exploitation en général des bas-fonds du bassin versant du Tararé exige une meilleure compréhension que nous abordons à travers une étude spécifique faisant appel aux nouvelles technologies de l’information comme les Systèmes d’Information Géographique, l’usage de logiciels conçus pour le calcul des caractéristiques hydrologiques, etc. Ces nouvelles technologies restent un outil de plus en plus utilisé par les géographes; au vu les avantages qu’elles offrent pour le traitement des données et les résultats obtenus.<br>Enfin, la cartographie des bassins versants facilite la caractérisation d’ensemble des basfonds où les populations locales développent des stratégies spatiales pour valoriser les potentialités. En effet, ces dernières décennies sont marquées par une ruée de plusieurs nouveaux acteurs vers les bas-fonds dans un contexte de compétition et de maximisation de l’exploitation des ressources naturelles avec le maraîchage au dépens des activités telles que l’élevage. Dans un contexte du développement durable, les stratégies spatiales d’exploitation des bas-fonds restent soutenues par des acteurs externes dont les interventions réduisent les contraintes et contribuent à l’amélioration des conditions de vie des populations du Bassin Arachidier Centre-ouest.</p> Joseph SARR Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 LE CONTROLE DE L’ADMINISTRATION, UNE CONTRIBUTION A LA BONNE GOUVERNANCE EN GUINEE <p>En dépit de l’existence d’un système de contrôle interne et externe, l’efficacité qui devrait logiquement s’attacher aux résultats des contrôles n’est pas toujours à la mesure du rôle qui est le leur dans le fonctionnement de l’Administration guinéenne. La comparaison entre les bases formelles du contrôle d’une part, les résultats et les conditions de son exercice de l’autre, traduit un décalage peu élogieux et une disproportion accentuée entre les uns et les autres. En conséquence, l’Administration est largement en retrait, par son défaut d’initiative dans la conception et son relâchement dans l’exécution. A force d’être évoquée, la formule tend à devenir une clause de style dans les rapports d’experts.<br>Les différentes formes de contrôle étudiées, qu’il s’agisse des contrôles administratifs, financiers et juridictionnels, pêchent plus par leur résultats que par leurs conceptions et leurs définitions intrinsèques. Leur fonctionnement n’a pas permis à l’Administration publique de se hisser au diapason des Administrations modernes. C’est pourquoi, le vrai problème de l’Administration en Guinée, n’est pas celui de l’existence ou non des institutions de contrôle, mais de leur efficacité et de leur efficience pour atteindre les finalités escomptées.<br>Force est de constater, que l’arsenal juridique mis en place pour assurer une certaine efficacité administrative directement liée à l’intérêt du service, est demeuré platonique. Dans cette logique, on aboutit à une Administration fondée sur la négation même du service public.<br>C’est pourquoi, la Guinée a de façon récurrente été incapable d’édifier une Administration respectueuse des droits des citoyens et de maintenir une gestion administrative saine, indispensable pour le développement. Pire, on n’hésite pas à sacrifier la déontologie et l’éthique sur l’autel du gain facile.<br>De nos jours, des efforts tant normatifs et institutionnels sont déployés, dans le cadre des réformes qui s’inscrivent dans la redynamisation des moyens de contrôle pour une bonne gouvernance financière et administrative. Toutefois, ces progrès sont loin d’assouvir la soif des citoyens dans ce domaine et le bout du tunnel n’est pas encore visible.</p> Ansoumane SACKO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 LES FEMMES DANS LA GESTION DÉCENTRALISÉE DES RESSOURCESNATURELLES <p>The study examines women‟s involvementin the community natural reserve management of Somone. In Senegal, this reserve management is legally under the jurisdiction of elected local governments. But, in the case of community Natural reserve of Somone, Senegal‟s National Park Service, in the name of “ and women‟s involvement in the environment management” and evoking the national policy to promote women‟s engagement in development, chose to constitute a women‟s group to manage and protect the reserve. The big beneficiaries of the benefits of the reserve were the leaders of these women‟s groups and not the members. The men and youth in the villages, however, felt excluded and angry. So did many women who were not benefitting from the arrangements. The elected rural council president was also frustrated. The result was that the village was deeply divided. Men ant other women disengaged from management of the reserve.</p> Coumba Dem Samb Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 LES DEPIGMENTANTS CUTANES DANS LES PRODUITS COSMETIQUES COMMERCIALISES AU SENEGAL <p>Avoir une peau saine, une belle peau est un souci constant tant pour la femme que pour l'hollllle. Ainsi, aujourd'hui, la cosmétologie a pris un essor considérable.</p> <p>Au SENEGAL, la pratique de la dépigmentation artificielle de la peau ou "Xeesal" en Wolof a donné une place importante aux dépigmentants cutanés dans l'arsenal cosmétologique or l'utilisation abusive et inadéquate de ces produits peuvent être à l'origine d'accidents dermatologiques graves.<br>-Nous avons donc voulu : identifier les principaux produits cosmétiques utilisés pour la dépigmentation à DAKAR;<br>- déterminer la composition de ces produits pour apprécier leur toxicité; identifier la population touchée et leur motivation à pratiquer la dépigmentation;<br>afin de proposer des solutions pour limiter les effets néfastes sur la santé des utilisatrices.</p> <p>Ce travail réalisé auprès de 159 fe11111es et 6 vendeurs a permis de faire le point sur les différents produits utilisés dans la dépigmentation artificielle de la peau chez les femmes à DAKAR. Ainsi nous avons pu procéder à une étude analytique de ces dépigmentants par des identifications colorimétriques d'hydroquinone, de corticoïdes et de dérivés mercuriels et d'un dosage de l'hydroquinone par chromatographie liquide haute performance (HPLC).<br>Cette étude montre que les produits utilisés sont essentiellement à base de corticoïdes et d'hydroquinone, mentionnés sur l'étiquetage de piètre qualité et le plus souvent non<br>La plupart de ces produits ont été introduits frauduleusement au SENEGAL et n'ont pas le visa de commercialisation.<br>Ce phénomène du "Xeesal" dont les motivations sont très diverses, est favorisé par l '.accès facile à des produits dépigmentants dans les marchés de la ville. Il touche une frange importante de la population féminine (intellectuelle, analphabète, mariée et célibataire) de tous âges. Devant l'ampleur de ce fléau, des mesures urgentes doivent être prises<br>pour enrayer définitivement cette pratique.</p> Rokhaya SYLLA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 An Evaluation of the Development Communication Content of Yoruba Newspapers <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> SALAWU, Abiodun S Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 Mutations du système international et résolution du conflit de l'Erythree <p>Le conflit de l'Erythree commence en septembre 1961 par des troubles chez les Berri amer du Plateau occidental. II oppose les nomades musulmans des basses terres qui recevaient l' aide de l'Egypte et du Soudan au nom du panarabisme et de l'islam au gouvemement imperial ethiopien. Ce conflit allait au fil du temps et au gre des interventions exterieures se radicaliser et devenir un affrontement local, regional et international. 11 y a eu d'abord la participation des Etats-Unis aux cotes du regime imperial ethiopien de 1961 a 1976. Apres cette date qui marquait leur depart de l'Etat abyssin, les Americains avaient etabli une<br>base en Somalie et avaient des amities au Soudan et en Egypte. Et la Somalie, le Soudan et meme l' Arabie Saoudite accordaient de l'aide aux MLN erythreens...</p> Jules-Alain SANGALE MEGBEKA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 LANGUAGE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITY IN LEGAL CONTEXTS <p>This study sought to investigate how language is used in the construction of identity in legal contexts. The main objective of the study was to analyze the language used in legal contexts, show how such language aided in the construction of identity and finally, to explain the nature of identities so constructed. Using a qualitative research design, the author collected samples of courtroom proceedings, police statements and prison letters and analyzed them within Norman Fairclough's approach to Critical Discourse Analysis and the Corpus Linguistics method. The corpus linguistics analyses were supported by WordSmith Software Version 5. Accordingly, the data were analyzed at three levels namely, grammatical level, lexical level and lastly, at the stylistic level. The study found that there is a close interface between language and identity. At the grammatical level, it was found that interactants in the selected legal contexts constructed their own identities or the identities of their interlocutors by manipulating a variety of strategies which included agency, modality, and intertextuality. At the lexical level, this study found that identities were constructed through strategic lexical choices and the use of euphemisms. At the stylistic level, the study found that identities were constructed through idiosyncratic pronunciations, choice of resister and careful selections of vocatives among others.But beyond linguistic findings, this study also found that identities were constructedthrough knowledge displays and that when the identities of the interactants were damaged, the affected persons resorted to using image repair strategies such as denial, shifting blame and giving a positive description of self. Among the main identities that were constructed included a professional identity, victim identity and criminal identity. This study concludes that language, the specific social context and the kind of legal system in a jurisdiction affect the construction of identity.</p> SATIA, C. EMMANUEL Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 La relation entre les attitudes sexuelles et les attitudes religieuses chez les adolescents scolarisés <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> SAID, Zahim Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 La Convention Collective Nationale et interprofessionnelle en Afrique Noire Francophone <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Moussa SAMB Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 LE PROCESSUS DE LA PRISE DE CONSCIENCE DES PERSONNAGES FEMININS DE BERTOLT BRECHT (LA MERE) ET D'OUSMANE SEMBENE (LES BOUTS DE BOIS DE DIEU). UNE APPROCHE GENRE ? <p>La culture n'a pas de frontière. Tout comme la fumée qui, au gré du vent, va de concession en concession, voire de village en village, nous avons fait le choix, en tant qu' Africains, de sortir de notre univers culturel pour nous ouvrir aux autres, comme le théorisait le poète et précurseur de la Négritude Léopold Sédar Senghor.<br>Voilà pourquoi nous les Africains nous nous intéressons naturellement à la littérature et à la civilisation germanique, en dépit des obstacles liés aux contextes historique, géographique et aux contraintes culturelles, votre linguistiques...</p> Fanta SYLLA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-07-01 2023-07-01 PATTERNS, TRENDS AND CONTROL OF FEMALE CRIMINALITY IN NIGERIA <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> PHILOMENA IBHADE OZO-ESON Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 APPROCHE LEXICO-SEMANTIQUE DU SYSTEME ONOMASTIQUE KABILYE ( LANGUE GUR DU TOGO ) <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> OMBIONO PERE-KEWEZIMA, Esoduna K. Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 HÉRITAGE FONCIER, EVOLUTION DU PAYSAGE AGRAIRE ET DE LA PAYSANNERIE EN IMERINA (HAUTES TERRES CENTRALES DE MADAGASCAR) DE LA FIN DU 19è SIÈCLE AUX ANNÉES 1990 <p>Il semble que l’intérêt pour les pratiques d’héritage et la transmission ne date pas d’hier. Néanmoins, certains auteurs situent au début de la décennie 1970 le développement de la curiosité pour ce problème chez les historiens français. D’autant plus que cette curiosité est plus ou moins partagée entre historiens et anthropologues du monde rural. La démarche suivie jusque-là, selon Derouet, « le cheminement parfois parallèle et parfois conjoint de ces deux disciplines dans des enquêtes en commun a contribué à concentrer l’intérêt sur la parenté et les différentes manières dont elle peut être organisée, vécue et représentée, fût-ce à travers le prisme particulier de la transmission du patrimoine ». A priori, il est important de rappeler cette genèse dont le but est de pouvoir développer ultérieurement la problématique ainsi que les voies de recherche qui ont été privilégiées. Dans cette perspective, quelques théories ont été émises qu’il fallait distinguer les modalités de la transmission et les formes de l’organisation domestique, deux phénomènes qui ne se superposent pas nécessairement.<br>Par ailleurs, le rôle joué par la réflexion sur les coutumes dans le renouvellement de l’intérêt pour la transmission rend compte de ce que ce type de recherche, depuis le départ, n’a cessé de s’accompagner d’une interrogation sur le droit, et en particulier de mettre au premier plan la question du rapport entre normes et pratiques (sans d’ailleurs éviter toute ambiguïté entre norme juridique et norme sociale)...</p> Lucien Paul RAHARISON Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 REAL EXCHANGE RATE BEHAVIOUR AND MERCHANDISE EXPORTS IN TANZANIA <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> RUTASITARA, Longinus Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 Creating a 'black film industry' <p>This thesis examines one aspect of cinema in South Africa, namely, the historical construction of a 'black film industry' and the development of a 'black' cinema viewing audience. It does so by focusing on films produced specifically for an African audience using astate subsidy. This subsidy was introduced in 1972 and was separate from the general or A-Scheme subsidy that was introduced in 1956 for the production ofEnglish- and Afrikaans-language or 'white' films. This thesis is a critical assessment of the actual film products that the B-Scheme produced. The films are analysed within the broader political, economic and social context of their production and exhibition. The films are used as historical sources for the way in which African identities were constructed. Through critical analyses of the selected films, the thesis examines the manner in which African people, culture, gender and family relations, as well as class and/or political aspirations were . represented in film. Africans had very little opportunity or power to represent themselves and wherè this had been possible, it was within the ideological and political boundaries set by the apartheid govemment.</p> <p>The central argument is that state intervention in films for Africans has remained constant since colonial tule. The degree and forms of intervention have varied over the years, but the state - whether colonial, segregationist or apartheid - has played an important interventionist role in the. development of a 'black film industry' and film viewing culture among Africans. This interventionist role has been guided and informed by political exigencies throughout the period of this study.<br>The interventionist role of the state has also impacted negatively on the organic emergence of an indigenous African film industry and film culture. These have instead been shaped by political, economic and social forces exerted by those in political power. Given the unique racial segregation of South African society and the oppressive nature of apartheid rule, opposition to this cultural manipulation has been limited.</p> Gairoonisa Paleker Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 A CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SUPPORT MATERIALS FOR LITERACY IN THE FOUNDATION PHASE <p>This study was prompted by the Report of the Review Committee on C2005 that found OBE was not being successfully' implemented in many schools because of the lack of sufficient or appropriate L TSMs. The main aim of the investigation is to<br>provide a critical overview of the nature of the problems experienced by many Foundation Phase teachers from previously disadvantaged schools. The problem is investigated by means of an extensive literature review and an empirical investigation, using a qualitative approach and action research. The literature review gives an overview of the role and historical development of L TSMs in key developmental eras as well as the use of L TSMs in the light of the theories of four selected learning theorists, namely Piaget, Bruner, Vygotsky and Gardner. The literature review reflects the investigation into the different types of reading material most suitable for Foundation Phase learners as well as criteria that pertain to the selection of suitable reading material for Foundation Phase learners. The research design entails focus group and individual (face~to-face) interviews as well as the<br>researcher's personal observations as data collection methods. ·One of the most pertinent problems that came to light was that Foundation Phase teachers in Soshanguve lacked reading material with which to implement the whole language approach. In addition, they had a limited variety of reading material available and seldom created a print-rich environment. _The problem is expounded by the fact that many schools do not have libraries that function effectively. Teacher-authored and teacher-learner-authored reading material is one solution to the problem. Criteria that would empower Foundation Phase teachers to produce developmentally appropriate reading material are given. To establish the effectiveness of the criteria, action research is undertaken. A detailed report is given on the process and outcomes of the three cycles comprising the action research component. Teachers who are empowered with this skill will be contributing towards the national ideal to address the high rate of illiteracy among the youth.</p> ESME PRINSLOO Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 THE DETERMINANTS OF RETAILERS' PRICE MARKUPS IN DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA <p>This research examined the pricing behaviour of retailers in Dares Salaam, Tanzania. To this· end, variability of retail margins and factors that determine margin practices were investigated: A theoretical model relating retail margins to four explanatory variables was developed. Accordingly, the study had the following major objectives:<br>( 1) to investigate markup differences among retailers' product groups (primary).<br>(2) to determine the effects of merchandise cost, merchandise rate of stock turn, location of retail outlet.and population size on retail margins,<br>(3) to determine whether margin variances of product categories were different from those of individual product items.</p> <p>On the basis of these objectives and the available literature evidence the following conceptual hypotheses were advanced:<br>1. Retail margins are not uniform for the various product groups;<br>2. Markups are inversely related to merchandise cost;<br>3. Markups are inversely related to merchandise rate of stock turn.<br>4. Markups are directly related to location of retail outlet, that is the farther the retail outlet is from the city centre the higher the mark-up.<br>5. Markups are inversely related to population size of a store's market area.<br>6. Markup differences among product categories are greater than margin differences among product types.<br>The research design that was used to test these hypotheses involved a cross-sectional survey. Despite its short comings it was the only feasible alternative at the time of the study. After defining the hypotheses operationally, statistical investigation methods that included the one-way analysis of variance, t-tests and multiple regression analysis were used. To improve the scope of variable relationships mathematical transformations using both linear and non-linear methods were carried out. Following these statistical investigations some contributions and conclusions to the understanding of retail margin variations and its "causal" relationships were made. The findings are both consistent and inconsistent with the existing literature which were undertaken in economically advanced countries. These findings were that:<br>1. like in past studies done elsewhere, retail margins in Tanzania vary widely among product groups as well as among product items. This finding is consistent with the theoretical bases and expectations that firms will practice price discrimination to maximize profit,<br>2. the relative effect of the variables on retail margins is different. It appears that in Tanzania retail margins are influenced more by merchandise costs than merchandise rate df stock-turn, location of retail outlet and population size. The effect of turnover rate on margins is less dominant than the literature in economically advanced countries suggests. The main conclusion arising out of this finding is that pricing strategies and policies are not at any point universally optimal. A retailer seeks to maximize profits by employing a pricing strategy that will suit existing market conditions and product characteristics.<br>3. Although the factors differently influence retail margins, the findings generally appear to support the theoretical expectations in the sense that the hypothesized directions are generally supported except with respect to the variable "location". This means that some costly and high turnover merchandise carry low markups and some less costly and low turnover merchandise carry high markups. Also, retail outlets in high population market area carry low markups.<br>4. The relationship between retail margins and the independent variables merchandise cost, merchandise turnover rate, location of retail outlet, and population size is not 1 in ear. This implies that studies that do not take into account the various<br>forms of functional relationships may give misleading findings.</p> <p>5. The interaction between retail margins and the explanatory variables merchandise cost, merchandise turnover rate, location of retail outlet and population size is not overwhelming in the laundry soap, furniture and grocery categories. This implies that factors other than these should be explored in future research. The relevant factors should take into consideration market conditions and product characteristics.</p> LETTICE KINUNDA RUTASHOBYA Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 Household Basic Food Consumption, Poverty and Vulnerability in Nigeria <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> UCHECHUKWU MORDECAI OZUGHALU Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 GENDER, STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT AND INFORMAL ECONOMY SECTOR TRADE IN AFRICA <p>The role and process of economic programs in reviving the South African economy as part of efforts to promote social development shows the complexity and the diversification of strategies of translation of neo-liberal policies into practice at single national levels. Thus the adoption of neo-liberal orientation by the government can be considered as a response to factors such as popular expectations after 1994 democratic elections, resistance from opposition and crisis of developmental state projects.<br>South Africa adopted elements of the neo-liberal agenda enthusiastically with the first post apartheid national economic program called the Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP). The RDP did retain some redistributive elements in<br>terms of improved health services and reducing unemployment for all the population. However, this redistributive program was rapidly abandoned in favour of a purely neo-liberal economic program called the Growth Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) program. In 1996 due to neo liberal influence the government framed GEAR, as a macroeconomic policy strategy...</p> MANTHIBA MARY PHALANE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 STATUT DE LA FEMME ETSANTE DES ENFANTS A MADAGASCAR <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> RAKOTONDRABE Faraniaina Patricia Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 La gestion et la prévention des crises alimentaires au Burkina Faso (ex-Haute-Volta) : approche institutionnelle, 1919-2008 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> DAO, Zara Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 Ethics in Nigerian Public Administration <p>The Nigerian civil service tends to be poorly rated. Popular perceptions, pronouncements of high ranking public officials, reports of government-appointed commissions, observations by former top civil servants as well as academic assessments are all unanimous in scoring civil servants very low in their professional conduct. Above all, government's dissatisfaction with the operations of the civil service is demonstrated by its penchant for setting up extra-ministerial bodies to implement some crucial or pet projects.<br>Reference to professional standards has been identified as the key to the resolution of the problems facing the civil service. Curiously enough, administrative ethics is an issue that has rarely engaged the attention of both academics and practitioners in Nigeria despite the perennial search for a more responsive and effective civil service. At the policy level, there has been an over-reliance on the existing plethora of rules and regulations in place to guide the conduct of civil servants. In addition, many other ad hoe. measures have been taken to sensitize civil servants to ethical considerations. Sadly enough, all these protean measures have achieved very little practical results in awakening ethical consciousness and conduct among the Nigerian civil servants. In view of the foregoing, the study examines, among others, the following questions: What institutional arrangements and env.i ronmental factors (if any) impact upon the ethical behaviour of Nigerian civil servants? How effective is enforcement? What policy suggestions can be made to provide a conducive climate for ethical behaviour among Nigerian civil servants?<br>In effect, the prevailing state of professional conduct of Nigerian civil servants is deplorable and the need for action to remedy it has a particular urg~ncy. The study therefore set out to highlight both the institutional and ecological factors that shape the<br>ethical inclination of Nigerian civil servants with a view to proffering policy suggestions on how to raise ethical standards.<br>The significance of the study lies in its social relevance. Understanding the ethical disposition of Nigerian civil servants provides a window into the more abiding problem of efficiency in the civil service. In essence, the study is an attempt to focus on the<br>human factor in Nigeria's civil service which existing policies and studies have tended to ignore. Yet this human dimension is crucial as structures are given life by human beings.<br>In conducting the study, a field investigation of views of senior bureaucrats in the Federal civil service is undertaken. Responses from the field are processed and supplemented with documentary and archival search.<br>The findings of the study reveal a profound institutional gap which seriously circumscribes the efficacy of institutional contrivances. This problem of institutional gap is further compounded by ecological factors that bear on the performance of civil servants. In view of the foregoing, the study recommends what it describes as&nbsp; 'synergistic therapy' in curing the ills of the Nigerian civil service.</p> BULIAMIN AYINDE OYADARE Copyright (c) 2023 CODESRIA Books Publication System 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 States of Mind <p>ln KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, many of those who search for salace from mental illness draw on one or more of the three vigorous therapeutic traditions of healing to which the region is heir. Western psychiatry and its formai institutions have a long<br>history in this region: in 1868, the Colony ofNatal passed southern Africa's first 'lunacy legislation'; and in 1880, the Natal Government Asylum was opened on the Town Hill, Pietermaritzburg. Although founded on the precepts of nineteenth century liberalism, by 1910, the Pietermaritzburg Mental Hospital (as it was now known) increasingly reflected a national concern with a racialised 'mental science' and Natal psychiatry became somewhat marginalized